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UNIVERSIDAD DE LA SALLE

BOGOT, COLOMBIA

IV SIMPOSIO DE INVESTIGACIN EN LENGUA


EXTRANJERA
UNIVERSIDAD SURCOLOMBIANA

EFL Didactics:
The description of the
instructional sequences of
University teachers
Jos Aldemar lvarez Valencia
joseaedu@yahoo.com
Universidad de La Salle, Bogot.

AGENDA
0. Some inquiries
1.Research objectives
2.Research questions
3. Some relevant constructs
4. Research design
5. Findings
6. Discussion and conclusions

Some inquiries : Teaching as a


jigsaw puzzle

Jigsaw puzzle: Fit together an


image or structure, replica of
photographs or paintings
Role of methodology or didactics
classes

When there is a model to follow

When there isnt a model to follow

1. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
-To

identify the elements that structure the


instructional sequences of the teachers of
English of the Languages Program of
Universidad de la Salle.

-To describe the instructional sequences that are


found in the classes of the teachers of English of
the Languages Program of Universidad de la
Salle.
-To identify and analyze the most common
instructional sequence in the pedagogical
practice of the teachers of English of the
Languages Program of Universidad de la Salle.

2. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.

What are the elements that articulate the


instructional sequences of the teachers of
English of the Languages Department of
Universidad de la Salle?

2. What instructional sequences can be identified


in the classes of the teachers of English of the
Languages Department of Universidad de la
Salle?
3. What is the most salient instructional sequence
of the teachers of English of the Languages
Department of Universidad de la Salle?

3. SOME RELEVANT
CONSTRUCTS
Didactics
a discipline that explains the teachinglearning processes, and at the same time
it purports to build its knowledge based
on reflection and dialogism among the
axes (philosophical, epistemological,
historical) that conform it and the agents
that participate in the pedagogical
practices.

DFLT

1840 TO DATE

EMERGENCE OF METHODS
AND APPROACHES

Instructional sequences

-Grammar Translation
Method
-Direct Method
-Situational Language
Teaching
-Audioloingualism
-Silent Way
-Total Physical Respon.
-Community Language
Teaching
-Suggestopedia
-Communicative Appro.
-Others

Instructional (didactic) sequence:


A set of activities ordered, structured
and articulated as a way to achieve
certain educational objectives (Zabala
Vidiella, 1997).

Activity:
is a segment of classroom life, is
intended to cover all distinguishable
behavioral segments in a classroom...
(Crookes, 2003 p. 144)

Instructional sequence
J.
Dakin
(1973)
Stages of
teaching
and
learning

Chastai
n
K.
(1989)
Parts of
a class

Nunan,
(1999)

Willis,
(1996)
Task based
approach

Gower et al.
(1995)

Lewis
& Hill
(1999)

Doff, A. Woodward (2001)


Instructional
(1988)
sequence

Teaching
sequence
ESA
Harmer
(2007)

Presentation

Preview

Presentati
on

Pre-task
Introductio
n to topic
and task

Presentation
Stage
1
Introduce
structures

Introdu
ction

Presentati
on

Teach

Pre-stage

E: Engage

Practice

View

Practice

Task-cycletaskPlanning
report
-Report

Practice Stage
2
practice
saying
the
model
sentences

Present
ation

Practice

Test

In-stage

S: Study

Developme
nt

Review

Productio
n

Language
focus
Analysis
and practice

Stage
3
Guided
practice using
cue cards

Exploit
ation

Productio
n

Teach

Post-stage A:
Activate

Testing

Stage 4 Freer
practice using
new context

Stage 5
Students make
a record of the
form and uses
of
the
structure

Reading
Listening
Review

4. ISSUES ABOUT THE RESEARCH DESIGN


-Qualitative study
-Descriptive-interpretative (Seliger & Shohamy,1990)
-Instruments: class observations (68 Obs. 136 h.),
teacherslogs, semiestructured interview. Piloting
process in 2006, data gathering in 2007.
-Population and context: Languages Department,
area of English at Universidad de la Salle, 6
teachers: 1st, 3rd and 5th semester.
-Data analysis: Identify common patterns in the
three instruments, establish coding procedures
(Corbin y Strauss, 1990,1991).

