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Radio Interface Architecture


2G 3G 4G 5G LTE

Klp 1 :
Andar JP
Dessy Yussianor
Fidia Triani
Hari Purwanto
Nurina F

15 Nopember 2014

OUTLINE :
1.
2.

Perlihatkan radio interface architecture


dari 2G sampai 5G, apa perbedaannya?
Jelaskan radio interface architecture dari
LTE.

Air Interface Technologies

2G GSM (Global System for Mobile


communication)

Konfigurasi Jaringan GSM

Komponen Jaringan GSM - 1

Mobile Station (MS)


merupakan perangkat yang digunakan oleh pelanggan untuk melakukan
pembicaraan
Mobile Equipment (ME)atau handset, merupakan perangkat GSM
yang berada di sisi pengguna atau pelanggan yang berfungsi sebagai
terminal transceiver (pengirim dan penerima sinyal) untuk
berkomunikasi dengan perangkat GSM lainnya.
Subscriber Identity Module (SIM)atau SIM Card, merupakan kartu
yang berisi seluruh informasi pelanggan dan beberapa informasi
pelayanan. ME tidak akan dapat digunakan tanpa SIM didalamnya
Base Station Subsytem (BSS):
Base Transceiver Station (BTS)
Base Transceiver Station, perangkat GSM yang berhubungan
langsung dengan MS dan berfungsi sebagai pengirim dan penerima
sinyal.
Base Station Controler (BSC).
Base Station Controller, perangkat yang mengontrol kerja BTS-BTS
yang berada di bawahnya dan sebagai penghubung BTS dan MSC.

Komponen Jaringan GSM - 2


Network Subsytem (NSS)
Mobile Switching Center (MSC), merupakan sebuah network element
central dalam sebuah jaringan GSM. MSC sebagai inti dari jaringan
seluler, dimana MSC berperan untuk interkoneksi hubungan
pembicaraan, baik antar seluler maupun dengan jaringan kabel PSTN,
ataupun dengan jaringan data.
HomeLocation Register (HLR), HLR berisi semua informasi
administrasi dari setiap pelanggan yang tersambung pada jaringan GSM.
Visitor Location Register (VLR), yang berfungsi untuk menyimpan
data dan informasi pelanggan.
Authentication Center (AuC), yang diperlukan untuk menyimpan
semua data yang dibutuhkan untuk memeriksa keabsahaan pelanggan
Equipment Identity Register (EIR) merupakan database yang berisi
suatu daftar valid mobile equipment pada jaringan

Operation and Support System (OSS)

Operation and support system merupakan sub sistem jaringan GSM


yang berfungsi sebagai pusat pengendalian

2.5 G - GPRS (General Packet


Radio Systems)

2.5G GPRS (General Packet Radio Systems)


GPRS is a data network that overlays a second-generation GSM network. This data
overlay network provides packet data transport at rates from 9.6 to 171 kbps.
Additionally, multiple users can share the same air-interface resources simultaneously.
GPRS attempts to reuse the existing GSM network elements as much as possible, but
to effectively build a packet-based mobile cellular network, some new network
elements, interfaces, and protocols for handling packet traffic are required. Therefore,
GPRS requires modifications to numerous network elements as summarized in Table 21

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Konfigurasi Jaringan GPRS

Um : interface MS-BTS
A bis
: interface
BTS-BSC
A
: interface BSC-MSC

Gambar - GPRS Interfaces

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Komponen utama jaringan GPRS

Mobile Station
Terdapat tiga mode operasi GPRS yaitu :

Kelas A : Dapat dihubungkan ke jaringan GPRS dan GSM (suara, SMS) pada waktu
besamaan penggunannya, perangkat yang mendukung kelas A masih tersedia sampai
saat ini.

Kelas B : Dapat dihubungkan ke jaringan GPRS dan GSM (suara, SMS) tetapi hanya satu
yang dapat digunakan pada waktu yang sama. Ketika layanan GSM (telepon atau SMS)
digunakan, maka GPRS harus menunggu dan akan otomatis aktif kembali setelah layanan
GSM (telepon atau SMS) diakhiri. Kebanyakan perangkat GPRS termasuk dalam kelas B.

Kelas C : Untuk menghubungkan layanan GPRS atau GSM (suara,SMS), harus dilakukan
pengantian layanan secara manual antara kedua layanan (hampir sama seperti kelas B
hanya pergantian jaringan yang aktif tidak otomatis).

GGSN (Gateway GPRS Support Node): gerbang penghubung jaringan GPRS ke jaringan
internet. Fungsi dari komponen ini adalah sebagai interface ke PDN (Public Data Network),
information routing, network screening, user screening, address mapping.

SGSN (Serving GPRS Support Node): gerbang penghubung jaringan BSS/BTS ke jaringan
GPRS. Komponen ini berfungsi untuk mengantarkan paket data ke MS, update pelanggan ke
HLR, registrasi pelanggan baru.

