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Disain Pabrik Kimia

Tahap Pendirian Pabrik


Kimia

Profesi Sarjana Teknik Kimia ?

Di Industri sarjana Teknik


Kimia sebagai :

Proses Engineer
Project Engineer
Manager/Director/Supervisor

TAHAPAN PENDIRIAN PABRIK


KIMIA

Skala Laboratorium

Skala Pilot

Skala Pabrik

TAHAPAN PENDIRIAN PABRIK


KIMIA

Industri kimia umumnya berskala besar


(pabrik). (Skala industri >>> skala
laboratorium).

Pabrik kimia bisa dikembangkan dari proses


skala laboratorium dan ini memerlukan
sejumlah tahapan pengembangan,
Pabrik kimia bisa merupakan pengembangan
dari pabrik yang sudah ada.

Tahapan pengembangan yang diperlukan


tentunya berbeda.
Tidak ada batasan yang ketat tentang
tahapan-tahapan pengembangan proses
skala laboratorium menjadi skala industri.

TAHAPAN PENDIRIAN PABRIK


KIMIA
Menurut simposium American Institute of Chemical Engineers
(A.I.Ch.E.)

1. Penelitian Exploratif (Exploratory Research) /


Penelitian Fundamental (Fundamental Research)
2. Penelitian Proses (Process Research)
3. Pengembangan Proses (Process Development)
4. Teknik Proses (Process Engineering)
5. Analisis Ekonomi (Economic Analisys)
6. Teknik Proyek (Project Engineering)
7. Teknik Konstruksi (Construction Engineering)
8. Teknik Operasi (Operational Engineering)
9. Teknik Penelitian Pasar (Market Research Engineering).

Penelitian exploratif

Penelitian exploratif adalah penelitian dalam


rangka usaha-usaha pembuatan suatu bahan kimia
baru, penggunaan bahan baku baru, proses baru,
katalisator atau pelarut yang baru,dan sebagainya.
Termasuk juga penelitian mengenai struktur
bahan kimia dan mekanisme reaksi.
Penelitian jenis ini banyak dilakukan di perguruan
tinggi dan lembaga penelitian pada skala
laboratorium.

Hasil penelitian exploratif ini, kemungkinan untuk


layak secara teknik dan ekonomis pada skala
industri adalah 1 : 100.

Penelitian fundamental

Penelitian fundamental bertujuan untuk mencari


nilai besaran-besaran fisis atau kimia (kapasitas
panas, panas reaksi, tetapan kecepatan reaksi,
dan lain-lain), persamaanpersamaan fungsional
misalnya dArchy untuk aliran fluida dalam pipa,
dan juga pengembangan teori yang berlaku
umum (relatif).
Penelitian ini berorientasi kuantitatif.
Hasil penelitiannya bisa bermanfaat untuk
tahap-tahap pengembangan pabrik selanjutnya
dan juga bermanfaat untuk memperkaya teori
(aspek ilmiah).
Penelitian ini juga dilakukan oleh ahli teknik
kimia maupun profesi-profesi lain.

Penelitian proses

Penelitian proses bertujuan untuk mencari data yang cukup


dan secukupnya saja untuk tahap pengembangan proses
(perancangan pilot plant) atau perancangan pabriknya.
Penelitian dimulai dengan mencoba merancang pabriknya
dan membayangkan perancangan alat-alat yang akan
dipakai. Perhitungan untuk perancangan tersebut
memerlukan data/informasi. Sedangkan data/informasi
sudah tersedia di pustaka atau bisa didekati dengan caracara tertentu. Namun sebagai lainnya tidak tersedia di
pustaka atau tidak bisa didekati.
Selanjutnya dirancang penelitian proses untuk mencari
data/informasi yang kurang tersebut. Jadi jelas penelitian
proses bisa dijalankan setelah dibayangkan pabrik dan
perancangannya.
Setelah tahap ini, kemungkinan kelayakannya untuk skala
industri adalah 1 : 10.

