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EMOTIONS

INTENSE FEELINGS THAT ARE


DIRECTED AT SOMEONE OR
SOMETHING
• Myth of Rationality:
- Scientific Management
..to create organizations that were
Emotion-Free
• Emotions are Disruptive
• AFFECT: covers broad range of Feelings that comprises both
Emotions and Moods
• MOODS:
….Feelings that tend to be less Intense than
Emotions and that often Contextual Stimulus.
Mood relatively sustain/remains little longer than Emotion which
might affect for a while only.
EMOTIONS and MOODS
• Emotions are
Reactions to a Person:
Reactions to an Event:

• Moods are NOT usually DIRECTED


at a Person or Event
But Emotions can turn into Moods
when you LOSE FOCUS on
the Person, Event or Object
that started the Feeling.
EMOTIONS and MOODS
• Unlike Moods, Emotions tend to be more
clearly Revealed with
Facial Expressions ??????

• Emotions are more Action-Oriented


thus we might take immediate Action

• Moods are more Cognitive- cause us to Think

• Emotions and Moods can mutually Influence


each other. How??????
BASIC SET OF EMOTIONS
• Six universal Emotions:
Anger, Fear, Sadness, Happiness,
Disgust, Surprise
Other emotions are part of these major
categories of Emotions
• Continuum:
Happiness—Surprise—Fear—
--Sadness—Anger--Disgust
• Philosopher Rene Decartes identified Six
Passions:
Wonder, Love, Hatred, Desire, Joy,
Sadness
SOME ASPECTS OF
EMOTIONS
1. THE BIOLOGY OF EMOTIONS

- Emotions originate in the Brain's


Limbic system

- People tend to be in Happy state when


Limbic system is relatively INACTIVE
e.g., the negative emotions- Anger or
Guilt Dominate over Positive emotions-
Joy or Happiness.
Some Aspects of Emotions
• Moderately Depressed people have more Active Limbic
System
• Women tend to have more Active Limbic systems than
Men

2. INTENSITY
• People Vary in their Inherent Ability to EXPRESS
EMOTIONAL INTENSITY
• Some people never show their feelings
others seem to be always in emotional state

• Jobs make Different Demands on our Emotions e.g.,


Surgeon, Judge, Announcers at Sporting Events,
Lawyers
Some Aspects of Emotions
3. FREQUENCY and DURATION

Whether an employee can successfully meet the emotional


demands of a given job depend on;

• What Emotions need to be displayed


and their

• Intensity
and also

• How Frequently and


How Long they are needed to make an
Effort.
Emotions and
RATIONALITY
• Are Rationality and Emotions in Conflict
with one another
• One perspective suggest that demonstration
of emotions is likely to make us seem
WEAK, BRITTLE, and IRRATIONAL.
• But research Disagrees and endorses that
Emotions are actually CRITICAL to
Rational Thinking
Emotions and
RATIONALITY
• Thus we must have the ability to experience
emotions to be Rational.

• Example: Phineas Gage- railroad worker-


Due to an Accident suffered brain injury and
- Lost his ability to experience Emotions but
performed well on Cognitive Ability tests

– But with the passage of time he lost his


ability to reason
Emotions and
RATIONALITY
- Thus the key to decision making is to
employ both
Thinking and Feeling in one’s
decision.
Functions of Emotions
• Charles Darwin- “ The expression of the
Emotions in Man and Animals”.

• He said that Emotions are Useful because they


motivate people to engage in actions important
for Survival, e.g.,

-Disgust motivates us to avoid dangerous


or harmful things, such as rotten food
-Excitement motivates us to take on
situations in which we require energy
and initiative- taking a new career
EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY

• Emotions exist in people because they have useful purpose

• Jealousy; mates may feel it to increase the chance that their


genes pass on the next generation
• ANGER- a person showing anger when he is cheated serves warning for
others not to repeat the same behavior

• Boss’ s. harassment to his secretary- her anger made her sue


him and won million dollars

• But it is hard to know whether this perspective is Valid for all


the time
MOODS: POSITIVE and
NEGATIVE
• Emotions can not be Neutral.
Being neutral is being nonemotional

• When we group emotions into positive and negative Categories,


they become MOOD STATES because we are now looking at
them more Generally.

