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Menggambar Teknik

(Engineering Drawing)
Joko Wintoko
Lab TMBGB
Semester II TA 2009/2010

Isi kuliah
Menggambar Teknik (MT) terutama
mempelajari:
prinsip-prinsip proyeksi ortografi,
membaca gambar teknik,
menggambar teknik secara free hand drawing
dan memakai alat gambar (instrument
drawing),
menyatakan ukuran peralatan dalam gambar,
dan
potongan pandangan peralatan.

Gambar teknik
Gambar teknik merupakan suatu bahasa
grafik (graphic language) yang dipakai di
dalam dunia industri oleh para insinyur
atau perancang alat/mesin, bangunan
untuk mengungkapkan serta mencatat
gagasan-gagasan maupun informasi yang
diperlukan untuk membuat suatu mesin
atau peralatan.

Drawing as a language

The danger of visual illusion

Representation, visualization and specification

Representation, visualization and specification

Requirements of engineering drawings


Engineering drawings should be unambiguous and clear.
For any part of a component there must be only one
interpretation.
The drawing must be complete. The content of an
engineering drawing must provide all the information for
that stage of its manufacture.
The drawing must be suitable for duplication. A drawing is
a specification which needs to be communicated. The
information may be communicated electronically or in a
hard copy format.
Drawings must be language-independent.
Drawings need to conform to standards. The 'highest'
standards
are the ISO ones that are applicable worldwide.

Sizes and layout of drawing sheets

Anatomy of a drawing
1. Title block
2. Grid system
3. Revision block
4. Notes and legends
5. Engineering drawing (graphic portion)

Title block

Grid system

Revision block

Changes

Notes and Legend

Yang perlu ada dalam lembar


gambar (drawing sheet)
1. Title block.
2. Frame for limiting the drawing space.
3. Centring marks.
4. Orientation marks.
5. Metric reference graduation.
6. Grid reference system.
7. Trimming marks.

A typical blank sheet used for engineering drawing

categories of drawings.
1) piping and instrument drawings (P&IDs),
2) electrical single lines and schematics,
3) electronic diagrams and schematics,
4) logic diagrams and prints, and
5) fabrication, construction, and architectural
drawings.

piping and instrument drawings (P&IDs)

electrical single lines and schematics

electrical single lines and schematics

electronic diagrams and schematics

logic diagrams and prints

fabrication, construction, and architectural


drawings

Types of drawing
1. A design layout drawing (or design scheme) which
represents in broad principles feasible solutions which
meet the design requirements.
2. A detail drawing (or single part drawing) shows details of
a single artefact and includes all the necessary
information required for its manufacture, e.g. the form,
dimensions, tolerances, material, finishes and
treatments.
3. A tabular drawing shows an artefact or assembly typical
of a series of similar things having a common family form
but variable characteristics all of which can be presented
in tabular form, e.g. a family of bolts.

4. An assembly drawing shows how the individual parts or


subassemblies of an artefact are combined together to
make the assembly. An item list should be included or
referred to. An assembly drawing should not provide any
manufacturing details but merely give details of how the
individual parts are to be assembled together.
5. A combined drawing is a combination of detail drawings,
assembly drawings and an item list. It represents the
constituent details of the artefact parts, how they are
manufactured, etc., as well as an assembly drawing and
an accompanying item list.

6. An arrangement drawing can be with respect to a finished product or


equipment. It shows the arrangement of assemblies and parts. It will
include important functional as well as performance requirements
features. An installation drawing is a particular variation of an
arrangement drawing which provides the necessary details to affect
installation of typically chemical equipment.
7. A diagram is a drawing depicting the function of a system, typically
electrical, electronic, hydraulic or pneumatic that uses symbology.
8. An item list, sometimes called a parts list, is a list of the component
parts required for an assembly. An item list will either be included on
an assembly drawing or a separate drawing which the assembly
drawing refers to.
9. A drawing list is used when a variety of parts make up an assembly
and each separate part or artefact is detailed on a separate
drawing. All the drawings and item lists will be crossreference on a
drawing list.

An assembly drawing of a small hand vice

A detailed drawing of a small hand vice

Manual and machine drawing


Manual drawing:
draughtsman
Machine drawing:
computer
(AutoCAD, etc)