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The simple

sentence
Sentence analysis
Parts of speech

SENTENCE

Non sentences: ungrammatical/ non grammatical, they cannot


be analyzed (labels, titles, newspaper headings)
Eg. Non smoking here.
Traffic chaos
Pure lemon juice
Simple sentence: a sentence that has only one clause
My sister is a cheerful person.
Multiple sentence: contains two or more clauses.
Compound coordinated, they are equally important
Complex subordinate, they are dependent
My sister is a cheerful person but she seems rather unhappy
today.
The man who is standing over there is my father.

SENTENCE TYPES
Declarative: Statements- provide information
She got a job as a secretary.
Interrogative: Questions, request or ask for information

Did she get a job?


What is she looking for?
Imperative- also called directives- request an action
Open your books.
Exclamatory/ Exclamative they express strong feelings, begin with whword or How
What a beautiful day!

Active Shakespeare wrote Romeo and Juliet.


Passive Romeo and Juliet was written by Shakespeare.

Sentence uses:
Statements to convey meaning
Questions to request information
Directives- to request an action
Exclamations- express strong
feelings

Processes
They elected him president last year. SVOC
Regular simple- declarative- positive- active
Interrogative forms Who elected him president?

Did they elect him president?

When did they elect him president?


Yes/no questions
a) Do insertion
b) Do inversion
)WH- questions WH- movement (insertion)
Negative form they didnt elect him president.

Do insertion and negative particle

Clause: a group of words, consisting of a subject and a


predicate including a finite verb, that constitutes a sentence o
part of a sentence.
Phrase: a group of words forming an immediate syntactic
constituent of a clause (embedded within a larger unit)
They have a main element called Head, and other elements
(determiners, complements, modifiers, specifiers, etc. The head
determines the kind of phrase.
Types of phrases:
noun phrases, eg. That poor boy
verb phrases, were determined , said ,
adverbial phrase, Participants were observed frequently.
adjective phrase, that book is interesting
prepositional phrase, on the campus

DEFINING GRAMMAR TERMS


Subject: word or group of words naming who or what
does or undergoes the action stated by the predicate, it
can be a noun, a noun phrase, or pronoun.
Predicate: the part of a sentence that expresses what
is said about the subject

Noun a word that is the name of something (such as a person, animal, place,
thing, quality, idea, or action) and is typically used in a sentence as subject or
object of a verb
Pronoun a word (such asI, he, she, you, it, we, orthey) that is used instead of
a noun or noun phrase
Adjective a word indicating a characteristic to a noun or pronoun
Determiner a word, such as a number, article, possessive adjective, etc, that
determines (limits) the meaning of a noun phrase, e.g.theirin `their black cat
determinedefiniteness (the , a) , quantity (some, many) , number (two) or
possession (my, his) . Many very familiar words are determiners: each; every;
no; some; most; all; both; many; few; several...
Article a kind of determiner that lacks independent meaning but may serve to
indicate the specificity of reference of the noun phrase with which it occurs,
definite article,indefinite article

Adverb a word or group of words that serves to modify a whole


sentence, a verb, another adverb, or an adjective;
They could easily envy the very happily married couple
Conjunction any word or group of words, other than a relative
pronoun, that connects words, phrases, or clauses;
Preposition a word or group of words used before a noun or
pronoun to show place, time, method.
Interjection a word or remark expressing emotion; exclamation

VERB
Verb indicate the occurrence or performance of an action, the
existence of a state or condition
Modal verb expressing a distinction of mood, such as that
between possibility and actuality. The modal auxiliaries in
English includecan, could, may, must, need, ought, shall,
should, will,andwould
Auxiliary verb a verb used to indicate the tense, voice, mood,
etc, of another verb where this is not indicated by inflection,
such as English
willinhe will go,
wasinhe was eating
he was eaten
doinI do like you

Tense a category of the verb or verbal inflections, such as present,


past, and future, that expresses the temporal relations between
what is reported in a sentence and the time of its utterance
Aspect Completeness of an action, progressive or perfective
Mood a category of the verb or verbal inflections that expresses
semantic and grammatical differences, including such forms as the
indicative, subjunctive, and imperative

Identify the type of sentence:


DECLARATIVE, INTERROGATIVE,
IMPERATIVE OR EXCLAMATORY
1. Move right to the front of the bus.
2. What have you got to say for yourself?
3. What a good time we had!
4. How will they find their way to the station?
5. How much weight youve lost!
6. Its been nice meeting you!
7. Ill see you tonight.
8. Take it!
9. Pass the bottle, please.
10. How can I help you?