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HYDROLOGY

CHAPTER 6:
Flood Routing

Introduction
Is

a process whereby the shape of a


flood hydrograph is determined at a
point in a reservoir, lake or channel.
Two technique introduced are
Stream Routing
Reservoir Routing

Flow Routing

Q
t

Procedure to
determine the
flow hydrograph
at a point on a
watershed from a
known hydrograph
upstream
As the hydrograph
travels, it
attenuates
Q
gets delayed

t
Q

t
3

Hydrologic

routing involves the


balancing of inflow, outflow and
volume of storage.
Applications of hydrologic technique
Flood Prediction

Flood control measures

Watershed simulation
Urban storm design
Reservoir design
And operation

Why route flows?


Q

Account for changes in flow hydrograph as a


flood wave passes downstream
This helps in
Accounting for storages
Studying the attenuation of flood peaks
5

Types of flow routing


Lumped/hydrologic
Flow is calculated as a function of time alone at
a particular location
Governed by continuity equation and
flow/storage relationship
Distributed/hydraulic
Flow is calculated as a function of space and
time throughout the system
Governed by continuity and momentum
equations

Lumped flow routing


Three types
Level pool method (Modified Puls)
Storage is nonlinear function of Q
Muskingum method
Storage is linear function of I and Q
Series of reservoir models
Storage is linear function of Q and its time
derivatives

1.

2.

3.

Hydrologic Routing
Discharge

I (t )

Inflow

Discharge

Q (t )

Transfer
Function

Outflow

I (t ) Inflow
Upstream hydrograph

Q (t ) Outflow
Downstream hydrograph

Input, output, and storage are related by continuity equation:

dS
I (t ) Q (t ) Q and S are unknown
dt
Storage can be expressed as a function of I(t) or Q(t) or both

S f (I ,

dI
dQ
, , Q,
, )
dt
dt

For a linear reservoir, S=kQ


8

S and Q relationships

Level pool routing


Procedure

for calculating
outflow hydrograph Q(t) from
a reservoir with horizontal
water surface, given its
inflow hydrograph I(t) and
storage-outflow relationship

Flood Routing Concept

Black Box Concept


Black Box
Outflow

Inflow

The black box represents the river or the storage between 2 points.
Only know the inflow and outflow.

With hydrograph of I and O are


obtained, therefore the total
storage(S) in the reservoir and river
can be determined
Continuity Equation:

dS
I O
dt
dS = incremental storage
dt = routing flood
I = Inflow rate
O = Outflow rate

Reservoir Routing

Before determining the storage


volume in the dam:
Identify the location and capacity
of the reservoir suggested.
Determine the spillway structure
capacity.
Dam Height
Determine how far the dam is
from the surrounding areas .

Reservoir Routing concept

Storage Indication
Curve/Plus Method

Introduced the concept of storage


indication curve on reservoir.
Using The continuity equation and
the finite difference
IO

= dS/dt

(I O)dt = dS

C.E.

Level pool methodology


Discharge

dS
I (t ) Q(t )
dt

Inflow

I j 1

Outflow

S j 1

( j 1) t

( j 1) t

Sj

jt

jt

dS

Ij
Q j 1

Qj

S j 1 S j

t
jt

( j 1) t

Time

t
2S j 1

Storage

Idt

Qdt

I j 1 I j
2

Q j 1 I j 1 I j

Unknown

Sj
16

Time

2
2S j

Known

Need a function relating

S j 1

Q j 1 Q j

2S
Q, and Q
t
Storage-outflow function

Qj

(I1 + I0) t (O1 + O0) t = S1 S0 F.D.