Penelitian proses

Simposium A.I.Ch.E. tersebut menurut


Soegiarto (1992), menyebutkan bahwa
pengembangan proses meliputi
kegiatan :
a. Perencanaan kegiatan selanjutnya.
b. Perancangan pilot plant
c. Operasi pilot plant
d. Pengolahan data pilot plant untuk
keperluan tahap-tahap selanjutnya
(perancangan pabrik)

Pilot plant

Pilot plant adalah suatu unit pemroses


yang lengkap seperti pabriknya namun
berskala kecil. Harga pilot plant ini cukup
mahal, adakalanya $ 2 juta.
Karena mahalnya biaya pilot plant, tahap
ini sering diusahakan untuk dilompati.
Untuk proses-proses yang cukup dikenal,
hal itu bisa.
Kemungkinan kelayakan secara teknis dan
ekonomis untuk skala industri setelah pilot
plant adalah 1 : 2 atau 5.

Teknik proses (Process


Engineering)

Teknik proses adalah perancangan proses


untuk pabriknya. Perancangan ini meliputi
deskripsi proses, kebutuhan bahan dan energi
(neraca massa dan energi), kebutuhan dan
penyediaan utilitas, jenis dan ukuran alat-alat
proses serta spesifikasinya, kondisi operasi,
material untuk konstruksi, prinsip
pengendalian proses, dan lain-lain.
Kegiatan ini memerlukan bekal kemampuan
yang paling menyeluruh dari ahli teknik kimia.
Dapat dikatakan bahwa kegiatan ini menjiwai
kegiatan pada tahap-tahap lainnya.

Analisis Ekonomi

Tahap berikutnya adalah analisis ekonomi. Hasilnya adalah


kebutuhan modal, biaya produksi dan pengeluaran umum,
keuntungan dan nilai parameter kelayakan ekonomi (Return
on Investment, Pay Out Time, Break Even Point, Discounted
Cash Flow, dan lain-lain) serta analisis sensitivitas dan
sebagainya.
Jadi dapat disimpulkan apakah pabrik yang dirancang menarik
dari segi ekonomi.
Analisis ekonomi pada tahap ini sudah cukup teliti karena
perancangan proses pabriknya sudah selesai.
Namun perlu dicatat bahwa analisis ekonomi secara kasar
harus selalu dilakukan pada tahap-tahap sebelumnya,
sehingga kalau pabrik tidak menarik dari segi ekonomi, tahap
pengembangan dihentikan seawal mungkin, agar tidak perlu
dijalankan tahap-tahap lebih lanjut yang membutuhkan biaya
besar.
Kemampuan melakukan analisis ekonomi pabrik baik secara
kasar sampai cukup teliti perlu dikuasai oleh ahli teknik kimia.

Teknik Proyek (Project


Engineering)

Tahap selanjutnya, yaitu teknik proyek,


dimaksudkan untuk menjembatani informasi
proses menjadi informasi konstruksi.
Dapat dikatakan bahwa sebelum teknik
proyek, segala sesuatunya masih dipikirkan
sebagai proses, namun sesudah teknik
proyek, dipikirkan sebagai pabrik.
Pada tahap teknik proyek, tenaga ahli
proses bekerja sama dengan tenaga ahli
konstruksi untuk merundingkan konstruksi
yang feasible.

Teknik Konstruksi (Construction


Engineering)

Pada tahap teknik konstruksi, dirancang


konstruksi alat secara detail (termasuk
mechanical design), juga termasuk
platform, fondasi, dan lain-lain, serta
proses pendirinnya.
Setelah itu dilakukan konstruksi
pabriknya. Pada tahap ini, tenaga ahli
teknik kimia memantau kegiatannya,
untuk melihat apakah proses konstruksi
sudah sesuai dengan perancangan
prosesnya.

Teknik Operasi(Operation
Engineering)

Setelah pabrik didirikan, dilakukan teknik operasi,


yaitu menjalankan pabrik.
Pada tahap ini, optimalisasi dan penyempurnaan
selalu dilakukan, karena umumnya pabrik tidak
bisa terancang tepat pada kondisi optimumnya.
Peningkatan kapasitas dimungkinkan pula pada
tahap ini. Sering dijumpai bahwa pabrik bisa
ditingkatkan kapasitasnya menjadi lebih tinggi
dari kapasitas terancangnya.
Keahlian teknik kimia juga sangat diperlukan
pada tahap operasi. Selama pabrik beroperasi,
umumnya dijumpai pula hambatanhambatan
teknis yang perlu diatasi juga oleh ahli teknik
kimia.

