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# HYDROLOGY

CHAPTER 6:
Flood Routing

Introduction
Is

## a process whereby the shape of a

flood hydrograph is determined at a
point in a reservoir, lake or channel.
Two technique introduced are
Stream Routing
Reservoir Routing

Flow Routing

Q
t

Procedure to
determine the
flow hydrograph
at a point on a
watershed from a
known hydrograph
upstream
As the hydrograph
travels, it
attenuates
Q
gets delayed

t
Q

t
3

Hydrologic

## routing involves the

balancing of inflow, outflow and
volume of storage.
Applications of hydrologic technique
Flood Prediction

## Flood control measures

Watershed simulation
Urban storm design
Reservoir design
And operation

Q

## Account for changes in flow hydrograph as a

flood wave passes downstream
This helps in
Accounting for storages
Studying the attenuation of flood peaks
5

## Types of flow routing

Lumped/hydrologic
Flow is calculated as a function of time alone at
a particular location
Governed by continuity equation and
flow/storage relationship
Distributed/hydraulic
Flow is calculated as a function of space and
time throughout the system
Governed by continuity and momentum
equations

## Lumped flow routing

Three types
Level pool method (Modified Puls)
Storage is nonlinear function of Q
Muskingum method
Storage is linear function of I and Q
Series of reservoir models
Storage is linear function of Q and its time
derivatives

1.

2.

3.

Hydrologic Routing
Discharge

I (t )

Inflow

Discharge

Q (t )

Transfer
Function

Outflow

I (t ) Inflow
Upstream hydrograph

Q (t ) Outflow
Downstream hydrograph

## Input, output, and storage are related by continuity equation:

dS
I (t ) Q (t ) Q and S are unknown
dt
Storage can be expressed as a function of I(t) or Q(t) or both

S f (I ,

dI
dQ
, , Q,
, )
dt
dt

## For a linear reservoir, S=kQ

8

S and Q relationships

## Level pool routing

Procedure

for calculating
outflow hydrograph Q(t) from
a reservoir with horizontal
water surface, given its
inflow hydrograph I(t) and
storage-outflow relationship

## Black Box Concept

Black Box
Outflow

Inflow

The black box represents the river or the storage between 2 points.
Only know the inflow and outflow.

## With hydrograph of I and O are

obtained, therefore the total
storage(S) in the reservoir and river
can be determined
Continuity Equation:

dS
I O
dt
dS = incremental storage
dt = routing flood
I = Inflow rate
O = Outflow rate

Reservoir Routing

## Before determining the storage

volume in the dam:
Identify the location and capacity
of the reservoir suggested.
Determine the spillway structure
capacity.
Dam Height
Determine how far the dam is
from the surrounding areas .

## Reservoir Routing concept

Storage Indication
Curve/Plus Method

## Introduced the concept of storage

indication curve on reservoir.
Using The continuity equation and
the finite difference
IO

= dS/dt

(I O)dt = dS

C.E.

Discharge

dS
I (t ) Q(t )
dt

Inflow

I j 1

Outflow

S j 1

( j 1) t

( j 1) t

Sj

jt

jt

dS

Ij
Q j 1

Qj

S j 1 S j

t
jt

( j 1) t

Time

t
2S j 1

Storage

Idt

Qdt

I j 1 I j
2

Q j 1 I j 1 I j

Unknown

Sj
16

Time

2
2S j

Known

## Need a function relating

S j 1

Q j 1 Q j

2S
Q, and Q
t
Storage-outflow function

Qj

## (I1 + I0) t (O1 + O0) t = S1 S0 F.D.

(I1 + I0) (O1 + O0) = 2(S1 S0)/ t = 2S1/t 2S0/t
(I1 + I0) + 2S0/t - O0 = 2S1/t + O1

Generally
In + In+1 + (Sn/t On) = (2Sn+1/t + On+1)

(LHS)
(RHS)
Sn+1, On+1 are unknown

## Storage indication curve: (2S/t + O) against O

(2S/t + O)
O
Storage Indication Curve

Storage-outflow
Relationship
For
A
Reservoir
Before LHS can be derived, the

## relationship between O and S has to

be derived first.
H-S(elevation storage) can be
derived using the following
equation:

S Ai 1 Ai 2 * dh

## Total storage volumes S, under a

contour line i is the total of all
storage volume under i level:

Si 1 Si S
dh
Si 1 Si ( Ai 1 Ai )
2

## By knowing the hydraulic structure,

therefore the H-O relationship can
be derived.

