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SCR System Overview

What is SCR?
SCR Lay out./ movie!!!!!
What is Urea?
Urea Use / Application/ availability/supply & consumption
Basic Components in the System
SCR System principle
Installation

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What is SCR ?
SCR - Selective Catalytic Reduction
NOx reduction is achieved using SCR catalysts with the reductant
ammonia
SCR technology has been used in stationary applications since the
1970s for NOx reduction
SCR relies on complex chemical, mechanical and electrical systems to
obtain high NOx conversion efficiencies.

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SCR System Layout

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Mobile Selective Catalytic Reduction


System function lamps
Urea storage tank

Usage around
5% of Fuel

Urea Pump
Compressed
Air supply

Dosing Unit

N 2 + H 2O

Nox Sensor
2007

Temperature Sensors

Tailpipe
SCR Brick

Urea
Injection

Decomposition
Area

Turbo
Exhaust

Too much Ammonia = Ammonia Slip


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What is Urea ?
NOxCare (Urea) is a high-purity 32.5 % (by weight)
aqueous urea solution
Hot urea melt is drawn directly from the plant and diluted
with demineralised water
To secure high-quality NOx Care in accordance with the
DIN V 70 070 standard, production is batch-wise

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Urea Use
Agriculture
Chemical Industry
raw material for:
UF-resins
Urethanes
and many others

Other industries
auxiliaries in:
chipboard industry
textile industry
coolant lindustry
cosmetics industry

fertilizer
feed

UREA
Medical and pharmaceutics
for the production of:

Water industry
nutritive substance for the
biological treatment of
waste water

Food processing
for chewing gum production

Power industry
reducing agent for
exhaust gas

barbiturates
diuretics
special injury bandages

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Application of SCR systems

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Urea Availability Process

Hot, high purity


urea melt

Chemical distributors
BRENNTAG

Distributors
central depots

End outlets are:


- public filling stations
- truck stops
- charge card stations
- vehicle dealers
- OEMs
- work shops
- fleet operators depots

Direct supply
Urea plant

Tanks for
dilution with
demineralised
water

Sampling for
quality control

HYDRO

Transport
companies
(home depots)

End users

Oil company depots

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Reagent (Safety)
.

Skin
Wash off with soap and water, mild irritation may occur.
Eyes
Irrigate eyes with large amount of water
Ingestion
If conscious immediately give large amounts of water. Obtain medical attention.
Fire Non-combustible, if heated water evaporate and ammonia will be released
Spillage
Major releases Absorb large spills in sand or other absorbent. Avoid contamination of drains or
water course, inform authorities if contamination occurs

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Components in the System


ECM CM850 & SCR Connector
Urea/ Adblue
Urea Tank
Air Filter
Urea Dosing Pump (UDS)
Nozzle
Catalyst
Thermistors
NOx Sensor

IN CABINE:
Urea gauge
MIL lamp ( not showed)
OBD connector
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CM 850 ECM Module.

Same module for all engine models.

Motorola
design
3

Air cooled

SCR dosing control and On Board Diagnostics is integrated into the CM 850
Module
1

60 Pin Engine Harness Connection

2
3

50 Pin OEM / Vehicle Connection

Power and ground connection

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14 Pin Framatone Connector


to run SCR System

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AD Blue/ Urea
Starts to freeze @ - 11 degr. Celcius (32,5 %
Urea solution)

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ADBLUE Tank Filler

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Urea Tank Level &


Temperature Sensors
Wema:
Level
(Magnetic
Float)
&
Temperature
(Thermistor)
Sensor

Notes:
Level sensor has 14 resistance steps
operated by reed switches it is important
to reference first and last resistor for
calibration. Maximum distance per step is
21mm

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MAX Urea Level

Float
Level
MIN Urea Level

Gap ~ 5mm
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Urea Tank Volume


Calculation of usable volume vs tank volume
Volume above 100% (free space see AEB)
12% level warning of low level (Engne Warnng Lamp)
6% level - MIL lamp dosing stops (MIL Lamp Flashes)
Ideally tank should have linear relationship between level and volume, due to Urea
Usage Monitor (UUM)
Tank volume to be stamps on tank and trimmed in Insite

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Wema Sensor & Urea Tank Heater

Float
Temperature Thermister

Urea supply to Doser

Heater (water) in

Urea return from Doser

Heater ( water) out

4 Pin electrical connector

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Urea Tank Level and Temperature


Supplier is WEMA
Sensor is resistive ladder, can have various lengths but steps
must be controlled as per AEB
Temperature characteristics fixed

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Urea In Tank Filter

Free before assembl

70 Micron

Compressed after assembl


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Air Filter

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Air/Oil Filter Separator

Extruded Head

Working Pressure = 10 bar


Spin On Canister
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Dozaj pompas resmi eklenecek

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Urea Dosing Pump UDS


The Urea Dosing Pump is designed to deliver a flow of urea according to the
message in form of a CAN telegram sent by the engine ECM.
The Urea Dosing System is using the air supplied by the system to bring the
dosed volume of urea to the injection nozzle.
The UDS is having a built in heating devise that allow the system to operate
with outside temperature lower than 40C
Urea freezes @ - 11 degr C
The UDS is integrating its self-diagnostic procedure, the UDS is informing the
system about its status by sending OBD telegrams via the J1939 CAN link.
The UDS can accommodate both 12 VDC & 24 VDC supply voltage.