• POSITIVE MOOD
a mood dimension consisting of Positive Emotions such as
Excitement, Cheerfulness at High End and Boredom, Tiredness
at Low End

• NEGATIVE MOOD
It consists Nervousness, Stress, Anxiety at higher end and
Relaxation, Tranquility at the Low End
• Positive and Negative Mood Affect our Perceptions and
Perception affect the Behavior
e.g., an unhappy flight attendant….

• People think five times more about the events that created the
strong negative emotions than the positive one’s.

• Positivity Offset: at zero input- when nothing in particular is


going on most individuals experience a mildly positive mood
- so for most people positive moods are
more common than negative moods
Sources of Moods
• PERSONALITY:
Personality predisposes people to experience
certain moods and emotions
- Some people feel guilt and anger more
readily than others do.
- Some people may feel Calm and Relaxed no
matter whatever the situation is.
- Microsoft CEO Bill Gates is known for his
relatively distant, unemotional, analytical
nature. He rarely displays Anger.

• Emotions differ in their Intensity, but people also


differ in how predisposed they are to experience
emotions intensely.
Sources of Moods
Day of the week and Time of the Day

• People tend to be in worst moods( Highest negative


mood and Lowest positive mood) early in the
weekdays and
in their best moods (…………………) late in the
week, especially on the weekends.

• People are generally in low spirits early in the


morning. During the course of the day our moods
tend to improve and then decline in the evening.
- levels of positive mood tend to peak around the
halfway point between Waking and Sleeping
Sources of Moods
• WHETHER:
Evidence suggests that whether has
little effect on mood
- Illusory Correlation

• STRESS:
Stress affects emotions and moods.

• SOCIAL ACTIVITIES:
They increase positive mood and have
little effect on negative mood
-They also have Long-term health benefits
Sources of Moods
• SLEEP:
Sleep quality affects mood.
Less and Poor Sleep quality, puts people
in a bad mood is because it impairs
decision making and makes it difficult to
control emotions.

-It also impairs people’s job satisfaction


the next day mostly because people feel
FATIGUED, IRRITABLE and Less Alert.
Sources of Moods
• EXERCISE:
Exercise enhances people’s positive mood.
• AGE:
Emotional experience tends to improve with Age so
that as we get older, we experience fewer negative
emotions
• GENDER:
Women show greater emotional expression than men and
experience emotions more intensely.
-Women are better at reading nonverbal cues than
the men.

-Men and Women are Socialized in different ways


-Women have innate ability to read others and
present their emotions than do men Because
Women have a greater need for social approval
EXTERNAL CONSTRAINTS ON
EMOTIONS
• Every organization defines boundaries
that identify which emotions are
acceptable and the degree to which
employees may express them.

• Cultures also set boundaries on the


expression of emotions
EXTERNAL CONSTRAINTS ON
EMOTIONS
1. Organizational Influences

There is no single emotional “set” that all


organizations worldwide seek in their employees.

- In developed countries-
“bias against intense emotions”
-- both negative and positive intense
emotions are unacceptable with the
exception of special occasions
EXTERNAL CONSTRAINTS ON
EMOTIONS
2. Cultural Influences:
In different cultures the Frequency of
experiencing emotions and their Intensity Vary
to some degree.

Interpretation of Emotions by the people all over


the world is done in the Same way.
However there are cultures where certain
emotions value more than others.
Norms for expression of emotions Differ across
cultures. E.g., Muslim women smile at men….
EMOTIONAL LABOR
It is an employee’s expression of organizationally
Desired emotions during Interpersonal Transactions at
work.
Felt Emotions: an Individual’s actual
emotions

Displayed Emotions: those emotions that the


organization Requires workers to show and considers
appropriate in a given job.
EMOTIONAL LABOR
• SURFACE ACTING
Displaying fake emotions requires us to
Suppress the emotions we really Feel.
The individual has to “ACT” to keep her/his
job.

• DEEP ACTING
Trying to modify one’s true inner feelings.
• Surface Acting deals with one’s Displayed
emotions and Deep Acting deals with one’s
Felt emotions.
EMOTIONAL LABOR
• REWARDS ON EMOTIONALLY
DEMANDING JOBS V/S
COGNITIVE DEMANDING JOBS

- Emotionally demanding jobs are only


rewarded well when they are already
Cognitive demanding,
e.g., the job of a Lawyer