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Instrumentasi Pengukur

Temperature

Tujuan Khusus Sesi

Mahasiswa memahami Dasar-dasar pengukuran


temperature.
Mahasiswa memahami beberapa tipe
instrumentasi pengukur temperature
Mahasiswa memahami prinsip kerja berbagai tipe
instrumentasi pengukur temperatur yang biasa
digunakan di industri

Definisi Temperature
Temperature:
Temperature dari suatu medium atau substansi adalah
fenomena yang menjelaskan tentang tingkat panas atau
dingin dari medium atau substansi tsb

Skala Temperature
There are four different temperature scales
C
Celsius
Kelvin
Fahrenheit
Rankine

100

373 212

672

273

32

492

-40

233

-40

420

273

460

Some reference points can be


found with substances like water:
Triple point

= 0.01C

Boiling point = 100C

Tipe-Tipe Sensor Temperature


5 Most common devices are ..
Thermometer
Thermocouple
RTD (resistance temperature detector)
Thermistor
Integrated (semiconductor) Circuit Sensor

Klasifikasi Sensor
Temperature
Nonelectric

Electronic

LiquidinGlass

Thermocouples

Bimetallic

RTD

FilledSystem

Thermistors

Temperature Acuan

Sensor Temperature (1)

Mengubah Energi kinetik dari gerak molekular menjadi keluaran


listrik yang pekaArus atau tegangan Akurasi terbaik untuk
Pengukuran teknik

Sensor Temperatur (2)

Fluid-Based Thermometers

Most common device


Thermometry based on
thermal expansion
Liquid-in-glass
thermometers
The manner in which a
thermometer is calibrated
needs to correspond to how
it used. Under normal
not true
circumstances, accuracy
transducers
from 0.2 to 2C.
Mechanicalonlydevice not
Electronic readout
limited
Measurement
Resolution and

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Bi-Metallic
Dua
Thermometers
keping logam dng koef muai berbeda
Perubahan suhu pd logam melengkung ke satu arah
Less design & mudah dibaca
Akurasi kurang, kalibrasi mudah berubah (akibat rough handling)
Untuk local measurement
Devices
Can be used
to indirectly
Drive an
Electronic
Indicator
not true
transducers

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Bi-Metallic Thermometer
Example

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Thermocouple

Efek Seebect the temperature difference produces an


electric
potential (voltage) which can drive an electric current in a
closed
circuit. Today, this is known as the Seebeck effect.

mengubah perbedaan panas dalam benda yang diukur


temperaturnya menjadi perubahan potesial/ tegangan listrik
(voltase)

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Penggunaan Thermocouples

Untuk mengukur rentang suhu yang luas hingga


1800 K

kurang cocok untuk pengukuran dimana perbedaan


suhu yang kecil harus diukur dengan akurasi tingkat
tinggi

Contoh penggunaan thermocouples yang umum :


(1) Industri besi dan baja
(2) Pengaman pada alat-alat pemanas
(3) Pembangkit Listrik tenaga panas radioisotop

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Thermocouples

15

Thermocouples: Physical Measurement


Principals

Untuk perubahan kecil pada temperatur, tegangan Seebeck


proporsional secara linier dengan temperatur: eAB= T (oK)

Often abbreviated at TC
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Sensing The Thermocouple


Voltage
We
can draw this concept by
replacing the original circuit by
equivalent circuits
Copper-Copper
V3 ~ 0

Need voltage at
J2 to get J1

Copper-Constantan
V2 = 0

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Sensing The Thermocouple


Voltage
One way to determine the temperature J2 is to
physically put the junction into an ice bath, forcing
its temperature to be 0 C and establishing J2 as a
Reference Junction with a known temperature.
Equivalent circuit
Cu

Cu

Wire from J2 to J3 is copper, no thermal emf at J4


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Sensing The Thermocouple


Voltage

Since both voltmeter terminal junctions are now


copper-copper, they create no thermal emf and the
reading V on the voltmeter is proportional to the
temperature
difference between J1 and J2.
Equivalent
circuit

VMeter V1 V2 TJ1 TJ 2

eAB= T

A
B

But the
temperature at J2 is 0o
C (273.15 oK)

VMeter TJ1 TJ 2 TJ1 o 273.15oK 273.15oK


( C)

VMeter TJ1 o

( C)

Meter reading is proportional


to temperature at J1 in deg. C. !
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Sensing The Thermocouple


IceVoltage
Point method is very accurate because the temperature can be
precisely controlled.
If the Thermocouple is linear than we can calculate the temperature at
J1 DIRECTLY.
Otherwise . Ice point is used by National Institute of Standards and
Technology (NIST) as fundamental reference point for thermocouple
tables, can now look at NIST tables and directly convert from sensed
voltage Temperature at J1.

Type Designation
20

Sensing The Thermocouple


Voltage
Unfortunately THE OUTPUT OF THERMOCOUPLES IS NOT
LINEAR
The slope of the output curve (Seebeck coefficient) plotted on
the previous page is plotted here A horizontal line indicates a
constant , in other words, a linear device Obviously these
devices are NOT! linear
Notice that slope of the K thermocouple approaches

constant over a temperature range from 0 C to 1000 C


i.e. temperature display involves only a scale factor.
Consequently, type K can be used with an external
ice point reference to obtain a moderately accurate
direct readout of temperature.

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Types of Thermocouple Metal


Pairs

What we just analyzed


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TC With Dissimilar Meter


Leads (1)
The copper-constantan
thermocouple considered earlier is a unique example

ecause copper wire is same metal as voltmeter terminals.

Look at an iron-constantan (Type J) thermocouple instead of Copper-constantan.