(I1 + I0) (O1 + O0) = 2(S1 S0)/ t = 2S1/t 2S0/t
(I1 + I0) + 2S0/t - O0 = 2S1/t + O1

Generally
In + In+1 + (Sn/t On) = (2Sn+1/t + On+1)

(LHS)
(RHS)
Sn+1, On+1 are unknown

In is known for any n value

Sn, On are known on routing process

Therefore, terms in RHS can be calculated

Sn+1 and On+1 on RHS are used as input to LHS

Storage indication curve: (2S/t + O) against O

(2S/t + O)
O
Storage Indication Curve

Storage-outflow
Relationship
For
A
Reservoir
Before LHS can be derived, the

relationship between O and S has to


be derived first.
H-S(elevation storage) can be
derived using the following
equation:

S Ai 1 Ai 2 * dh

Total storage volumes S, under a


contour line i is the total of all
storage volume under i level:

Si 1 Si S
dh
Si 1 Si ( Ai 1 Ai )
2

By knowing the hydraulic structure,


therefore the H-O relationship can
be derived.

Reservoir contour and surface water


Area as well as reservoir storage volume
relationship

Ex. 8.2.1
Given I(t)

Given Q/H
Elevation H Discharge Q
(ft)
(cfs)
0
0
0.5
3
1
8
1.5
17
2
30
2.5
43
3
60
3.5
78
4
97
4.5
117
5
137
5.5
156
6
173
6.5
190
7
205
7.5
218
8
231
8.5
242
9
253
9.5
264
10
275

Area of the reservoir = 1 acre, and outlet diameter =


5ft
22

Ex. 8.2.1 Step 1


Develop Q versus Q+ 2S/t relationship using Q/H relationship
Elevation H Discharge Q Storage S 2S/ t + Q
3
(ft )
(ft)
(cfs)
(cfs)
0
0
0
0
0.5
3
21780
75.6
1
8
43560
153.2
1.5
17
65340
234.8
2
30
87120
320.4
2.5
43
108900
406
3
60
130680
495.6
3.5
78
152460
586.2
4
97
174240
677.8
4.5
117
196020
770.4
5
137
217800
863
5.5
156
239580
954.6
6
173
261360
1044.2
6.5
190
283140
1133.8
7
205
304920
1221.4
7.5
218
326700
1307
8
231
348480
1392.6
8.5
242
370260
1476.2
9
253
392040
1559.8
9.5
264
413820
1643.4
10
275
435600
1727

S Area Height 43560 0.5 21,780 ft 3


2S
2 21780
Q
3 75.6 cfs
t
10 60

23

Step 2
Compute Q+ 2S/t using

2 S j 1
t

Q j 1 I j 1 I j

2S j
t

Qj

At time interval =1 (j=1), I1 = 0, and therefore Q1 = 0 as the reservoir is empty


Write the continuity equation for the first time step, which can be
used to compute Q2

2S 2

2S1

Q2 I 2 I1
Q1

2S 2

2 S1

Q2 I 2 I1
Q1 0 60 60

24

Step 3
Use the relationship between 2S/t + Q versus Q to
compute Q
2S 2

Q2 60

Use the Table/graph created in Step 1 to compute Q


What is the value of Q if 2S/t + Q =
60 ?
(3 0)
Q 0
(60 0) 2.4 cfs
(76 0)
So Q2 is 2.4 cfs
Repeat steps 2 and 3 for j=2, 3, 4 to
compute Q3, Q4, Q5..

25

Elevation H Discharge Q Storage S 2S/ t + Q


3
(ft )
(ft)
(cfs)
(cfs)
0
0
0
0
0.5
3
21780
75.6
1
8
43560
153.2
1.5
17
65340
234.8
2
30
87120
320.4
2.5
43
108900
406
3
60
130680
495.6
3.5
78
152460
586.2
4
97
174240
677.8
4.5
117
196020
770.4
5
137
217800
863
5.5
156
239580
954.6
6
173
261360
1044.2
6.5
190
283140
1133.8
7
205
304920
1221.4
7.5
218
326700
1307
8
231
348480
1392.6
8.5
242
370260
1476.2
9
253
392040
1559.8
9.5
264
413820
1643.4
10
275
435600
1727

Ex. 8.2.1 results


2S j
t

26

Qj

2 S j 1

2S j
t

Q j 2Q j

Q j 1 I j 1 I j

2S j
t

Qj

Ex. 8.2.1 results

400
350

Inflow

Peak outflow intersects with the


receding limb of the inflow hydrograph

Discharge (cfs)

