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Chapter2

DatabaseEnvironment

Pearson Education 2015

Chapter2Objectives
Purposeofthreeleveldatabasearchitecture.
Contentsofexternal,conceptual,andinternallevels.
Purposeofexternal/conceptualand
conceptual/internalmappings.
Meaningoflogicalandphysicaldataindependence.
DistinctionbetweenDDLandDML.
Aclassificationofdatamodels.

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Chapter2Objectives
Purpose/importanceofconceptualmodeling.
TypicalfunctionsandservicesaDBMS
shouldprovide.
Functionandimportanceofsystemcatalog.
SoftwarecomponentsofaDBMS.
Meaningofclientserverarchitectureand
advantagesofthistypeofarchitecturefora
DBMS.
FunctionandusesofTransactionProcessing
Monitors.
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ObjectivesofThreeLevel
Architecture
Allusersshouldbeabletoaccesssame
data.
Ausersviewisimmunetochangesmade
inotherviews.
Usersshouldnotneedtoknowphysical
databasestoragedetails.
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ObjectivesofThreeLevel
Architecture
DBAshouldbeabletochangedatabase
storagestructureswithoutaffectingthe
usersviews.

Internalstructureofdatabaseshouldbe
unaffectedbychangestophysicalaspects
ofstorage.
DBAshouldbeabletochangeconceptual
structureofdatabasewithoutaffectingall
users.
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ANSISPARCThreeLevel
Architecture

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ANSISPARCThreeLevel
Architecture
ExternalLevel

Usersviewofthedatabase.
Describesthatpartofdatabasethatis
relevanttoaparticularuser.

ConceptualLevel
Communityviewofthedatabase.
Describeswhatdataisstoredindatabase
andrelationshipsamongthedata.

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ANSISPARCThreeLevel
Architecture
InternalLevel
Physicalrepresentationofthedatabaseon
thecomputer.
Describeshowthedataisstoredinthe
database.

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DifferencesbetweenThree
LevelsofANSISPARC
Architecture

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DataIndependence
LogicalDataIndependence
Referstoimmunityofexternalschemasto
changesinconceptualschema.
Conceptualschemachanges(e.g.
addition/removalofentities).
Shouldnotrequirechangestoexternal
schemaorrewritesofapplicationprograms.

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DataIndependence
PhysicalDataIndependence
Referstoimmunityofconceptualschemato
changesintheinternalschema.
Internalschemachanges(e.g.usingdifferent
fileorganizations,storagestructures/devices).
Shouldnotrequirechangetoconceptualor
externalschemas.

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DataIndependenceandthe
ANSISPARCThreeLevel
Architecture

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DatabaseLanguages
DataDefinitionLanguage(DDL)
AllowstheDBAorusertodescribeand
nameentities,attributes,andrelationships
requiredfortheapplication
plusanyassociatedintegrityandsecurity
constraints.

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DatabaseLanguages
DataManipulationLanguage(DML)
Providesbasicdatamanipulationoperations
ondataheldinthedatabase.

ProceduralDML
allowsusertotellsystemexactlyhowto
manipulatedata.

NonProceduralDML
allowsusertostatewhatdataisneeded
ratherthanhowitistoberetrieved.

FourthGenerationLanguages(4GLs)
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DataModel
Integratedcollectionofconceptsfor
describingdata,relationshipsbetween
data,andconstraintsonthedatainan
organization.
DataModelcomprises:
astructuralpart;
amanipulativepart;
possiblyasetofintegrityrules.
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DataModel
Purpose
Torepresentdatainanunderstandableway.

Categoriesofdatamodelsinclude:
Objectbased
Recordbased
Physical.

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DataModels
ObjectBasedDataModels
EntityRelationship
Semantic
Functional
ObjectOriented.

RecordBasedDataModels
RelationalDataModel
NetworkDataModel
HierarchicalDataModel.

PhysicalDataModels
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RelationalDataModel

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NetworkDataModel

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HierarchicalDataModel

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ConceptualModeling
Conceptualschemaisthecoreofasystem
supportingalluserviews.
Shouldbecompleteandaccurate
representationofanorganizationsdata
requirements.
Conceptualmodelingisprocessof
developingamodelofinformationusethat
isindependentofimplementationdetails.
Resultisaconceptualdatamodel.
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FunctionsofaDBMS
DataStorage,Retrieval,andUpdate.
AUserAccessibleCatalog.
TransactionSupport.
ConcurrencyControlServices.
RecoveryServices.
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FunctionsofaDBMS
AuthorizationServices.
SupportforDataCommunication.
IntegrityServices.
ServicestoPromoteDataIndependence.
UtilityServices.
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SystemCatalog
Repositoryofinformation(metadata)
describingthedatainthedatabase.
Oneofthefundamentalcomponentsof
DBMS.
Typicallystores:
names,types,andsizesofdataitems;
constraintsonthedata;
namesofauthorizedusers;
dataitemsaccessiblebyauserandthetypeof
access;
usagestatistics.
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ComponentsofaDBMS

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ComponentsofDatabase
Manager

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MultiUser
Architectures

DBMS

Teleprocessing
Fileserver
Clientserver

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Teleprocessing
Traditionalarchitecture.
Singlemainframewithanumberof
terminalsattached.
Trendisnowtowardsdownsizing.

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FileServer
Fileserverisconnectedtoseveral
workstationsacrossanetwork.
Databaseresidesonfileserver.
DBMSandapplicationsrunoneach
workstation.
Disadvantagesinclude:

Significantnetworktraffic.
CopyofDBMSoneachworkstation.
Concurrency,recoveryandintegritycontrolmore
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FileServerArchitecture

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TraditionalTwoTierClientServer
Client(tier1)managesuserinterfaceand
runsapplications.
Server(tier2)holdsdatabaseandDBMS.
Advantagesinclude:

wideraccesstoexistingdatabases;
increasedperformance;
possiblereductioninhardwarecosts;
reductionincommunicationcosts;
increasedconsistency.
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TraditionalTwoTierClient
Server

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Traditional TwoTier Client


Server

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ThreeTierClientServer
Client
side
presented
problems
preventing
scalability:

two
true

Fat client, requiring considerable


resources on clients computer to run
effectively.
Significant client side administration
overhead.

By 1995, three layers proposed,


each potentially running on a
different platform.
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ThreeTierClientServer
Advantages:
Thin client, requiring less expensive
hardware.
Application maintenance centralized.
Easier to modify or replace one tier
without affecting others.
Separating
business
logic
from
database functions makes it easier to
implement load balancing.
Maps
quite
naturally
to
Web
environment.

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ThreeTierClientServer

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TransactionProcessing
Monitors

Programthatcontrolsdatatransfer
betweenclientsandserversinorderto
provideaconsistentenvironment,
particularlyforOnlineTransaction
Processing(OLTP).

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TPMasmiddletierof3tierclient
server

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