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K3 FAKTOR FISIKA DI

TEMPAT KERJA
Waluyo, PG Dip Sc (OHS), MSi
Kepala Seksi Pelayanan Teknis pada Balai
Keselamatan dan Kesehatan Kerja Bandung

Training of Trainer (TOT) K3 BAGI Instruktur Balai Latihan
Kerja Industri
Bandung, 21 – 27 September 2014

Tujuan;
• Umum
– Peserta dapat menjelaskan penerapan K3
lingkungan kerja (higiene industri,
khususnya K3 faktor fisik di tempat kerja
berikut contoh dan peralatan ujinya.
• Khusus
– Peserta dapat menjelaskan ruang lingkup
higiene industri faktor fisika di tempat kerja
– Peserta dapat menjelaskan faktor fisika di
tempat kerja dan contohnya
– Peserta dapat mengenal peralatan uji
faktor fisika

Ruang Lingkup
• Pengertian, ruang lingkup dan konsep HI di
tempat kerja
• Pengertian faktor fisika di tempat kerja
• Identifikasi faktor fisika sebagai faktor risiko
bahaya kerja di lingkungan kerja
• Pengaruh utama faktor fisika terhadap
kesehatan
• Nilai Ambang Batas Faktor Fisika di Tempat
Kerja
• Pengendalian faktor fisika di tempat kerja

Pengertian
• Higiene Industri adalah ilmu dan seni
beserta penerapannya dalam
mengenali, menilai dan
mengendalikan faktor bahaya di
tempat kerja yang dapat
menyebabkan gangguan terhadap
kesehatan tenaga kerja atau
penyakit akibat kerja

• Suma’mur. HI adalah spesialisasi dalam ilmu higiene beserta prakteknya yang melakukan penilaian pada faktor penyebab penyakit secara kualitatif dan kuantitatif di lingkungan kerja perusahaan. hasilnya digunakan sebagai dasar tindakan korektif pada lingkungan kerja serta pencegahan agar tenaga kerja dan masyarakat terhindar dari bahaya akibat kerja. mengecap derajat kesehatan yang setinggi tingginya .

pengambilan sampel dan analisis laboratorium – mengetahui kondisi lingkungan kerja secara kuantitatif • Pengendalian – Metode teknik untuk menurunkan atau mereduksi tingkat faktor bahaya lingkungan kerja sampai batas aman . observasi – mengetahui potensi bahaya secara kualitatif • Penilaian – pengukuran.Konsep HI • Pengenalan – identifikasi (walk trough survey).

Faktor Fisika di Tempat Kerja • • • • • Kebisingan Getaran Iklim Kerja Panas Pencahayaan Radiasi .

Karakteristik Utama ?
• Tidak bisa dilihat (kita tidak bisa melihat)
• Tidak bisa disentuh (kita tidak bisa
menyentuh)
• Kita bisa merasakannya dengan organ
saraf sensori (kecuali radiasi)
• Kita bisa mengukurnya di lingkungan/
lingkungan kerja
• Kita tidak bisa mengukur keberadaanya
dalam tubuh kita (kecuali radiasi)

Dampak faktor fisika ?
Tenaga Kerja
- Penyakit Akibat Kerja
- Penyakit yang
berhubungan dengan
Pekerjaaan
- kecelakaan di tempat
kerja

Tempat Kerja
-hilangnya waktu kerja
/ hari tidak mampu
bekerja
- Pekerja baru
- Asuransi risiko

Bagaimana perlindungan
TK?

Tenag
a
Kerja
I. Kurangi Faktor
Fisika di Tempat
Kerja di
sumbernya
Misal:
- isolasi
- Ganti peralatan

Bagaimana perlindungan
TK?

Tenag
a
Kerja
II. Mengurangi
waktu paparan
Menambah
jarak

individual equipment protection . At the Worker Level E.g.: .isolation (special cabin) .Bagaimana perlindungan TK? Tenag a Kerja III.

Peran Ahli K3? .

kadang kadang mengganggu kenyamanan dan komunikasi – Suara yang mengganggu • Persepsi terhadap bising sangat tergantung pada pendengar dan situasinya (mis: musik rock sangat menyenangkan bagi seseorang namun sangat mengganggu bagi suasana kerja di ruang bedah) .Kebisingan • Apakah Kebisingan ? – Bunyi yang tidak dikehendaki atau dikehendaki yang menyebabkan sensasi dengar yang tidak mengenakkan.

etc.Kebisingan di tempat kerja ? • a complex of sounds. the human voice. devices. of variable intensities and pitches. means of transportation. tools. having different characteristics. during the performance of the professional activity . rhythmic or rhythmless. produced continuously or discontinuously by machines.

