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DYNAMICS

20103)

( BDA
LECTURE 1

Chapter 1:
KINEMATICS OF
PARTICLES
1.1 Rectilinear motion

CHAPTER OVERVIEW

Todays Objectives:
Students will be able to:
1. Find the kinematic quantities (position, displacement, velocity, and
acceleration) of a particle traveling along a straight path.

An Overview of Mechanics
Mechanics: The study of how bodies
react to forces acting on them.

Statics: The study of


bodies in equilibrium.

Dynamics:
1. Kinematics concerned with
the geometric aspects of motion
2. Kinetics - concerned with
the forces causing the motion

Dynamics
Dynamics consists two distinct parts:
kinematics and kinetics.
Kinematics
deals with the study of motion witho
ut reference to the force which cause
motions
Kinetics
relate the action of forces on bodies
to their resulting motions

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Kinematics:

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Motion only

Kinetics:

Interaction force - motion

Force
Path of motion because of the
force
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Particle and rigid body


A particle is a point mass. This means the mass
is concentrated at a single point and the particle
has neither dimensions (height, width, etc) nor
orientation (angular position)
Under certain conditions a physical body can be
modeled as a particle; for example,
a.when considering translation of a body, or
b. when all forces acting on a body pass through
the centre of mass, or
c. when the dimensions of a body are very much
smaller than those of its path of motion
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When a body can be replaced by a particle

Replace by a particle (no rotation involved)

The body motion cannot be replaced by a particle


(rotation involved)

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Translation - Rotation

Translation

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Combination Translation
and Rotation

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Kinematic of a particle : Translation


straight, curve and circular paths

There is no
orientation of
the body
Straight
path

Curve path

Circular
path

Can be
simplified as
particle
Straight
path
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Curve path

Circular
path
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RECTILINEAR KINEMATICS: CONTINUOUS MOTION


(Section 12.2)
A particle travels along a straight-line path
defined by the coordinate axis s.
The position of the particle at any instant,
relative to the origin, O, is defined by the
position vector r, or the scalar s. Scalar s
can be positive or negative. Typical units
for r and s are meters (m) or feet (ft).
The displacement of the particle is defined
as its change in position.
Vector form: r = r - r

Scalar form: s = s - s

The total distance traveled by the particle, sT, is a positive scalar that
represents the total length of the path over which the particle travels.
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VELOCITY
Velocity is a measure of the rate of change in the position of a particle. It is a
vector quantity (it has both magnitude and direction). The magnitude of the
velocity is called speed, with units of m/s or ft/s.
The average velocity of a particle during a
time interval t is
vavg = r/t
The instantaneous velocity is the time-derivative of position.
v = dr/dt
Speed is the magnitude of velocity: v = ds/dt
Average speed is the total distance traveled divided by elapsed time:
(vsp)avg = sT/ t
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ACCELERATION
Acceleration is the rate of change in the velocity of a particle. It is a
vector quantity. Typical units are m/s2 or ft/s2.
The instantaneous acceleration is the time
derivative of velocity.
Vector form: a = dv/dt
Scalar form: a = dv/dt = d2s/dt2
Acceleration can be positive (speed
increasing) or negative (speed decreasing).

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Particle is slowing down, its speed is decreasing=>


decelerating=> v = v v will be negative.
Consequently, a will also be negative, therefore it will act to
the left, in the opposite sense to v
If velocity is constant, acceleration is zero

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SUMMARY OF KINEMATIC RELATIONS:


RECTILINEAR MOTION
Differentiate position to get velocity and acceleration.
v = ds/dt ;

a = dv/dt or

a = v dv/ds

Integrate acceleration for velocity and position.


Position:

Velocity:
v

vo

vo

so

dv a dt or v dv a ds

so

ds v dt

Note that so and vo represent the initial position and


velocity of the particle at t = 0.
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CONSTANT ACCELERATION
The three kinematic equations can be integrated for the special case
when acceleration is constant (a = ac) to obtain very useful
equations. A common example of constant acceleration is gravity;
i.e., a body freely falling toward earth. In this case, a c = g = 9.81
m/s2 = 32.2 ft/s2 downward. These equations are:
v

dv a dt

vo

ds v dt

so
v

vv at

yields

s s v t (1/2)a t 2

yields

v2 (vo )2 2a (s - s )

v dv a ds

vo

yields

so

Velocity as a
Function of Time

Position as a
Function of Time

Velocity as a
Function of Position
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EXAMPLE 12.1
The car moves in a straight line such that for a
short time its velocity is defined by v = (0.9t2 +
0.6t) m/s where t is in sec. Determine it position
and acceleration when t = 3s. When t = 0, s = 0.

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EXAMPLE 12.1
Solution:
Coordinate System. The position coordinate
extends from the fixed origin O to the car, positive
to the right.
Position. Since v = f(t), the cars position can
be determined from v = ds/dt, since this equation
relates v, s and t. Noting that s = 0 when t = 0, we
have
ds

0
.
9
t
0.6t

dt

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EXAMPLE 12.1

ds 0.9t 2 0.6t dt
t

s 0.3t 0.3t
s

s 0.3t 0.3t
3

t
0

When t = 3s,
s = 10.8m

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EXAMPLE 12.1
Acceleration.
Knowing v = f(t), the acceleration
is determined from a = dv/dt, since this equation
relates a, v and t.

dv d
a

0.9t 2 0.6t
dt dt
1.8t 0.6

When t = 3s,
a = 6m/s
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QUIZ.
1. The distance the particle travels is a vector quantity.
True
False
2. Some objects can be considered as particles provided motion of
the body is characterized by motion of its mass center and any
rotation of the body can be neglected.
True
False
3. If the acceleration is zero, the particle cannot move.
True
False
4. Kinematics is concerned with the forces that cause the motion.
True
False

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Rectilinear motion
at constant velocity
s

s0

t0

ds vdt

s s0 v (t t0 )
s s0 + v (t t0 )

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Velocity at constant acceleration


v

v0

t0

dv adt

v v 0 a t t0
v v0 + a t t0

v0

s0

v dv a ds

1 2
v v0 2 a s s0
2

v 2 v0 2 + 2a s s0
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Distance at constant acceleration


s

ds vdt

s0

t0

ds ( v

s0

+ a t t 0 )dt

t0

t0

t0

t0

t0

t0

s s0 v0 dt a t t0 dt
v0 dt a tdt at0 dt
1
s s0 v0 (t t0 ) a t 2 t0 2 at0 t t0
2

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Practical situation
Usually a particle start moving
when the time is set to 0 and
the distance goes from 0

v v 0 + a t t0

v v0 + a t
v 2 v0 2 + 2a s s0

v 2 v 0 2 + 2a s
0
0
1
2
2
s s0 v0 (t t0 ) a t t0 at0 t t0
2
0

t0 0 and s0 0

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at t and distance s

1
s v0 (t ) a t 2
2

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Problems
1) The displacement of a mechanical components
follows a rule path as a function of time. The
function dist (s) = 2t3 -24t + 6 meter
a) derive the velocity and acceleration function of
time
b) calculate the time to reach velocity of 72 m/s.
what is the corresponding acceleration at that time?
2) A car starts from rest and reaches a speed of 20m/s
after traveling 125m along a straight road.
Determine its constant acceleration and the time of
travel.

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See U again in.Lecture 2.

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