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A goal has been defined as the Object or aim

of ones actions.
The usefulness of goal setting is based on the
belief that regulate human action which affect
behavior and performance in number of ways
1. encourage high level of effort
2. Give focus and direction to effort
3. Goals produce high level of persistence on task
4. Help to develop a useful strategy for
accomplishing the task
5. Goals provide opportunities for feedback on
task performance.

Definition of Career Goal: A desired

career related outcome that a person
intends to attain
However, goals can and should change as
conditions dictate




A career goal can be viewed in three

different ways:
By its contextual and operational
By its expressive and instrumental
By its time dimension

Conceptual Goal versus Operational Goal:

Conceptual: persons significant values,
interests, talents, and lifestyle preference
Operational: translation of a conceptual goal into
a specific job or position
Expressive versus Instrumental:
Expressive: intrinsic enjoyment derived from
goal related experience
Instrumental: accomplishment to attainment of
subsequent goal; e.g. Manager to VP
Short-term verses Long-term:

More immediate focus1 to 3 years

Timeframe of 5 to 7 years

Goal that belong to someone else

Goals that exclude total lifestyle concern
Goal that fails to take into account of
ones current job
Goals that are over Vague instead of
Preoccupation with Instrumental Goal
Elements/Destination (Tunnel Vision)
Goals that are too easy or too difficult
Inflexible career goals

either not established a career goal

Or setup a career goal which they
experience significant uncertainty or
Causes and Sources of Career
Lack of information about oneself
Lack of information about work environment
Lack of self confidence in decision making
Presence of psychological conflicts

However, other researchers identified

seven sources of indecision:
Causes and Sources of Career Indecision:
1. Lack of Self-Information.
2. Lack of Internal Work Information.
3. Lack of External Work Information.
4. Lack of Self Confidence.
5. Decision of Making Fear and Anxiety.
6. Nonwork Demand.
7. Situational Constraints.

Facilitate Self Awareness: by

Career counseling;
Sponsoring career planning activities
Effective performance appraisal and feedback
Education and training activities
Temporary assignments
Job changes
Expansion of current job

Facilitate Awareness of
Alternative job in the organization such as
duties, responsibilities, required skills, travel
and time commitment pressures
Communicate its vision structure and culture

Encourage Experimentation
By trying new roles
Joining a support group for newly transferred
Attending seminar/s
Enrolling in a graduating course or program

Response to Chronic Indecision:

Major uncertainties for career aims:
Changes in an employees work situation,
family pressures, career interests, triggered a
reevaluation of future
Aging and feelings of immortality
Work environment
Merger and acquisition
Change in corporate strategy
Spouses career aspirations
Discussions about career and adoptive
attitudes reveal a considerable degree of stress

Past research on the career decision making indicated

two forms of Career Indecision.
1. Being Undecided or Developmental Indecision :

They were viewed as stemming from limited experience

and knowledge.

Developmentally undecided employees were younger,

had limited knowledge of internal and external work
environment, and experienced extensive non work
2. Being Indecisive or Chronic Indecision.

They were viewed as reflecting a more permanent

inability to make a career decision.

They are comparatively older then the other group.

They lacked sufficient self information, had lower self
confidence, displayed more extensive decision making
fear and anxiety, and experience situational constraints.

There are two other types in which manager has

selected a career goal.
Vigilant Type of Career Decidedness: selection of decision
was made in a well informed fashion
Hyper-Vigilant Type of Career Decidedness: conducted in
a tense and hasty manner

Seminars, workshops, computer based programs

and individual counseling are important to avoid




Competence in Current Job: attempt

to perform effectively in ones current job
Extended Work Involvement: devote
time energy and emotion by working
beyond normal hours and extended work
Skill Development: acquisition of skills
through education, training and job
experience to help performance in
current job and subsequent jobs

4. Opportunity Development:
increase career options, selfnomination, willingness to inform
superiors of accomplishments,
aspirations and desired assignment
5. Development of Mentor and
other Supportive Alliances:
relationship between junior and
senior colleagues, and peers



Image Building: to convey an

appearance of acceptability, success and
or potential suitability. E.g: participating in
community activities and dressing
Organizational Politics: agreeing with
or flattering boss, Conformity, trading of
favors, advocating company practices, not
complaining about rules or regulations
and forming alliances or coalition with
others in the organization






There is no One best strategy hence

depending on the situation.
The effectiveness of a strategy
depends on the nature of career goal.
Depends on organizations norms and
Individuals should not limit themselves
to one single but a variety of strategic
Test interest and commitment to a goal
Reflect steps to be taken and area to
be avoided




Re-examine your long-term goal

Identify behaviors, activities and
experience to reach long term goal
Examine short term goal
Identify behaviors, activities and
experiences to attain short term goal
Combine list of strategies for short and
long term goals



Career appraisal is a process by which

career related feedback is gathered and
The feedback obtain through career
appraisal has two specific functions:
Can test the appropriateness of a career
Can test the appropriateness goal itself.
{Is the goal still relevant and attainable.}

Conceptual Goal: about values,

interests, talents and desired lifestyle
Operational Goal: appropriateness of
targeted job is compatible with the
conceptual goal
Strategy: does individual experience
is a sense of progress toward the

Willingness to see and make revisions in

goals and strategies when appropriate.



Be honest with yourself

Be less concerned with having to justify your
prior decisions to others
Be willing to be inconsistent

Benchmarks of accomplishment help to

identify specific strengths and
weaknesses of a strategy.



Periodically review appropriateness of

your conceptual and operational goals
If you are employed structure your
interactions with your supervisor to
acquire desired information about your
strengths,weaknesses and organization

5. Share experiences and feelings with

trustworthy people. Frank discussions
with peers can be beneficial.

Others may see parts of you that are hidden to

Verbally expressing goals, desires, reservations
and strategies may help clarify your own
Others may be willing to share their own
successes, failures and revelations that bear
on your circumstances

6. Seek feedback from non work sources