Characteristics of sounds .

• In the European countries the maximum admitted values (Leq .weekly equivalent acoustic level) at the workplace with normal neural-sensorial solicitation are between 85 and 90 dB (A).What is the Threshold Limit Value? • The Threshold Limit Value (TLV) depends on the work specificity (International Standard. • This directive is to be transposed into the national legislation of all Member States. ISO 1999-1990). • The Law establishing this is the Directive 2003/10/EC of the European Parliament and of the European Council. .

.

What are the Health Effects? File2694.ASF .

metabolic changes) • behavioural effects .What are the Health Effects? Auditory Acute : • tinnitus • acoustic trauma Chronic: • hypoaccousia • Noise Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL) Non-auditory • sleep disturbances • general effects (cardiovascular.

The audiogram - records both ways of sound transmission: air and bone conduction Normal audiogram .

NIHL .

Gentamycin. toluene. Medication: antioxidants. vitamins 3. Kanamycin etc) 2. Hearing aids in severe cases . Ceasing the exposure to noise and other toxic substances (Hg.Treatment 1. SC2.

How can we protect from noise? Technical and organizational measures Worke r I.change the device II.g.isolation .isolation (special cabin) . At the worker level E. Reduces the N at the source E.: .g.individual equipment protection (ear plugs or ear muffs) .: . Reduce exposure time Increase the distance III.

How can you protect from noise? Medical measurements • Pre-employment examination • Periodical examinations – Audiometric testing • Risk assessment • Risk management .

landslides.industry (used in detecting defects. cleaning of pieces etc) • medicine (ultrasounds. pests • etc – geological (earthquakes. tornadoes) artificial sources: – industrial machines – ventilation systems. dental scaling.Ultrasounds and infrasound Ultrasounds > 20000 Hz = inaudible Where to be found? (workplaces) • Infrasound 1-20 Hz = inaudible Where to be found? (workplaces) • natural sources: . avalanches) or – meteorological events (storms. air conditioning – aircraft – rail traffic . therapy) • devices against thieves.

sleepiness during day time. increased number of eosinophiles Infrasound Acute exposure: • to intensities high enough to be heard. it can determine a decrease in vigilance Chronic exposure: • to normal levels present in the environment. fatigue at the end of the day. increase of the central and skin temperatures. there is not enough evidence . hyperglycemia. the feeling of pressure inside the ear. walking disturbances.What are the health effects of ultrasounds and infrasound? Ultrasounds Acute effects: 18-30 kHz • headache. numbness. Chronic effects: • vascular disturbances. and sensitivity disturbances.

How do we protect from ultrasounds and infrasound? • By respecting the technical prophylactic measurements concerning noise exposure • In case of ultrasounds. wearing rubber cotton gloves may be of help .

.Vibration • Vibrations are the mechanical oscillations of an object reported to an equilibrium point. There are two situations: – the hand-arm vibration exposure. when a worker operates hand-held equipment such as a chain saw or jackhammer. when a worker sits on a vibrating seat or stands on a vibrating floor. the vibrations exposure affect almost the entire body. the vibrations affect the hands and the arms. – the whole body vibration exposure. • Vibrations enter the body through the organ in contact with the vibrating equipment.

com/content/3/1 /13 • Legal framework: European Directive 2002/44/ CE   .How do you measure vibrations? • The measurement of vibrations is made with a special device similar to the sonometer and the established parameter according to legal standards is the acceleration • http://www.occup-med.

• Sources of vibrations: pneumatic tools. forestry work.What are the workplaces with vibrations? • Mining. . constructions. excavator. and bulldozer). chain saw and other vibrating tools. etc. car driving (tractor. helicopter.

vertebral column .circulatory system .structures of the hand-arm system Target organs: .organs of the abdominal cavity .What are the health effects? Hand-arm vibration exposure Whole body vibration exposure 20-500 HZ < 20 Hz Target organs: .bone-muscle-articulation .sensitive nerves of the hand .nervous system .blood vessels of the fingers .

especially back pain with disc or arthrosis modifications .1-2 HZ) Gastro-intestinal disorders: (4-8 Hz) Circulatory disorders: (4-8 Hz) Visual disorders: (5-20 Hz) Osteo-musculo-skeletal disorders: .Vibration – Induced White Finger (VWF) . alteration of the superficial thermal pain sensitivity Osteo-musculo-skeletal disorders: -cysts at the carpal bones -Osteoarthritis of the metacarpaltrapeze bone articulation -Kienbock disease (aseptic necrosis of the semilunar bone) Motion sickness: (0.Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Neurological changes: .What are the health effects? Hand-arm Whole body vibration exposure vibration exposure Vascular changes: . tactile sensitivity decrease.Hand – Arm Vibration Syndrome (HAVS) .night numbness.