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UDS Performance
The digital electronic doser control makes the Urea Dosing
System extremely fast to achieve the desired flow.
The suction flow is pulsated with a max peak flow about 25
litres/hours what ever the dosing demand is.
The suction flow pulse frequency increases with the dosing
volume.

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Urea Dosing Unit

The Dosing unit is fundamentally an


intelligent pump, dosing urea to the
nozzle for injection, controlled via the
Engines ECM.
The pump is not a serviceable item.

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Dosing Pump Plumbing


1
1. Air Supply In
2. To Nozzle
3. Urea Return to Tank
2

4. Urea In

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Dosing Pump Connections


This is a combined air solenoid and
regulator. (4 bar) This is controlled via
the dosing pump.

ITT CANNON CONNECTOR

36 PIN Connector broadcasting on


the J1939 Back bone.
An OEM supplied Harness

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ADBLUE/ Urea Nozzle

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ADBLUE/ Urea Nozzle Locating pin

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ADBLUE/ Urea Nozzle


Fabricated from 304 stainless steel

Welded
Injector pipe is welded to
injector nozzle body
Ceramic Insulation
Causion do not drop
4 Angled spray holes
Spray hole diameter 0.55mm +\0.05mm
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CATALYST/ Muffler

Muffler is a unique part


Must be compatible with 4 or 6 cylinder Engine & Horsepower
Not the same

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Catalyst
Muffler - robust construction - compact packaging - optimum ammonia dispersion

13 Litre Brick
O ring - wire mesh

Flow Distribution

S
less
n
i
a
t
S

09 B
t eel 4

ody

10.5 inch diameter Brick

Two main sizes 10.5 ins and 11.25 ins diameter.


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CATALYST

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Catalyst (EGC)
The Catalyst is typically twice the size of the current exhaust muffler.
The Catalyst comprises of two sections
1) Sound deadening
2) The SCR brick

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Catalyst
FULL Catalyst - no precious metal - good NH3 absorption - good Nox conversion
Flat Fibreglass Paper with pleats

Chemistry

Nitrogen Oxides from the Engine > 9.5g/kWhr,


Wash coating on the catalyst
Vanadium Pent-oxide
Tungsten Tri-oxide
Titanium Di-oxide
Ammonia

- VO5
- WO3
- TO2
- NH3

This is obtained from the Urea/Water solution


Rolled into various sizes/shapes
Reduces Particle Matter PM by around 30% (soluble fraction)

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Exhaust Gas Catalyst (Safety)

Inhalation
Very unlikely unless exposed to dry residue , Obtain medical attention
Skin
Wash off with soap and water, mild irritation may occur.
Eyes
Irrigate eyes with large amount of water
Ingestion
If conscious immediately give large amounts of water. Obtain medical attention.

Fire
Non-combustible, if heated water evaporate and ammonia will be released
Spillage
Major releases Absorb large spills in sand or other absorbent. Avoid contamination of drains or
water course, inform authorities if contamination occurs

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Thermistors
There are two Thermistors on the EGP
One inlet thermistor and one outlet thermistor.
. They are monitoring the Catalyst temperature.

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Component
Location

EGC bosses &


Thermistors

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Harness routing for Exhaust


Temperature Thermistors

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Catalyst In/Out temperatures


Would recommend vehicle harness be designed so these cannot be crossed
Control system will detect crossed after 8 hour cold soak.
Catalyst presence monitor detect catalyst removal

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Exhaust muffler Temperature

400

Vehicle Speed ( MPH)

150

Example of Exhaust Temperatures Vs Vehicle Speed

350

300

250

200

100

50

0 0

2.8

10

Exhaust Muffler Temperature

Time in Minutes

25

28

32

33.5

Vehicle Speed in MPH

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NOx Sensor monitor

Component Location:
The aftertreatment outlet NOx sensor location can vary depending on engine application.
It is usually located in the exhaust system at the outlet of the aftertreatment catalyst.

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Description

The aftertreatment outlet nitrogen oxides (NOx) sensor is a smart device and
receives commands from the engine
Electronic control module (ECM) via the J1939 datalink. The aftertreatment
outlet NOx sensor performs its own Internal diagnostics and reports
malfunctions back to the primary ECM using the J1939 datalink.
The NOx sensor is permanently attached to the NOx control module. They are
serviced as single component and can not be replaced individually.
The aftertreatment outlet NOx sensor is used to measure the outlet NOx
emissions from the engine.