## Reservoir contour and surface water

Area as well as reservoir storage volume
relationship

Ex. 8.2.1
Given I(t)

Given Q/H
Elevation H Discharge Q
(ft)
(cfs)
0
0
0.5
3
1
8
1.5
17
2
30
2.5
43
3
60
3.5
78
4
97
4.5
117
5
137
5.5
156
6
173
6.5
190
7
205
7.5
218
8
231
8.5
242
9
253
9.5
264
10
275

5ft
22

## Ex. 8.2.1 Step 1

Develop Q versus Q+ 2S/t relationship using Q/H relationship
Elevation H Discharge Q Storage S 2S/ t + Q
3
(ft )
(ft)
(cfs)
(cfs)
0
0
0
0
0.5
3
21780
75.6
1
8
43560
153.2
1.5
17
65340
234.8
2
30
87120
320.4
2.5
43
108900
406
3
60
130680
495.6
3.5
78
152460
586.2
4
97
174240
677.8
4.5
117
196020
770.4
5
137
217800
863
5.5
156
239580
954.6
6
173
261360
1044.2
6.5
190
283140
1133.8
7
205
304920
1221.4
7.5
218
326700
1307
8
231
348480
1392.6
8.5
242
370260
1476.2
9
253
392040
1559.8
9.5
264
413820
1643.4
10
275
435600
1727

## S Area Height 43560 0.5 21,780 ft 3

2S
2 21780
Q
3 75.6 cfs
t
10 60

23

Step 2
Compute Q+ 2S/t using

2 S j 1
t

Q j 1 I j 1 I j

2S j
t

Qj

## At time interval =1 (j=1), I1 = 0, and therefore Q1 = 0 as the reservoir is empty

Write the continuity equation for the first time step, which can be
used to compute Q2

2S 2

2S1

Q2 I 2 I1
Q1

2S 2

2 S1

Q2 I 2 I1
Q1 0 60 60

24

Step 3
Use the relationship between 2S/t + Q versus Q to
compute Q
2S 2

Q2 60

## Use the Table/graph created in Step 1 to compute Q

What is the value of Q if 2S/t + Q =
60 ?
(3 0)
Q 0
(60 0) 2.4 cfs
(76 0)
So Q2 is 2.4 cfs
Repeat steps 2 and 3 for j=2, 3, 4 to
compute Q3, Q4, Q5..

25

3
(ft )
(ft)
(cfs)
(cfs)
0
0
0
0
0.5
3
21780
75.6
1
8
43560
153.2
1.5
17
65340
234.8
2
30
87120
320.4
2.5
43
108900
406
3
60
130680
495.6
3.5
78
152460
586.2
4
97
174240
677.8
4.5
117
196020
770.4
5
137
217800
863
5.5
156
239580
954.6
6
173
261360
1044.2
6.5
190
283140
1133.8
7
205
304920
1221.4
7.5
218
326700
1307
8
231
348480
1392.6
8.5
242
370260
1476.2
9
253
392040
1559.8
9.5
264
413820
1643.4
10
275
435600
1727

2S j
t

26

Qj

2 S j 1

2S j
t

Q j 2Q j

Q j 1 I j 1 I j

2S j
t

Qj

400
350

Inflow

## Peak outflow intersects with the

receding limb of the inflow hydrograph

Discharge (cfs)