Laboratory investigations Hand-arm vibration Whole body exposure vibration exposure Cold provocation test Vascular Doppler test Infrared thermograph test Vibration perception test Other investigations: .Biological Bone X ray (lumbar vertebral column) RMN Biological investigations Gastric examination Renal examination .Bone X –ray .

Treatment • Cessation to vibrations exposure • Symptomatic treatment Medical prevention • Pre-employment examination • Periodical medical examination • Increased caution for people with cardiovascular diseases and musculo-skeletal disorders .

g.: .g.: .individual protection equipment (special gloves) .Design an ergonomic tool to attenuate the V .How can we protect from vibrations? Technical and organizational measures Worke r I.Change the II. Reduce exposure time Avoid exposure to cold Vibration damping system III. At the worker level E. Reduce the V at the source E.

Radiation What do we know about radiation? • Radiation is a complex process through which the energy emitted by a source is transmitted through different media and then absorbed by a support. . • According to the ionizing capacity of the matter. we have ionizing and non-ionizing radiation.

Visible Light Enough energy to produce ionization .

Alpha particles .Gamma rays Corpuscular : .Neutrons Non-ionizing radiation Electromagnetic fields Infrared (IR) Ultraviolet (UV) Visual radiation (V) Laser Microwave .Classification according to the ionizing capacity of the matter Ionizing radiation Electromagnetic: .Beta particles .X rays .

Characteristics of radiation Source Energy deposit Transport The first interaction .

The equivalent dose takes into consideration the radiation type.HT where wT.measured in Sievert (Sv). Effective dose (E) E =  T wT.the amount of energy absorbed per unit weight of the organ or tissue.Absorbed dose in Gy multiplied by a weighing radiation factor (WR) which expresses the biological effectiveness of radiation. because the equal doses of all types of ionizing radiation are not equally harmful.Ionizing radiation How can we measure radiation? The radiation dose is the most important measure from the medical point of view.= weighing tissue/organ factor and HT = equivalent dose in tissue/organ . The radiation dose can be expressed as: • Absorbed dose (D) . . • Equivalent dose (H) .measured in Gray (Gy). .

What are the limits of exposure to radiation? • The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) published by the ACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists) are: – 20 mSv . there are specific standards . • Legal framework: for each type of radiation.average annual dose for radiation workers.International Commission on Radiological Protection) • The risk of radiation-induced diseases depends on the total radiation dose that a person receives over the time. over an average of five years – 1 mSv .annual dose limit recommended for general public (ICRP .

occupational. Workplaces: the medical sector (X-ray examinations ~ 1mSv/year. and from other sources such as: industrial. • artificial (15%): medical. . industry (industrial X-ray examination.Where we can find ionizing radiation? Sources of radiation: • natural (85%): cosmic. manufacturing of luminescent products). the cosmic radiation during plane flights). nuclear medicine ~ 1-2mSv/year). Fukushima). the natural radioactivity of the earth. research (operating accelerators ~ 4-5mSv/year). vegetation. the natural radioactivity of the air (Radon). nuclear industry. nuclear accident (Chernobyl. nuclear research. and food. radioisotopes production. natural sources (Radon in the uranium mining activity. the natural radioactivity of the water.

What are the Health Effects? .

Radiosensitivity (RS) High RS Medium RS Low RS Bone marrow Spleen Thymus Lymphatic nodules Gonads Crystalline Lymphocytes Skin Mezodermic tissue of organs (e.g. heart. liver. lung etc) Muscles Bones Nervous system .

Clinical Aspects ACUTE CHRONIC GENERAL • Radiation Acute Syndrome (RAS) GENERAL • Chronic radiation disease LOCAL • Acute radio dermatitis • Eye impact • Infertility LOCAL • Chronic radio dermatitis • Skin cancer .

. isolate and monitor them • Proper protection of the personnel involved in the rescue and in the research !!! • Reconstruct the accident through physical and biological measurements and clinical data • Symptomatic treatment (antivomitives. sedative drugs.Treatment In case of over-exposure: • Identify the affected people. etc) In local exposure the prognosis is better. select.