300
250
200
150

Outflow

100
50
0
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

TIme (minutes)

27

140

160

180

200

220

Q/H relationships

28

River/Stream Routing

Different from reservoir routing


because it involves 2 variable, O and
S.
In the form of
dScontinuity equation:

dt

I O

In the form of finite difference:

I1 I 2 O1 O2 S 2 S1
2

dt

dt=routing period
1,2=start and finish

Hydrologic river routing


(Muskingum Method)

Wedge storage in reach

S Prism KQ
S Wedge KX ( I Q )

Advancing
Flood
Wave
I>Q

K = travel time of peak through


the reach
X = weight on inflow versus
outflow (0 X 0.5)
X = 0 Reservoir, storage
depends on outflow, no wedge Receding
X = 0.0 - 0.3 Natural stream Flood

S KQ KX ( I Q)

S K [ XI (1 X )Q]

I Q
Q

Q
QI

Wave
Q>I

Muskingum Method (Cont.)


S K [ XI (1 X )Q]

S j 1 S j K {[ XI j 1 (1 X )Q j 1 ] [ XI j (1 X )Q j ]}
Recall:

S j 1 S j

I j 1 I j

Combine:
Q j 1 C1I j 1 C 2 I j C3Q j

Q j 1 Q j
2

t 2 KX
2 K (1 X ) t
t 2 KX
C2
2 K (1 X ) t
2 K (1 X ) t
C3
2 K (1 X ) t
C1

If I(t), K and X are known, Q(t) can be calculated using


above equations

Muskingum Method

Solution method of prism and


wedge storage concept by using the
continuity equation.
Water storage can be defined as :

b xl

m/n

1 x O
m/n
a

m/n

Assumes that m/n=1 and b/a=K to


form a linear relation:

S K * O Kx( I O)

K is the storage parameter, which is


S and O ratio

Prism and Wedge Storage

The whole total river storage, S =


storage on prism + storage on wedge.
S = K [xl + (1 x) O] Muskingum Formula
If x = 0, S = f(O)
If x = 0.5, I = O

In general, x value for natural river, x=00.2

River Routing Concept

Solution Of Simplified
Muskingum Method
S = K [x I + (1 x) O]

Formula Muskingum

Muskingum Continuity Equation,


S2 S1 = K [x (I2 I1) + (1 x)(O2 O1)]
1,2
= routing period
I, O, S = current value

(a)

For t period, finite difference equation to equation (a) is:


S2 S1 = x (I2 + I1) t (O2 + O1) t

(b)

Equation (a) = (b)


O2 (- t K + Kx) = I1 (-Kx t) + I2 (Kx - t) + O1 (-K + Kx + t)
Or
O2 = c 1 I 2 + c 2 I 1 + c 3 O 1

(c)

Where;
c1 =

__0.5 t Kx__
K Kx + 0.5 t

c2 =

__0.5 t + Kx__
K Kx + 0.5 t

c3 =

-0.5 t + K Kx
K Kx + 0.5 t

c1 + c2 + c3

=1
t [(I2 + I1) (O2 + O1)]

=
x (I2 I1) + (1 x)(O2 O1)

Muskingum - Example

Given:

Inflow hydrograph
K = 2.3 hr, X = 0.15, t =
1 hour, Initial Q = 85 cfs

Find:

Outflow hydrograph using


Muskingum routing
method

t 2 KX
1 2 * 2.3 * 0.15

0.0631
2 K (1 X ) t 2 * 2.3(1 0.15) 1
t 2 KX
1 2 * 2.3 * 0.15
C2

0.3442
2 K (1 X ) t 2 * 2.3(1 0.15) 1
2 K (1 X ) t 2 * 2.3 * (1 0.15) 1
C3

0.5927
2 K (1 X ) t
2 * 2.3(1 0.15) 1
C1

Muskingum Example (Cont.)


Q j 1 C1I j 1 C2 I j C3Q j
C1 = 0.0631, C2 = 0.3442,
C3 = 0.5927
800
700

Discharge (cfs)

600
500
400
300
200
100
0
1

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Time (hr)