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BASIC

ACOUSTICS
SUWANDI
FACULTY OF SCIENCE

17/05/15

TEKNIK FISIKA

Akustik dasar

Kuantifikasi suara
Tekanan suara, level tekanan (skala dB)
Intensitas Suara, Daya Suara
Kombinasi sumber suara
Frekuensi Suara
Sumber suara sederhana
Direktivitas

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TEKNIK FISIKA

Kuantifikasi Suara
Menunjukkan
jumlah
pasti
yang
menggambarkan suara dan tingkat suara.
Izin yang tepat, analisis ilmiah dari suara yang
mengganggu (cara obyektif untuk perbandingan)
Membantu perkiraan Kerusakan perkiraan
pendengaran.
Alat diagnostik yang powerfull untuk program
pengurangan kebisingan: Bandara, Pabrik,
Rumah, studio Recording, Jalan, dll
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TEKNIK FISIKA

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TEKNIK FISIKA

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TEKNIK FISIKA

Daya / Intensitas / Tekanan


Intensitas dan tekanan diukur
menggunakan alat ukur
Daya dihitung
Daya adalah ukuran dasar dari energi
akustik yang dihasilkan dan tidak
bergantung lingkungan

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Daya / Intensitas / Tekanan


Tekanan suara:
evaluasi bahaya dan gangguan dari
sumber kebisingan

Intensitas Suara:
Jumlah daya per satuan luas

Daya Suara:
for noise rating of machines
unique descriptor of noisiness of
source

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Pengukuran intensitas suara juga dapat


memperkirakan tingkat sumber gangguan
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TEKNIK FISIKA

Sound Intensity
Laju rata-rata aliran
energi per satuan
luas

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Sound Intensity

Time averaged rate of


energy flow per unit
area
T

1
I p u dt
T 0
TEKNIK FISIKA

Hubungan daya
dan intensitas

W
2
I 2 W/m
4 r

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Steady background
noise is not a problem

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TEKNIK FISIKA

RANKING

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TEKNIK FISIKA

Sound Fields

ISO 3745

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TEKNIK FISIKA

Kuantifikasi Suara
Variabel-varibel Akustik: Tekanan dan Kecepatan Partikel
Root Mean Square Value (RMS) of Sound Pressure
Mean energy associated with sound waves is its
fundamental feature
energy is proportional to square of amplitude
1

2
p [ p (t )] dt
T 0

1
2

p 0.707 p
TEKNIK FISIKA

Range of RMS pressure fluctuations


that a human ear can detect extends
from
0.00002 N/m2 (Pascal)
(threshold of hearing)
to
20 N/m2 (Pascal)
(sensation of pain)
1,000,000 times larger

peak pressure of loudest


sound
is 3500 times smaller than
atm. pressure

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Very large range of


sound intensity which
the ear can
accommodate,
from the loudest
(1 watt/m2)
to the quietest
(10-12 watts/m2),

energy received from a 50 watt bulb


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TEKNIK FISIKA

Levels
A unit of a logarithmic scale of power or intensity
called the power level or intensity level.
The decibel is defined as one tenth of a bel
One bel represents a difference in level between two
intensities (one of the two is ten times greater than
the other)
Thus, the intensity level is the comparison of one
intensity to another and may be expressed:
Intensity level = 10 log10 (I1 /Iref) (dB)
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TEKNIK FISIKA

Why log ratio?


Logarithmic scale compresses the high amplitudes and expands
the low ones
The other reason: Equal relative modifications of the strength of a
physical stimulus lead to equal absolute changes in the salience
of the sensory events (Weber-Fechner Law) and can be
approximated by a logarithmic characteristics
(Ear responds logarithmically to stimulus)

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dB SCALE
Acoustic parameters are expressed as logarithmic ratio of the
measured value to a reference value
The Bel (B) is a unit of measurement invented by Bell Labs and
named after Alexander Graham Bell.
The Bel was too large, so the deciBel(dB), equal to 0.1 B,
became more commonly used as a unit for measuring sound
intensity
Power Ratio of 2 = dB of 3
Power Ratio of 10 = dB of 10
Power Ratio of 100 = dB of 20

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Sound Pressure Level


In linear vibroacoustics, time averaged power values are
proportional to the squared rms-amplitudes of the field variables
(e.g., pressure, particle velocity)
Thus to calculate logarithmic levels from the field variables, it is
these squared rms-amplitudes that must be used.

p12rms
SPL 10 Log10 2 dB
pref

p1rms
SPL 20 Log10
dB
pref

In acoustics, the reference pressure


Pref=2e-5 N/m2 or 20Pa (RMS)

loudest sound pressure that a

normal person can barely perceive at 1000Hz


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Sound Pressure Level


Corresponding to audio range of Sound Pressure
2e-5 N/m2

- 0 dB

20 N/m2

- 120 dB

Normal SPL encountered are between 35 dB to 90 dB

For underwater acoustics different reference pressure is used


Pref = 0.1 N/m2
It is customary to specify SPL as

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52dB re 20Pa

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TEKNIK FISIKA

Typical average decibel levels (dBA) of some common sounds.