PCU : komponen di level BSS yang menghubungkan terminal ke jaringan GPRS

3G UMTS (Universal Mobile


Telecommunication System)

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Konfigurasi Jaringan UMTS

2G

3G
Gambar - UMTS Architecture

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UMTS Interfaces
Interface pada UMTS
1. Cu : interface antara
USIM smartcard dengan
ME
2. Uu : interface antara UE
dan Node B
3. Iu : interface antara RNC
dan GSM (MSC/VLR atau
SGSN)
Iu Cs untuk data
circuit-switched
Iu-Ps untuk data
packet-switched
Gambar - UTRAN Architecture

4. Iub : interface antara


RNC dan Node B
5. Iur : interface antara
RNC dan RNC yang lain

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Komponen Jaringan UMTS

User Equipment (UE)

UTRAN (UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network)

UTRAN terdiri dari satu atau lebih Radio Network System (RNS), dimana RNS tersebut terdiri
darisebuah pengendali jaringan radio yang disebut dengan Radio Network Controller (RNC),
beberapa node B (UMTS Base Station) dan User Equipment

Radio Network Controller (RNC)

mempunyai prinsip yang sama seperti pada GSM Mobile Station (MS), memiliki modul identitas
user, yang serupa dengan SIM pada GSM. UE terdiri dari dua bagian, yaitu Mobile Equipment
(ME) dan UMTS Subscriber Identity Module (USIM)

RNC berfungsi untuk mengendalikan sumber-sumber radio dari beberapa node B, fungsinya
serupa dengan BSC di GSM. RNC juga berperan penting untuk mengontrol radio resources
UTRAN, seperti power control (PC) atau handover control (HC), dimana sebagian diantaranya
terdapat pada bagian RNC

Node B

Node B pada jaringan ini sama seperti pada GSM Base Station (BS/BS), merupakan unit untuk
sistem pengiriman dan penerimaan radio dari sel. Node B menunjukkan proses dari air
interface yang digunakan (WCDMA), meliputi channel coding, interleaving, rate adaptation,
dan spreading. Node B juga memungkinkan terjadinya softer handovers dan power
control.Ikatan antara RNC dan node B disebut dengan Radio Network Subsystem (RNS)

4G LTE (Long Term Evolution)

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Overall System Architecture


The high-level network architecture of LTE is comprised of
following three main components:
The User Equipment, UE
The Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network,
EUTRAN
The Evolved Packet Core, EPC
LTE Network
Architecture

The evolved packet core (EPC) communicates with


packet data networks in the outside world such as the
internet, private corporate networks or the IP multimedia
subsystem.
The interfaces between the different parts of the
system are denoted Uu, S1 and SGi

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Overall System Architecture : 3G vs LTE

2G/3G

LTE

GERAN and UTRAN


SGSN/PDSN-FA

E-UTRAN
S-GW

GGSN/PDSN-HA

PDN-GW

HLR/AAA
VLR

HSS
MME

SS7-MAP/ANSI-41/RADIUS
DiameterGTPc-v0 and v1

Diameter
GTPc-v2

MIP

PMIP

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The User Equipment


The internal architecture of the user equipment for LTE is
identical to the one used by UMTS and GSM which is
actually a Mobile Equipment ME.
The mobile equipment comprised of the following important
modules:
Mobile Termination MT: This handles all the communication
functions.
Terminal Equipment TE: This terminates the data streams.
Universal Integrated Circuit Card UICC : This is also known
as the SIM card for LTE equipments. It runs an application known
as the Universal Subscriber Identity Module USIM.
A USIM stores user-specific data very similar to 3G SIM card. This
keeps information about the user's phone number, home
network identity and security keys, etc.

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Radio Access Network


The Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network,
EUTRAN
The E-UTRAN handles the radio communications between the
mobile and the evolved packet core and just has one
component, the evolved base stations, called eNodeB
eNodeB is a base station that controls the mobiles in one or
more cells

EUTRAN

Interfaces:
S1-u : User Plant Part
S1-c : Control Plant
Part
X2 : Mainly to support
active mode mobility,
Multi-cell Radio
Resource
Management (RRM)
such Inter-Cell
Interference
Coordination & Packet
forwarding

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Core Network

The serving gateway (SGW) acts as


The
Evolved
Packet Core,
EPC
a router, and forwards data between the
The
Home Subscriber
Server
(HSS)
base station and the PDN gateway.
component has been carried forward from UMTS
and GSM and is a central database that
The mobility management entity
contains information about all the network
(MME ) controls the high-level
operator's subscribers.
operation of the mobile by means of
signalling messages and Home
The Packet Data Network PDN Gateway
Subscriber Server HSS.
(PGW):
Communicates with the outside world ie. The Policy Control and Charging
Rules Function (PCRF) is a
packet data networks PDN.
component which is not shown in the
The PDN gateway has the same role as the
above diagram but it is responsible for
GPRS support node GGSN and the serving
policy control decision-making, as
GPRS support node SGSN with UMTS and
well as for controlling the flow-based
GSM.
charging functionalities in the Policy
Control Enforcement Function (PCEF),
which resides in the P-GW.
The interface between the serving and
PDN gateways is known as S5/S8 This
has two slightly different
implementations, namely S5 if the two
devices are in the same network,
and S8 if they are in different
networks.