300
250
200
150

Outflow

100
50
0
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

TIme (minutes)

27

140

160

180

200

220

Q/H relationships

28

River/Stream Routing

## Different from reservoir routing

because it involves 2 variable, O and
S.
In the form of
dScontinuity equation:

dt

I O

## In the form of finite difference:

I1 I 2 O1 O2 S 2 S1
2

dt

dt=routing period
1,2=start and finish

## Hydrologic river routing

(Muskingum Method)

## Wedge storage in reach

S Prism KQ
S Wedge KX ( I Q )

Advancing
Flood
Wave
I>Q

## K = travel time of peak through

the reach
X = weight on inflow versus
outflow (0 X 0.5)
X = 0 Reservoir, storage
depends on outflow, no wedge Receding
X = 0.0 - 0.3 Natural stream Flood

S KQ KX ( I Q)

S K [ XI (1 X )Q]

I Q
Q

Q
QI

Wave
Q>I

## Muskingum Method (Cont.)

S K [ XI (1 X )Q]

S j 1 S j K {[ XI j 1 (1 X )Q j 1 ] [ XI j (1 X )Q j ]}
Recall:

S j 1 S j

I j 1 I j

Combine:
Q j 1 C1I j 1 C 2 I j C3Q j

Q j 1 Q j
2

t 2 KX
2 K (1 X ) t
t 2 KX
C2
2 K (1 X ) t
2 K (1 X ) t
C3
2 K (1 X ) t
C1

above equations

Muskingum Method

## Solution method of prism and

wedge storage concept by using the
continuity equation.
Water storage can be defined as :

b xl

m/n

1 x O
m/n
a

m/n

## Assumes that m/n=1 and b/a=K to

form a linear relation:

S K * O Kx( I O)

S and O ratio

## The whole total river storage, S =

storage on prism + storage on wedge.
S = K [xl + (1 x) O] Muskingum Formula
If x = 0, S = f(O)
If x = 0.5, I = O

## River Routing Concept

Solution Of Simplified
Muskingum Method
S = K [x I + (1 x) O]

Formula Muskingum

## Muskingum Continuity Equation,

S2 S1 = K [x (I2 I1) + (1 x)(O2 O1)]
1,2
= routing period
I, O, S = current value

(a)

## For t period, finite difference equation to equation (a) is:

S2 S1 = x (I2 + I1) t (O2 + O1) t

(b)

## Equation (a) = (b)

O2 (- t K + Kx) = I1 (-Kx t) + I2 (Kx - t) + O1 (-K + Kx + t)
Or
O2 = c 1 I 2 + c 2 I 1 + c 3 O 1

(c)

Where;
c1 =

__0.5 t Kx__
K Kx + 0.5 t

c2 =

__0.5 t + Kx__
K Kx + 0.5 t

c3 =

-0.5 t + K Kx
K Kx + 0.5 t

c1 + c2 + c3

=1
t [(I2 + I1) (O2 + O1)]

=
x (I2 I1) + (1 x)(O2 O1)

Muskingum - Example

Given:

Inflow hydrograph
K = 2.3 hr, X = 0.15, t =
1 hour, Initial Q = 85 cfs

Find:

## Outflow hydrograph using

Muskingum routing
method

t 2 KX
1 2 * 2.3 * 0.15

0.0631
2 K (1 X ) t 2 * 2.3(1 0.15) 1
t 2 KX
1 2 * 2.3 * 0.15
C2

0.3442
2 K (1 X ) t 2 * 2.3(1 0.15) 1
2 K (1 X ) t 2 * 2.3 * (1 0.15) 1
C3

0.5927
2 K (1 X ) t
2 * 2.3(1 0.15) 1
C1

## Muskingum Example (Cont.)

Q j 1 C1I j 1 C2 I j C3Q j
C1 = 0.0631, C2 = 0.3442,
C3 = 0.5927
800
700

Discharge (cfs)

600
500
400
300
200
100
0
1

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Time (hr)