5. FINDINGS

Elements of the instructional sequence

PHASES OF
THE CLAS
S

Teaching- le
arning activ
ities

Language skil
ls and subski
lls

Lets recap
FIRST QUESTION:
COMPONENTS OF
INSTR. SEQ:

SECOND
QUESTION:
ARTICULATION
OF COMPONENTS
OF INSTR. SEQ:

AND THE INSTRUCTIONAL SEQUENCE?

Components IS

Sequential regularity

Phases of
a class
(5)

Skills (4)
Subskills
(3)

Activities
(39)

INSTRUCTIONAL SEQUENCE OF THE PHASES OF A


CLASS PER TEACHER
Andrs

Mara

Flor

Presentati
on /
Practice/
Productio
n

Presentati
on

Homework
Check

Presentati
on

Presentati
on

Practice

Johny

Martha

Practice

Practice

Warm-up

Practice

Practice

Presentat
ion

Presentat
ion

Practice

Presentation

Presentati
on /
Practice/
Productio
n

Production

Practice

Practice

Presentat
ion

Practice

Practice

Practice

Presentat
ion

Presentat
ion

Practice

Productio
n

Presentatio
n

Practice

Practice

Presentat
ion

Presentation /
Practice

Producti
on/
Evaluatio
n

Presentat
ion

Practice/
Presentat
ion

Presentation
/Evaluation

Evaluation

Margare
th

GENERAL
SEQUENCE

SEQUENCE OF LANGUAGE SKILLS AND


SUBSKILLS
Andr
s

Mar
a

f/b

Flor

Margareth

Johny

Marth
a

GENERAL
SEQUENC
E

d/f/b

b/f

e/c/f

b/c

f/b

c/f

g/f

b/g

b/c/f

f/b

d/b

b/f

b/g

b/g

f/g

b/g/c/e

a= listening b= speaking c= reading d= writing e= pronounciation f= grammar h= vocabulary

6. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS


-The importance of classroom arrangement
activities (Tsui,2003; Chastain,1988); Brown, 2001;
Nunan,1999; Crookes, 2003; Gower et al.,1995).

-Differences between logs and observations:


Content explanation, identification activities,
deductive approach to contents.
-Grammar and speaking as the main
language components (communicative
competence and linguistic competence)

-Focus on the practice stage in the classes,


less emphasis on production. Learn by
doing. Observed in all instruments.
-Controlled and simulated use of language is
privileged, leaving aside the creative and
free use of language.

-The paradox of the definition of instructional


sequence (activities, skills, phases of a
class)
- The impossibility to define an instructional
sequence doesnt mean it doesnt exist.
- This impossibility shows we cannot limit the
pedagogical activity to a static scheme, it
confirms the subjective and indetermined
nature of humans social and linguistic
interactions.

-Who builds the didactic sequence?

(Coll,
1991; Zabala Vidiella, 1997; Woodward, 2001;
Richards and Rodgers, 2001)

-Emergent didactics
(Kumaravadivelu, 1994; Prabhu, 1992; Edge, 1996,
lvarez, 2007, 2008).

-The instructional sequence and its

components are only some tiles of the


larger language teaching jigsaw

THE DYNAMICS OF THE INSTRUCTIONAL


SEQUENCE AND ITS COMPONENTS
LANGUAGE SKILLS
AND SUBSKILLS

ACTIVITIES

P
R
O
D
U
C
T
I
O
N

LANGUAGE SKILLS
AND SUBSKILLS

ACTIVITIES
LANGUAGE SKILLS
AND SUBSKILLS

ACTIVITIES

FOREIGN LANGUAGE
CLASS

EV
AL
UA
TI
ON

ACTIVITIES
ACTIVITIES
LANGUAGE SKILLS
AND SUBSKILLS
LANGUAGE SKILLS
AND SUBSKILLS

PRACTICE

HOMEWORK
CHECK

A class is not a monological construction

PHASES OF
THE CLASS

Teachinglearning
activities

Language
skills and
subskills

Joseaedu@yahoo.com

Thank you!!

-Who builds the didactic sequence?