How can we protect from ionizing radiation ? • • • • • • Technical and organizational measures Increase the distance from the source Reduce exposure time Protect exposed people Fundamental concepts of radioprotection: Justification Optimization Dosage limitation .

ophthalmological examination .How can we protect from ionizing radiation ? Medical measures .psychological test .nucleoli test .blood count !!! .

wavelength – λ (m) . ultraviolet (UV).Non-ionizing radiation • Non-ionizing radiation: electromagnetic fields. laser. infrared. microwave • How do we measure non-ionizing radiation? Measure unit: frequency – Hz (cycle/second). visual radiation.

plastics. drying. laser with UV. etc Microwave radiation and radiofrequency wave Source: in radio communications. etc Artificial: Artificial: any electric lamp.Non-ionizing radiation Source Ultraviolet Visible Infrared Natural: sunlight Natural: sunlight Natural: sunlight Artificial: welding activities. degrees video absolute terminals. incandescent metals. in . hardening of metal. in medicine (diathermy) Very low frequency radiation (<200Hz. higher than 0 flashes. especially 50-60 Hz) include the frequencies used for the high voltage electric lines and the domestic electric lines Laser (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) Source: cutting of metals. food sterilization. object with lamps with temperature high intensity. in communications. cutting with plasma. industry (heating). display screen. laser. lamp with Hg vapours.

. Research has focused on possible carcinogenic. brain.thermal effect . and neurological effects. and photoallergic) • Main affected organs: .skin • Clinical effects of exposure to very low frequency are very controversial. Other suggested health effects include cardiovascular. phototoxic. behaviour.eyes (Laser exposure) . reproductive.non-thermal effect (genetic. hormonal and immune system changes.Non-ionizing radiation What are the Health Effects? • Two types: .

Non-ionizing radiation Treatment: • Restriction or cessation to the exposure • Specific treatment of the eye and skin lesions .

Non-ionizing radiation How can we protect from nonionizing radiation? • Medical measures People having mechanical or cardiac implants are not allowed on/ around electromagnetic fields !!! • We can not employ people with: – eye conditions – central nervous system condition – cardio-vascular condition – skin diseases .

Reduce exposure time Increase source distance Use protective shields III. special eye protection) . At the worker level E.: .g.protection cream .individual protection equipment (proper clothing.How can we protect from non-ionizing radiation? Technical and organizational measures Worke r II.

• Light or visible light is electromagnetic radiation that is visible to the human eye. . and is responsible for the sense of sight. the colour and the perspective of the objects that surround us.Lighting • What do you know about lighting? • Light is a key element for our capacity to see and it is necessary to appreciate the form.

• Good lighting implies: – uniform illumination – optimal luminance – no glare – adequate contrast conditions and use of correct colours as detail and background – absence of stroboscopic effect or intermittent light .

• Legal framework: according to the European legislation • A good lighting level is necessary to be sufficient (at least equal with the specific values) . • The measuring unit for lighting is “lux” (luminance) i. on a surface exposed to incident light.How do we measure lighting? • The device for measuring lighting is the lux meter. the luminous flux per unit area at any point.e.

1% ultraviolet visible radiation. • Workplaces: agriculture.e. sailing activities. mixed lighting (i. 59% infrared visible radiation. high-pressure sodium or mercury lamp. foundries.• What are the sources and workplaces? Sources: natural: the sunlight. • The sunlight is composed of: 40% visible radiation. . watchmaker. natural and artificial). artificial: lighting by incandescence. inside activities with visual solicitation (jeweler. low-pressure sodium or tungsten lamp. etc). office work. fluorescence. constructions. • Professions: workers in outdoor activities in summer and winter.

tearing.What are the Health Effects? Poor lighting may affect the workers' Health • Visual trouble (visual fatigue. and other visual problems) • Fatigue • Headache • Musculoskeletal disorders Performance • Errors • Accidents .

ophthalmologic eyewash. vitamins. fine.type of light .physiotherapy .antioxidants Against MSD: .g. very fine. computer work) Worker Against visual disorders: .Treatment Workplace Solving the technical problems of inadequate lighting: .distances .swimming NSAID It is recommended -to use natural .vitamins .organization of work . protection or correction glasses Against fatigue: .position .10 minutes breaks every 1 hour (e.

How can we prevent the effects of poor lighting? Technical measures • For good lighting it is necessary to have an ergonomic organization of the workplace and to take into consideration: – the precision required for the performed tasks – the amount of work – the mobility of the worker – the characteristics of the workplace (windows. type of lighting and the season) .

How can we prevent the effects of poor lighting? Medical measures • Monitoring the visual capacity of employees before employment and after that. . through periodical examination (usually. a screening examination per year).

temperature (dry) - relative humidity air current speed surface temperature caloric radiation • Very cold and very hot temperatures could be dangerous to health. .Microclimate (cold and warm climate) • The microclimate is characterized by: .