Teknik penelitian pasar


(Market Research Engineering)

Teknik penelitian pasar bertujuan


mengetahui kebutuhan masyarakat dan
sekaligus peluang pasar untuk produk
baru atau penyempurnaan produk pabrik
yang sudah berjalan.
Dari kegiatan ini bisa muncul ide untuk
memodifikasi pabrik yang sudah atau ide
untuk mengembangkan pabrik baru.
Tahapan-tahapan yang lengkap

Tahapan Pendirian Pabrik

Tahapan-tahapan yang lengkap seperti di muka, umumnya


dilaksanakan untuk pabrik dengan proses baru yang dikembangkan di
laboratorium. Untuk proses yang sudah agak dikenal, sebagian tahapan
bisa dilompati, sehingga lebih hemat dari segi waktu dan biaya.
Untuk bisa memanfaatkan secara optimal bahan mentah Indonesia
untuk kesejahteraan rakyat, kemampuan untuk mengembangkan
sendiri pabrik-pabrik kimia untuk menghasilkan produk-produk
berkualitas tinggi sangat diperlukan. Kemampuan bangsa Indonesia
dalam hal itu masih belum memadai.
Kegiatan-kegiatan yang sudah banyak dilakukan sendiri oleh Indonesia
saat ini adalah tahap 1 (penelitian exploratif/fundamental) yang banyak
dilakukan oleh perguruan tinggi dan lembaga penelitian.
Selain itu, kalangan industri dan perusahaan rekayasa sudah
melakukan tahapan-tahapan 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 (analisis ekonomi, teknik
proyek, teknik konstruksi, teknik operasi, dan teknik penelitian pasar)
dengan tahapan sebelumnya umumnya oleh pihak asing.
Jadi yang masih perlu dikembangkan oleh bangsa Indonesia adalah
kemampuan melakukan tahapan 2, 3, 4 (penelitian proses,
pengembangan proses, dan teknik proses. Tahapan 4 (teknik proses)
dapat dikatakan sudah mulai dicoba oleh kalangan industri bekerja
sama dengan perguruan tinggi.

IMPORTANCE OF EARLY STAGEDESICISONS

PROCESS DESIGN STAGES AND TOOLS

Sekian
Bersambung

22

THE DESIGN PROCESS


Ref: Seider, Seader and Lewin (2004),
Chapter 1

The Design Process

Schedule - The Design Process


23

Primitive Design Problems

Example

Steps in Designing and Retrofitting Chemical


Processes

Assess Primitive Problem

Process Creation

Development of Base Case

Detailed Process Synthesis - Algorithmic Methods

Process Controllability Assessment

Detailed Design, Sizing, Cost Estimation, Optimization

Construction, Start-up and Operation

Environmental Protection

Safety Considerations
The Design Process

Primitive Design Problems


24

The design or retrofit of chemical processes begins with the


desire to produce profitably chemicals that satisfy societal
needs that arise in the broad spectrum of industries that
employ chemical engineers:

petrochemicals,
petroleum products
industrial gases
foods
pharmaceuticals

polymers
coatings
electronic materials
bio-chemicals

Partly due to the growing awareness of the public, many


design projects involve the redesign, or retrofitting, of
existing chemical processes to solve environmental
problems and to adhere to stricter standards of safety
The Design Process

Origins of Design Problems


25

Often, design problems result from the explorations of


chemists, biochemists, and engineers in research labs to
satisfy the desires of customers to obtain chemicals with
improved properties for many applications
However, several well-known products, like Teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene), were discovered by accident.
In other cases, an inexpensive source of a raw
material(s) becomes available
Other design problems originate when new markets are
discovered, especially in developing countries
Yet another source of design projects is the engineer
himself, who often has a strong inclination that a new
chemical or route to produce an existing chemical can be
very profitable.
The Design Process