Threshold of hearing

0 dB

Motorcycle (30 feet)

88 dB

Rustling leaves

20 dB

Foodblender (3 feet)

90 dB

Quiet whisper (3 feet)

30 dB

Subway (inside)

94 dB

Quiet home

40 dB

Diesel truck (30 feet)

100 dB

Quiet street

50 dB

Power mower (3 feet)

107 dB

Normal conversation

60 dB

Pneumatic riveter (3 feet)

115 dB

Inside car

70 dB

Chainsaw (3 feet)

117 dB

Loud singing (3 feet)

75 dB

Amplified Rock and Roll (6 feet)

120 dB

Automobile (25 feet)

80 dB

Jet plane (100 feet)

130 dB

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Sound Power
Intensity : Average Rate of energy transfer per unit area
W
I
4 r 2

W/m

Sound Power Level:

2
p
W 4 r 2 I 4 r 2
Watt
0c

W
SWL 10 log10
dB
Wref
Reference Power Wref =10-12 Watt

Peak Power output:


output
Female Voice 0.002W,
Male Voice 0.004W,
Soft whisper 10-9W, An average shout 0.001W Large
Orchestra 10-70W, Large Jet at Takeoff 100,000W
15,000,000 speakers speaking simultaneously generate 1HP
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Sound Intensity
1
I
T

P2
I
0c

p u dt
0

IL 10 Log10

For plane progressive waves;


Hold true also for spherical
waves far away from source

I
I ref

Reference Intensity Iref =10-12 Watt/m2

p12 /( 0c)
p1
SPL 20 Log10
dB 10 Log10
dB
2
2e 5
(2e 5) /( 0c)
I
1012
I
1012
SPL 10 Log10 12
dB 10 Log10
10 Log10
2
10 (2e 5) /( 0c)
I ref
(2e 5) 2 /( 0c)
For air, 0c 415Ns/m3
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so that

SPL IL 0.16 dB

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Effect of multiple sound sources


p% p% p%
2
tot

2
1

2
2

SPL 10 Log10

p12rms
dB
2
pref

Lp2

Lp1

L p1

p%
10 10
p%
Lp1
Lp 2

2
2
10
10
%
p%
10
tot pref 10

2
1
2
ref

L p1
Lp 2
2
p%

tot
10
10
10 log10 2 10 log10 10 10
p%

ref

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Lptot 10 log10

TEKNIK FISIKA

10
n 1

Lpn
10

COMBINATIONS OF SOURCES
If intensity levels of each of the N sources is same,

L1
10

LT 10 Log N 10

LT 10 LogN L1

Thus for 2 identical sources, total Intensity Level is 10Log2


i.e., 3dB greater than the level of the single source
For 2 sources of different intensities: L1 and L2

L1=60dB, L2=65.5dB
LT=66.5dB
L1=80dB, L2=82dB
LT=84dB
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TEKNIK FISIKA

Correlated and uncorrelated sources

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Which source to
first take care?

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FREQUENCY & FREQUENCY BANDS


Frequency of sound ---- as important as its level
Sensitivity of ear
Sound insulation of a wall
Attenuation of silencer

all vary with freq.

<20Hz

20Hz to 20000Hz

> 20000Hz

Infrasonic

Audio Range

Ultrasonic

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Frequency Composition of Sound


Pure tone

Musical
Instrument

For multiple frequency composition sound, frequency spectrum is obtained


through Fourier analysis
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TEKNIK FISIKA

Complex Noise Pattern

Amplitude (dB)

produced by exhaust of Jet Engine, water at base of


Niagara Falls, hiss of air/steam jets, etc
A1

f1

Frequency (Hz)

No discrete tones, infinite frequencies


Better to group them in frequency bands total strength in
each band gives measure of sound
Octave Bands commonly used (Octave: Halving / doubling)
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TEKNIK FISIKA

Octave Filters

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TEKNIK FISIKA

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TEKNIK FISIKA

Octave and 1/3rd Octave


band filters
mostly to analyse relatively
smooth varying spectra

If tones are present,


1/10th Octave or Narrow-band
filter be used

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TEKNIK FISIKA

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TEKNIK FISIKA

Radiation from Source


Point Source (Monopole)

