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THE LYMPHATIC

SYSTEM

Capaian pembelajaran :
Setelah mengikuti perkuliahan
mahasiswa diharapkan mampu :
1. Menjelaskan organ sistem limfatik
2. Menjelaskan fungsi sistem limfatik
3. Menjelaskan mekanisme kerja sistem
limfatik

The Lymphatic System

Consists of two
semi-independent
parts

Lymphatic vessels
which contains
lymph
Lymphoid tissues
and organs

Functions :
Lymphatic System which consists of
vessels and organs plays two vital
roles in our lives:
1)

2)

The vessels essentially maintain


interstitial fluid levels by carrying
excess fluids , any plasma
proteins, back into the CVS.
The organs, house critical immune
cells such as lymphocytes which
carryout our body defense against
infection and disease

Relationship of lymphatic system and


cardiovascular system

Relationship of lymphatic system and


cardiovascular system

Lymph

Lymph excess tissue fluid carried by lymphatic


vessels

Composition of Lymph

Lymph is usually a clear, colorless fluid, similar to


blood plasma but low is protein
Its composition varies from place to place; after a
meal, for example, lymph draining from the small
intestine, takes on a milky appearance, due to lipid
content.
Lymph may contain macrophages, viruses, bacteria,
cellular debris and even traveling cancer cells.

Lymphatic Vessels

Lymph Capillaries

Walls overlap to form flap-like minivalves


Fluid leaks into lymph capillaries
Capillaries are anchored to connective
tissue by filaments
Higher pressure on the inside closes
minivalves

What Type of Vessels Make up the


Lymphatic System?

Thin-walled and are analogous to veins.


Small lymphatics are similar to capillaries
only more porous; Larger vessels are called
collecting vessels: both have valves.
2 large Ducts: Right LYMPHATIC DUCT and
THORACIC DUCT (BOTH EMPTY INTO
THE RT AND LT SUBCLAVIAN VEINS)
Lymph flows only TO THE HEART (ONE WAY).
This is a low-pressure, pumpless
system. Lymph moves via skeletal muscles
and pressure changes in thorax during
breathing only.

Lymphatic Organs:

A Lymph Node.
Spleen
Thymus Gland
Tonsils
MALT
Peyers patch

MALT

The collection of lymphoid tissues linked


with the digestive system is called the
mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue
(MALT).
Clusters of lymphoid nodules deep to the
epithelial lining of the intestine are
known as aggregate lymphoid
nodules, or Peyers patches

Tonsils

Large nodules in the


walls of the pharynx
Most people have five
tonsils:
1. A single pharyngeal
tonsil, often called the
adenoids.
2, 3. A pair of palatine
tonsils
4, 5. A pair of lingual
tonsils.

The Thymus

The thymus is located in the mediastinum,


generally just posterior to the sternum.
In newborn infants and young children, the
thymus is relatively large.
The thymus reaches its greatest size (relative to
body size) in the first year or two after birth. The
thymus reaches its maximum absolute size just
before puberty. After pubertyinvolution
The thymus produces Thymosin that promotes
the development and maturation of
lymphocytes

Lymph Nodes

Lymph Nodes take the germ-filled lymph


and Filter lymph before it is returned to
the blood
Defense cells within lymph nodes

Macrophages engulf and destroy foreign


substances
Lymphocytes provide immune response to
antigens

Where are these lymph


nodes?

Lymph Node Structure

Most are kidney-shaped, less than 1 inch


long
Cortex

Outer part
Contains follicles collections of
lymphocytes

Medulla

Inner part
Contains phagocytic macrophages

Anatomy of a Lymph Node

Fluid enters afferent


vessels
Exists efferent
vessels
Germinal center of
follicle These
enlarge during time of
plasma cell production
(B Cells)
Medulla- Phagocytes
are located here

SPLEEN

Filters blood of bacteria, viruses and


other debris
Destroys worn out blood cells. It then
returns (or recycles) some of the
breakdown products of RBCs to the
liver.
Another function: Stores platelets and
acts as a blood reservoir.
Lymphocytes are produced; RBCs also
made in fetus only.

Lymphatic system and


Bodys Defense System

Two general defenses:

Nonspecific defenses include physical


barriers, phagocytic cells, immunological
surveillance, interferons, complement,
inflammation, and fever.
Specific defenses include B cells, T
cells, Antibody

Lymphocytes

Lymphocytes account for 2030 percent


of the circulating white blood cell
population.
1) T (thymus-dependent) cells,
(2) B (bone marrowderived) cells
(3) NK (natural killer) cells

T cells

Approximately 80 percent of circulating


lymphocytes
Many types of T cells:
Cytotoxic T cells, which attack foreign cells
or body cells infected by viruses.
Helper T cells, which stimulate the activation
and function of both T cells and B cells.
Suppressor T cells, which inhibit the
activation and function of both T cells and B
cells.

B cells

B Cells B cells account for 1015


percent of circulating lymphocytes.
When stimulated, B cells can
differentiate into plasma cells.
Plasma cells are responsible for the
production and secretion of antibodies,
soluble proteins that are also known as
immunoglobulins

Antibody Classes

By amino acid sequences of C region of antibody


IgA: monomer in plasma; dimer in mucus, saliva, tears,
milk, intestinal secretions, prevents adherence to
epithelia

IgD: monomer; B cell membrane antigen receptor


IgE: monomer; on mast cells; stimulates release of
histamines, attracts eosinophils; immediate
hypersensitivity reactions

IgG: monomer; 80% circulating, crosses placenta to


fetus, 2 immune response, complement fixation

IgM: pentamer, 10% in plasma, 1 immune response,


agglutination, complement fixation

How Do Antibodies Work?

NK cells

The remaining 510 percent of


circulating lymphocytes are NK cells,
also known as large granular
lymphocytes.
These lymphocytes attack foreign cells,
normal cells infected with viruses, and
cancer cells that appear in normal
tissues.
Their continuous policing of peripheral
tissues has been called immunological
surveillance.

Vaccines

Vaccine development is based on acquired


immunity. 2 BASIC TYPES:
1. TO CONFER ACTIVE IMMUNITY :

a. Weakened microbes(measles, mumps, rubella)


b. Killed pathogens that still retain surface antigens
so they can stimulated antibody production
2. PASSIVE IMMUNITY: Give just the antibodies.
In this case a person has already been exposed
to pathogen; needs antibodies fast.

Active Immunity

Your B cells
encounter
antigens and
produce
antibodies
Active immunity
can be naturally
or artificially
acquired
Figure 12.14

TERIMA KASIH