(Coll,
1991; Zabala Vidiella, 1997; Woodward, 2001;
Richards and Rodgers, 2001)

-Emergent didactics
(Kumaravadivelu, 1994; Prabhu, 1992; Edge, 1996,
lvarez, 2007, 2008).

-The instructional sequence and its

components are only some tiles of the


larger language teaching jigsaw

1. TEACHING-LEARNING
ACTIVITIES
OBSERVATIONS

TEACHERS LOGS

A3 (Organizational)

30%

A16 (Identification)

20%

A9 (Checking)

15%

A9 (Checking)

11%

A4 (Content explanation)

10%

A3 (Organizational)

8%

A11(Question-answer display) 8%

A24 (Cued narrative


dialogue)

7%

A10 (Correction or feedback)

A23 (Referential
question- answer)

5%

7%

A3. Organizational: Managerial structuring of lesson or


class activities. Includes disciplinary action, organization
of class furniture and seating, general procedures for
class interaction and performance, structure and
purpose of lesson, assigning homework or any other out
of class task, etc. (Adapted from Brown, 2001)

Sample:
The teacher is in the classroom, she greets
them (students) and arranges the chairs like in a
round tableshe writes on one side of the board
the agenda for the day. She calls the roll and asks
students about their namesshe gives instructions
for the first activity and goes around the
classroom arranging it for students to start
(Observation, Martha, January, 29, 07).

A9. Checking: Teacher either circulating or guiding the


correction of students' work, providing feedback as an
activity or within another activity. It can happen when
students socialize work or after activities when it is
necessary to check students answers to a given
exercise. It also includes students peer correction.
(Adapted from Brown, 2001)

Sample
The teacher assigns students to work on an activity
in which they have to create an adjectiveshe goes
around in order to monitora group of students are
discussing about how to say the word aroma in
English and the teacher says smell. The teacher
asks if students have finished the activityA student
asks: Teacher how do you say autoestima in
English, the teacher replied self-esteem
(Observation,
Flor,
Feb.
13,
07)

A16. Identification: Student picking out and


producing/labeling or otherwise identifying a specific target
form, function, definition, meaning or other lesson-related
item. Reading comprehension exercises make part of this
activity.(Adapted from Brown, 2001)

Sample
73 MARTHA: Eh I take the book, the scripts of the
book and I make (sic) different kind (sic) of exercises
from the book! Yes? You have to complete, you have
to say right or wrong, you have to correct the false
ones, you have to complete the lines, you have many
activities (Interview Margareth, Marzo 23,07).

Sample
Activity

Objective

Material

4. The family
tree

-To
foster
the Board
identification of the
members of the
family
-Correct students
possible mistakes
when
creating
sentences

(Teachers log, Andrs, Feb. 22, 07)

2. LANGUAGE SKILLS AND SUBSKILLS


OBSERVATION

TEACHERS LOGS

f (Grammar)

28%

b (Speaking)

27%

b (Speaking)

21% f (Grammar)

24%

g (Vocabulary)

18% g (Vocabulary)

16%

c (Reading)

11% c (Reading)

13%

a (Listening)

8%

8%

d (Writing)

7%

e (Pronunciation) 6%
(Madsen, 1983)

d (Writing)

Sample
Researcher: so, we can say that you organize or
your plan your classes based on skills?
Johny: On skills, yeah! Basically. (Interview,
March 28, 07)
Martha: OK. In order to plan my classes I
consider the number of students, their needs, the
time I have for teaching a specific topic and the
four skills and also the kind of activities I have to
include for all kind of students (Interview,
March 23, 07)

3. PHASES OF A CLASS

OBSERVATIONS

TEACHERS LOGS

Practice

53%

Practice

66%

Presentatin

16%

Production

14%

Production

12%

Presentation

12%

Evaluation

10% Evaluation

6%

Homework check

4%

2%

Homework check

Sample
17. MARTHA:... Started (a class)
with the
explanations of grammar and with the exercises,
with listening and maybe they have finished with
evaluation, right? (sic). Maybe, because its
something traditional that you have to start with the
presentation, with the explanation, with the
internalization of the knowledge, right? And then
you have to evaluate if the students learned...
Interview, Marzo 23, 07)