Iron wire increases the number of dissimilar metal junctions in circuit, as both
oltmeter terminals become Cu-Fe thermocouple junctions.
Circuit provides accurate measurements
as long as voltmeter terminals(J3 & J4) act
in opposition, i.e. @ same temperature

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TC With Dissimilar Meter


Leads (2)

oth front panel terminals are not at same temperature, Volta


will result.

more precise measurement, copper voltmeter leads are


nded so copper-to-iron junctions are made on a temperature
ated (isothermal) terminal block

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TC With Dissimilar Meter


Leads (3)
Blok isotermal adalah isolator listrik tapi konduktor
panas yg baik
dan bertugas menjaga J3 dan J4 pada temperatur
yang sama

VMeter TJ 1 TRef
icebath VMeter TJ 1 o
( C)

For linear TC region

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Prosedur Kalibrasi (1)


1) Ukur tegangan Termokopel VTC
2) Ukur temperatur ditempat dimana TC dihubungkan
pada pengukur (temperature acuan, Tref)
3) Cari tegangan yg dibangkitkan oleh junction pada
pengukur Temperatur acuan ,Vref.
4) Jumlahkan kedua tegangan Vabs = VTC + Vref.
5) Cari temperature yang setara dengan Vabs dari tabel
6) Pastikan memakai tabel data yg sesuai dengan tipe
TC
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Required TC Measurement
Sensitivities

Tegangan keluaran TC kecil


bahkan utk TC tipe K, voltmeter menghasilkan 4 V
utk mendeteksi perubahan 0.1 C

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Electrical Resistance
Thermometry

e l
R
Ac
Resistivity (daya hambat) dari sebagian besar
material tergantung suhu, fakta ini digunakan untuk
mengindra suhu

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RTD (1)
Resistansi dari sebuah kabel kecil
digunakan untuk mendeteksi temperatur

Faktor
selain
temperatur
menghasilkan
resistansi
diminimumkan Strain

yang
harus

Konstruksi RTD klasik menggunakan


platinum by C.H. Meyers in 1932
strain minimum pada kabel
membuat resistansi maksimum

akan

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RTD (2)
Modern RTDs use a platinum or metal-glass slurry film
deposited onto a small flat ceramic substrate.
Substrate is etched with a laser trimming system, and sealed.
Film RTD offers substantial reduction in assembly time and has
advantage of high element resistance for a given physical size.

Small device size means fast response to changes in


temperature.
Film RTDs are less stable than wire-wound, but are more
popular because of decided advantages in size, production cost
and ruggedness.
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RTD (3)

31

RTD Materials

RTD Materials

Most common RTDs are made of


platinum, nickel, or nickel alloys.
Nickel derivative wires are cheap
and used over limited temperature
range. Non-linear and drift with
time.
Best Measurements, platinum is
clearly best.

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RTD Lead Wire Compensation


(1)

Konfigurasi RTD sederhana


Menggunakan 2 kabel.

Hanya digunakan bila akurasi


Tinggi tidak diperlukan
Wheatstone bridge is used to sense
Resistance and then temperature
Calibration is applied

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RTD Lead Wire Compensation


(2)
To minimize effects of resistances
a three wire configuration can be used.

For High Accuracy, need to


have a very accurate resistance With method two leads to sensor are on
measurement system
adjoining arms, there is a lead resistance in
each arm of bridge and lead resistance is
Even copper lead wires have cancelled out.
significant resistance.
If wires A and B are closely matched
in length, their impedance effects cancel
because each is in an opposite leg of bridge.
Third wire,C, acts as a sense lead and carries
no current for high impedance meter.

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RTD Lead Wire Compensation


(3)

Technique of using a current source along with a remotely sensed digital


voltmeter alleviates many problems associated with the bridge.

Since no current flows through the voltage sense leads, there is no IR


drop in these leads and thus no lead resistance error in the measurement.
4-wire Current-loop RTD

Disadvantage of using 4-wire


RTD is that we need one more
Extension wire than the 3-wire bridge
And acurrent source

Output voltage read by the


DVM is directly proportional to RTD
resistance, so only one conversion
equation is necessary.
Three bridge-completion
resistors are
replaced by one reference resistor.
DVM measures only voltage
dropped
across RTD and is insensitive to
length
of lead wires
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RTD Lead Wire Examples


If we want the high
accuracy of which
RTDs are capable,
we need to have a
very accurate
resistance
measurement
system and a means
to remove the effect
of the lead wires
from our
measurements.
Even copper lead
wires have

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Thermistors (1)
thermistor is a type of resistor used to measure
temperature changes, relying on the change in its
resistance with changing temperature.
Thermistor is a combination of the words thermal
and resistor.
Thermistor Symbol

37

Thermistors (2)
Umumnya dibuat dari semikondukter yg
memiliki properti sbb:
dR/dT lebih besar daripada RTDs
Kasar
Response cepat
Tidak konsisten, harus dikalibrasi perindividu
Dapat berubah seiring waktu

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Thermistors (3)
The Steinhart-Hart
equation is a widely
used third-order
approximation:

In terms of Temperature

R R0e

1/T 1/T0

{R0,T0}-->known calibration
pair
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Thermistors (4)
Thermistors are most commonly used in
bridge circuits
Like RTDs,

R()

Large changes in
Resistance produce large
Output voltages

VOut

R
Vex

2 2R0 R

Thermistor

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Kesimpulan

Bimetallic indikasi lokal (di tangki or pipa proses)


Thermocouple is the most versatile temperature
transducer
(penggunaan paling luas)
RTD adalah instrumentasi pengukur suhu yg paling
stabil,
RTD motor industri
Thermocouple proses2 industri (kolom distilasi,
heat exchanger dll)
RTD&thermistor adalah temperature-sensitive
resistor.

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