NOx sensor supplied by CES (Cummins Emission Solutions) with


aftertreatment
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NOx Sensor Harness

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In Cab Gauge for Urea Level (OEM)

Urea Gauge
Must be located on dash (regulations)
Data comes from J1939
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OBD Connector

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System Principle.
The SCR system operates on the principle of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR).
The SCR system converts the Nitrogen Oxides produced by the engine (exhaust) into
Nitrogen and Water.
Liquid urea is injected upstream of a catalyst in the exhaust system using a very
accurate dosing pump.
The amount of urea injected by the pump is controlled by the engine ECM.
Under normal operation the Dosing pump has three control Phases:
1.
2.
3.

Priming
Dosing
Purging.

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System Priming
Key on engine not running dosing pump in parking situation!
Every time the Engine is RUNNING the dosing pump will go into the PRIMING phase.
Urea solution is circulated through the pump and back to the tank purging air
from the system.
If the PRIMING phase is successful you will hear the Doser Motor operate at 100%
for 30 seconds, an air solenoid will operate at the end of this phase.
If the PRIMING phase is not successful first time, the air solenoid will de-energize and
the motor will run at 100% for another 30 seconds.
This sequence can be repeated up to 20 times before ERROR 1682 SCR Pump State
Control Doser Error is displayed.

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System Priming.

1: Dosing pump Operates 100% - 30 sec. Purching air from system


2: Air solenoid Operates only @ end of priming phase

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System Dosing
At the end of the PRIMING phase the Air Solenoid Valve opens and the pump motor
stops. The pump is now ready to DOSE. The DOSING phase is controlled by the
engine ECM depending on the NOx produced by the engine and the exhaust
temperature.
The pump will not start dosing Urea unless both exhaust temperature sensors
reach 200 degrees, however air will be continuously dosed through the
Dosing Pump, Injector Supply line & Injector while the engine is running.
In the DOSING phase air regulated to 4 bar continuously passes and through the air
solenoid to the injector.
The air has two functions:
1. Acts as a transport media for the urea
2. Prevents the injection nozzle from becoming blocked.

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System Dosing 1
Air Only ..Engine Running

In the DOSING phase air regulated to 4 bar continuously passes and through the air solenoid to the injector.

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Conditions for Dosing Urea


200 degrees C @ both Exhaust Inlet and Outlet
No SCR System Relating Fault code
Urea Tank Level above 6%
Air pressure above 4 bar, and urea pressure 3 bar
Above -5 degrees C
Cummins Nox Algorithm

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System Dosing 2
Air & Urea ..Engine Running

The pump will not start dosing Urea unless conditions are met.

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System Purging.
When the Key Switch is turned to the OFF position the system enters the PURGING
phase.
Compressed air flows through the injector and the pump. The air removes any urea
droplets from the system that could otherwise block the pump valves or the injection
nozzle.
The phase lasts for 30 seconds then the system switches off.
Purging is performed with every key off cycle.
If a SCR system Fault becomes active, then the SCR system will switch off, but first
purge the system with air to clean the system from Urea.

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System
Purging.

Compressed air flows through the injector and the pump.


The air removes any Urea droplets from the system that could otherwise block the pump valves or the injection nozzle.
The phase lasts for 30 seconds then the system switches off. Purging is performed with every key off cycle.

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Stop Mode

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2
3

A
A.
B.
C.
D.

UDS limits
11

Connection to truck air circuit (Air in line)


Connection to nozzle (Mix out line)
Connection from urea tank (Urea in line)
Connection to urea tank (Urea out line)

1. Air valve (controlled by solenoid)


2. Air pressure regulator @ 4 bar
3. Orifice
4. Air Check Valve (ACV)
5. Back Pressure Valve (BPV)
6. Mixing chamber
7. Outlet check valve (spring loaded)
8. Actuated membrane
9. Inlet check valve (spring loaded)
10. Pressure switch
11. Air Actuated Valve (AAV)

10

7
8

OBD

AIR UNIT
9
MIXING VALVE

MEMBRANE PUMP

UREA TANK

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UDS limits
PRIMING MODE

Air closed (air solenoid off)


Pump working at max capacity (7.5l/h)
Urea back to tank
Pressure switch not activated

UREA TANK

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UDS limits

P
DOSING MODE, AIR ONLY, ENGINE RUNNING
Air open (air solenoid on)
Pump stopped
Air injected to nozzle
Pressure switch not activated

UREA TANK

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UDS limits
DOSING MODE, UREA & AIR
Air open (air solenoid on)
Pump working at required capacity
Urea injected in nozzle line
Pressure switch activated

P
OBD

UREA TANK

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UDS limits
PURGING MODE
Air open (air solenoid on)
Pump stopped (0l/h)
Only air injected in nozzle line
Pressure switch activated

P
OBD

UREA TANK

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UDS limits
STOP MODE

Air closed (air solenoid off)


Pump stopped
No urea neither air flow
Pressure switch not activated

UREA TANK

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