Temperature action and worker reaction Worker • Proper insulation (protective clothing) • Physical activity • Controlled exposure to cold or warm .

How do we measure temperature? • Measuring device: globe thermometer • Measuring unit: temperature in degrees Celsius or Fahrenheit • Legal framework: according to the European legislation .

transport workers. etc. construction workers.Cold exposure • What are the workers exposed to cold? Outside: road builders. fishermen. meat packaging and meat storage workers. police officers. bus and truck drivers. . emergency response workers. hunters and trappers. fire fighters. etc Inside: workers in refrigerated warehouses. military personnel.

What are the Health Effects to cold exposure? Heat production + Heat retention • Local effects: FROSTBITE • General effects: HYPOTHERMIA .

Treatment EMERGEN CIES FIRSTAID AID FIRST INCREASE THE BODY TEMPERATURE GRADUALLY !!! .

How can we prevent frostbite and hypothermia? Technical measures Worker Insulate d Cabine • Proper insulation (protective clothing) • Proper resting periods in a warm area • Balanced meals and .

sinusitis nephropathy .How can we prevent frostbite and hypothermia? Medical measures: • pre-employment • periodical medical examinations • People presenting the following conditions are not allowed to work in cold environments: • • • • cardiovascular diseases Reynaud’s syndrome otitis.

Heat environment • What are the workplaces with warm/hot exposure? Outdoor occupations. . steel mills. and furnaces . high humidity adds to the heat burden. Inside occupations. open-pit mining and agriculture summer sunshine being the main source of heat. smelters. restaurant kitchens. such as: foundries. glass factories. road repairing. bakeries.extremely hot or molten material being the main source of heat. and canneries. such as: constructions. in laundries.

. compared to a nonacclimatized person in the same conditions. the central temperature decreases with up to 1 degree Celsius and the cardiac frequency decreases with 10-14 beats/minute. but some individuals may need longer. • When a person gets acclimatized. • Complete heat acclimatization generally takes 6 to 7 days. • This is a consequence of the increased sweating process and a good vaso-motor control.Heat environment • What is acclimatization? • The temporary adaptation of the body to work in heat conditions and to which a person is exposed over time.

How does warmth act? What are the Health Effects? Warm environmen t Body heat (generated by working) Clothing requiremen ts Heat stress Heat Heat Heat Heat Heat Heat oedema rashes cramps exhaustion syncope stroke and .

Treatment • Removal from the heated environment • Resting in a cool area • ± consumption of cool salted drinks • Heat stroke and hyperpyrexia require immediate first aid and medical survey !!! .

Protection clothing Eyes protection .How can we protect from heat exposure? Technical and organizational measures Worke r I. Reduces the radiant from hot surfaces Insulation of hot surfaces II. Reduce exposure time Increase the distance Shielding Ventilation Reducing the humidity III.

• People with cardiovascular diseases are not allowed to work in heat conditions.How can we protect from heat exposure? Medical measures: • Acclimatization !!! • a decrease in heat tolerance occurs even after a long weekend. . the new employees should acclimatize before assuming a full workload. • Also. This is the reason for which it is often not advisable for anyone to work under very hot conditions on the first day of the week.

Air pressure • The activities performed in conditions of abnormal pressure are grouped into two categories: • activities performed in hyperbarism (atmosphere compression or decompression) • activities performed in hypobarism (pressure below that of the ground level atmospheric pressure) .

scuba divers (the pressure exceeds with at least 0.underwater activities .pilots .lift workers .Air pressure What are the Workplaces and Workers ? Hyperbarism .workers in store-rooms with modern fire protection systems where the oxygen content of the air is reduced to 13 % .1 atmospheres the normal value) Hypobarism .

Air pressure What are the Health Effects and Treatment? Treatment : acute forms are medical emergencies and require Oxygen administration and modifying the .

Treatment: returning to the level of the ground.Air pressure What are the Health Effects and Treatment? The effects that occur depend on: how quick the transfer from normal pressure to decreased pressure is. how trained the person is and whether he adapts to the pressure. specific treatment according to the condition .

by pressurizing the planes good .by reducing the work time ~ deep .How can we prevent the effects of exposure to hyperbarism and hypobarism? Hyperbarism Hypobarism Technical measures: Technical measures: .by assuring good quality and .availability of a special room for relaxing and clothing Medical measures: Medical measures: .by climbing in stages temperature of compressed air .by respecting the decompression protocol .