5G

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5G Radio Access Architecture (1/2)

Source : 5G Technology Vision - Huawei

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5G Radio Access Architecture (2/2)


Amazingly Fast scenario
high data rates & network
capacities
Ultra-Dense Networks (UDN)
ISD about 10 m
>= 1 radio nodes per room

Local break out & Distributed mobile core functions


Accelerated content delivery
Tech. Dependent
D2D, MMC (Massive Machine Comm.), Moving
Networks (MN), UDN Ultra-reliable Comm. (URC)

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5G Scenarios

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5G Roadmap & Timeline

Source : 5G Technology Vision - Huawei

Perbandingan Teknologi 1G 5G

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Perbandingan Teknologi 1G 5G
Fitur
Start /
Deployment

1G

2G

3G

4G

1970 - 1980

1990 - 2004

2004 - 2010

Now

2 Kbps

64 Kbps

2 Mbps

1 Gbps

Standards

AMPS

2G : TDMA,
CDMA< GSM
2.5G : GPRS,
EDGE, 1xRTT

WCDMA,
CDMA-2000

Single unified
standard

Technology

Analog
Cellular
Technology

Service

Mobile
Telephony
(Voice)

Data Bandwith

Multiplexing

FDMA

Switching

Circuit

Core Network

PSTN

5G
Soon (probably
2020)
Higher than 1
Gbps
Single unified
standard

CDMA 2000
Wimax LTE, Wi- WWWW (coming
(1xRTT, EVDO)
Fi
soon)
UMTS, EDGE
Dynamic
Dynamic
Digital Voice,
Integrated
Information
Information
SMS, Higher
high quality
access,
access, Wearable
capacity
audio, video
Wearable
devices with AI
packetized data
and data
devices
Capabilities
TDMA, CDMA
CDMA
CDMA
CDMA
2G : Circuit
2.5G : Circuit for
access network
Packet
All Packet
All Packet
& air interface;
packet for core
network and data
Packet
PSTN
Internet
Internet
Network
Digital Cellular
Technology

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TERIMAKASIH

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Architecture Basics

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Protocol Architecture Overview

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Short Description of Layers


(1/2)

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Short Description of Layers


(2/2)

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Radio Link Control (RLC)

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Medium Access Control (MAC)


(1/2)

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Medium Access Control (MAC)


(2/2)

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Physical Layer (PHY)

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Logical Channels

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Transport Channels

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Physical Channels

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Channel Mapping

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Data Flow Example

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Summary LTE

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LTE - The E-UTRAN (The access


network)

The E-UTRAN handles the radio communications between the mobile and the evolved packet core and just has one
component, the evolved base stations, called eNodeB or eNB. Each eNB is a base station that controls the mobiles in
one or more cells. The base station that is communicating with a mobile is known as its serving eNB.
LTE Mobile communicates with just one base station and one cell at a time and there are following two main functions
supported by eNB:
The eBN sends and receives radio transmissions to all the mobiles using the analogue and digital signal processing
functions of the LTE air interface.
The eNB controls the low-level operation of all its mobiles, by sending them signalling messages such as handover
commands.
Each eBN connects with the EPC by means of the S1 interface and it can also be connected to nearby base stations by the
X2 interface, which is mainly used for signalling and packet forwarding during handover.
A home eNB (HeNB) is a base station that has been purchased by a user to provide femtocell coverage within the home.
A home eNB belongs to a closed subscriber group (CSG) and can only be accessed by mobiles with a USIM that also
belongs to the closed subscriber group.

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LTE - The Evolved Packet Core (EPC)


(The core network)

The Home Subscriber Server (HSS) component has been carried forward from UMTS and GSM and is a central
database that contains information about all the network operator's subscribers.
The Packet Data Network (PDN) Gateway (P-GW) communicates with the outside world ie. packet data
networks PDN, using SGi interface. Each packet data network is identified by an access point name (APN). The
PDN gateway has the same role as the GPRS support node (GGSN) and the serving GPRS support node (SGSN)
with UMTS and GSM.
The serving gateway (S-GW) acts as a router, and forwards data between the base station and the PDN gateway.
The mobility management entity (MME) controls the high-level operation of the mobile by means of signalling
messages and Home Subscriber Server (HSS).
The Policy Control and Charging Rules Function (PCRF) is a component which is not shown in the above
diagram but it is responsible for policy control decision-making, as well as for controlling the flow-based
charging functionalities in the Policy Control Enforcement Function (PCEF), which resides in the P-GW.

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GPRS