2
p
W 4 r 2 I 4 r 2
Watt
0c

Radiates sound waves equally in all directions (spherical radiation)


W: is acoustic power output of the source;
power must be distributed equally over spherical surface area

W 1
W
1

IL 10 log10
10 log10
12 2
4 r 2 I

10
r

ref

W
IL 10 log10
20 log10 r
12
4 10
Constant term
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Depends on distance
from source
TEKNIK FISIKA

Inverse Square Law

When distance doubles (r=2r0) ; 20log 2 + 20log r0 means 6dB difference in the Sound Intensity/pressure
Level

If the point source is placed on ground,


it radiates over a hemisphere,
the intensity is then doubled and

W 1
IL 10 log10
2
2

I ref
W
IL 10 log10
20 log10 r
12
2 10

LP L 20 log r 8 dB

Vs

Pressure level gets


doubled at the same point

LP L 20 log r 11 dB
For source not on
ground

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TEKNIK FISIKA

Line Source
(Long trains, steady stream of traffic, long straight run of pipeline)
If the source is located on ground,
and has acoustic power output of
W per unit length
radiating over half the cylinder
Intensity at radius r,
IL 10 log10

W
I
r

W
10 log10 r
12
10

LP L 10 log r 5 dB

When distance doubles; 10log 2 + 10log r means 3dB difference in the Sound Intensity Level
17/05/15

TEKNIK FISIKA

VALIDITY OF POINT SOURCE


In free field condition,
Any source with its characteristic dimension small compared to
the wavelength of the sound generated is considered a point
source
Alternatively a source is considered point source if the receiver is
at large distance away from the source

Some small sources do not radiate sound equally in all directions


Directivity of the source must be taken into account to calculate
power from the sound pressure
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TEKNIK FISIKA

Directivity of Sound Source

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TEKNIK FISIKA

DIRECTIVITY OF SOUND SOURCE


Sound sources whose dimensions are small compared to the wavelength of
the sound they are radiating are generally omni-directional;
otherwise when dimensions are large in comparison, they are directional

Sound Intensity at an angle and at distance r from


a directional source radiating sound power W
Q
Sound Intensity at distance r from a omni - directional
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TEKNIK
FISIKA
source radiating the same sound
power
W

Directivity Factor & Directivity Index


Directivity Factor

p2

I
Q
2
Is
pS

Directivity Index

DI 10 log10 Q
thus
DI L p L pS

4r 2 I

Rigid boundaries force an omni-directional source to radiate sound in preferential direction

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TEKNIK FISIKA

EFFECT OF HARD REFLECTING GROUND


Radiated Sound Power of the source can be affected by a
rigid, reflecting planes
Strength and vibrational velocity of the source does not
change but the hard reflecting plane produces double the
pressure and four-fold increase in sound intensity compared to
monopole (point spherical source) in free space
If source is sufficiently above the ground this effect is reduced

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TEKNIK FISIKA

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TEKNIK FISIKA

Measurements made in semi-reverberant and free field conditions


are in error of 2dB
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TEKNIK FISIKA

Sound Power Estimation from


Pressure level measurements

I 4 r
10 log

10

12

10 log I

10

10
log
4

10
log
r
12

L LI 11 20 log r

L LP 20 log r 11dB

with LI LP

If hemisphere surface is used then the above


equation changes to

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L LI 20 log r 8dB
TEKNIK FISIKA

Measurement of Power in
Reverberant Room

Q
4
Lp L 10 log10

2
R
4 r
R

S avg

1
avg

Which is called room


constant team used to
describe acoustic
characteristic of a room

Alternatively,
L = Lp + 10 log V 10 log T60 - 14
17/05/15

TEKNIK FISIKA

Semi-reverberant field technique


When sound field is
neither free nor
completely diffuse.
Use calibrated sound
source with known power
spectrum.
Then use
L = Lr - Lpr + Lp
17/05/15

TEKNIK FISIKA

Semi-reverberant field technique


To take care of nearby
reflecting surfaces and
background noise,

Measure at number of locations


on measuring surface
Lpd = Lp 10log10(d/r)2
Then use
L Lpd + 10log10 (2d2)
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Background
noise < 10dB

Lpd is equivalent sound pressure level at


the reference radius d, and
Lp is mean sound pressure level
measured over surface of area S, and
radius r= (S/2)
TEKNIK FISIKA

What we learnt

17/05/15

Sound Pressure, Intensity and Power


dB levels
Multiple Sound Sources
Types of Sound Sources
Directivity

TEKNIK FISIKA

Thanks !!

17/05/15

TEKNIK FISIKA