26

Consider, the need to manufacture vinyl chloride (VC),


Cl

H
H

A typical primitive problem statement is as follows:


An opportunity has arisen to satisfy a new demand for
VC monomer (VCM), on the order of 800 million pounds
per year, in a petrochemical complex on the Gulf Coast,
given that an existing plant owned by the company
produces one-billion pounds per year of this commodity
chemical. Since VCM is an extremely toxic substance, it is
recommended that all new facilities be designed carefully
to satisfy governmental health and safety regulations.
The Design Process

Steps in Process Design and Retrofit


27

Assess Primitive
Problem

Detailed Process
Synthesis
-Algorithmic
Methods

Development of
Base-case

Plant-wide
Controllability
Assessment

Detailed Design,
Equipment sizing, Cap.
Cost Estimation,
Profitability Analysis,
Optimization
The Design Process

Steps in Process Design and Retrofit


28

SECTION A

Detailed Process
Synthesis
-Algorithmic
Methods

Development of
Base-case

Assess Primitive
Problem

Plant-wide
Controllability
Assessment

Detailed Design,
Equipment sizing, Cap.
Cost Estimation,
Profitability Analysis,
Optimization
The Design Process

Steps in Process Design and Retrofit


29

The Design Process

Assess Primitive Problem


30

Process design begins with a primitive design problem


that expresses the current situation and provides an
opportunity to satisfy a societal need.
Normally, the primitive problem is examined by a small
design team, who begins to assess its possibilities, to
refine the problem statement, and to generate more
specific problems:

Raw materials - available in-house, can be purchased or


need to be manufactured?
Scale of the process (based upon a preliminary assessment
of the current production, projected market demand, and
current and projected selling prices)
Location for the plant

Refined through meetings with engineering technical


management, business and marketing.
Brainstorming to generate alternatives
The Design Process

Example: VC Manufacture
31

To satisfy the need for an additional 800 MMlb/yr of VCM,


the following plausible alternatives might be generated:
Alternative 1. A competitors plant, which produces 2 MMM
lb/yr of VCM and is located about 100 miles away, might be
expanded to produce the required amount, which would be
shipped. In this case, the design team projects the purchase
price and designs storage facilities.
Alternative 2. Purchase and ship, by pipeline from a nearby
plant, chlorine from the electrolysis of NaCl solution. React
the chlorine with ethylene to produce the monomer and HCl
as a byproduct.
Alternative 3. Since the existing company produces HCl as a
byproduct in large quantities are produced, HCl is normally
available at low prices. Reactions of HCl with acetylene, or
ethylene and oxygen, could produce 1,2-dichloroethane, an
intermediate that can be cracked to produce vinyl chloride.

The Design Process

Survey Literature Sources


32

Stanford Research Institute (SRI) Design Reports


Encyclopedias

Handbooks and Reference Books

Perrys Chemical Engineers Handbook (1997)


CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (1997)
...

Indexes

Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology (1991)


Ullmans Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry (1988)
Encyclopedia of Chemical Processing and Design (McKetta
and Cunningham, 1976)
...

See Ferdowsi Library

Patents (see web for example www.uspto.gov/patft)


Internet

The Design Process

Steps in Process Design and Retrofit


33

Assess Primitive
Problem

Detailed Process
Synthesis
-Algorithmic
Methods

Development of
Base-case

Plant-wide
Controllability
Assessment

SECTION B
Detailed Design,
Equipment sizing, Cap.
Cost Estimation,
Profitability Analysis,
Optimization
The Design Process

Steps in Process Design and Retrofit


34

The Design Process

Steps in Process Design and Retrofit


35

Assess Primitive
Problem

Detailed Process
Synthesis
-Algorithmic
Methods

Development of
Base-case

Detailed Design,
Equipment sizing, Cap.
Cost Estimation,
Profitability Analysis,
Optimization

Plant-wide
Controllability
Assessment

SECTION C

The Design Process

Steps in Process Design and Retrofit


36

The Design Process

Environmental Issues in Design


37

Handling of toxic wastes

Reaction pathways to reduce by-product toxicity

97% of hazardous waste generation by the chemicals and


nuclear industry is wastewater (1988 data).
In process design, it is essential that facilities be included to
remove pollutants from waste-water streams.
As the reaction operations are determined, the toxicity of all
of the chemicals, especially those recovered as byproducts,
needs to be evaluated.
Pathways involving large quantities of toxic chemicals should
be replaced by alternatives, except under unusual
circumstances.

Reducing and reusing wastes

Environmental concerns place even greater emphasis on


recycling, not only for unreacted chemicals, but for product
and by-product chemicals, as well. (i.e., production of
segregated wastes - e.g., production of composite materials
and polymers).
The Design Process

Environmental Issues in Design (Contd)


38

Avoiding non-routine events

Reduce the likelihood of accidents and spills through the


reduction of transient phenomena, relying on operation at
the nominal steady-state, with reliable controllers and
fault-detection systems.

Design objectives, constraints and optimization

Environmental goals often not well defined because


economic objective functions involve profitability
measures, whereas the value of reduced pollution is often
not easily quntified economically.

Solutions: mixed objective function (price of reduced


pollution), or express environmental goal as soft or
hard constraints.

Environmental regulations = constraints

The Design Process

Safety Considerations
39

Example Disaster 1 Flixborough: 1st June 1974

http://www.hse.gov.uk/hid/land/comah/level3/5a591f6.htm
50 tons of cyclohexane were released from Nypros KA plant
(oxidation of cyclohexane) leading to release of vapor cloud
and its detonation. Total loss of plant and death of 28 plant
personnel.
Highly reactive system - conversions low, with large inventory
in plant. Process involved six, 20 ton stirred-tank reactors.

Discharge caused by failure


of temporary pipe installed
to replace cracked reactor.
The so-called dog-leg was
not able to contain the
operating conditions of the
process (10 bar, 150 oC)

The Design Process

Safety Considerations
40

Flixborough - What can we learn?

Develop processes with low inventory, especially of flashing fluids


(what you dont have, cant leak)
Before modifying process, carry out a systematic search for possible
cause of problem.
Carry out HAZOP analysis
Construct modifications to same standard as original plant.
Use blast-resistant control rooms and buildings

T. Kletz, Learning from Accidents, 2nd Ed. (1994)

The Design Process

Safety Considerations (Contd)


41

Example Disaster 2 Bhopal: 3rd December 1984

http://www.bhopal.com/chrono.htm
Water leakage into MIC (Methyl isocyanate) storage tank leading
to boiling and release of 25 tons of toxic MIC vapor, killing more
than 3,800 civilians, and injuring tens of thousands more.
MIC vapor released because the refrigeration system intended to
cool the storage tank holding 100 tons of MIC had been shut
down, the scrubber was not immediately available, and the flare
was not in operation.

Bhopal - What can we learn?


Avoid use of hazardous materials. Minimize stocks of hazardous
materials (what you dont have, cant leak).
Carry out HAZOP analysis.
Train operators not to ignore unusual readings.
Keep protective equipment in working order.
Control building near major hazards.
The Design Process

Safety Issues: Fires and Explosions


42

Flammability Limits of Liquids and Gases


LFL and UFL (vol %) in Air at 25 oC and 1 Atm
Compound

LFL (%) UFL (%)

Acetylene

2.5

100

Cyclohexane

1.3

Ethylene

2.7

36

Gasoline

1.4

7.6

Hydrogen

4.0

75

These limits can be extended for mixtures, and for elevated


temperatures and pressures (see Seider et al, 2004).
With this kind of information, the process designer makes
sure that flammable mixtures do not exist in the process
during startup, steady-state operation, or shut-down.
The Design Process

The Design Process - Summary


43

Steps in Designing and Retrofitting Chemical


Processes

Assess Primitive Problem - covered today


Assess Primitive Problem
Process
Creation - next week

Process Creation

Development of Base Case

Detailed Process Synthesis - Algorithmic Methods

Process Controllability Assessment

Detailed Design, Sizing, Cost Estimation, Optimization

Construction, Start-up and Operation

Environmental Protection
Environmental regulations design constraints

Safety Considerations

Should strive to design for inherently safe plants


The Design Process