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Dr C.V.

RAMAN INSTITUTE OF SCIE


AND TECHNOLOGY

A SEMINAR ON
HARMONIC DETECTION DUE TO NONLINEAR
LOAD USING MATLAB

Presented by
Anshul Paul
th

INTRODUCTION
Any significant deviation in the waveform magnitude or frequency is
a potential power quality problem.
Due to non-linear loads the voltage and current waveforms will no
longer be sinusoidal.
The term harmonics are defined as sinusoidal voltages or currents
having frequencies that are integer multiples of the fundamental
frequency.
Active power filters are mainly used to reduce harmonics in power
system.

CONTENTS
Power quality
FACTORS AFFECTING POWER QUALITY
ELECTRICAL LOADS
Harmonics
SOURCES OF HARMONICS
EFFECTS OF HARMONICS
TOTAL HARMONIC DISTORTION
About matlab
Matlab model

POWER QUALITY
Power quality is actually the quality of the voltage which is
delivered by the utility to the customer.
It is the set of electrical boundaries that allows a piece of equipment to
function in its intended manner without significant loss of performance.
The power quality is determined by the performance and
productivity of the end user equipment.
Power-quality problem is defined as an occurrence in a non-standard voltage,
current, or frequency deviation that results in a failure of end-use equipments.

FACTORS AFFECTING POWER QUALIT


Steady-State Voltage and Frequency Magnitude
Voltage Sags
Grounding
Harmonics
Transients
Voltage Fluctuations and Flicker

ELECTRICAL LOADS
Non-linear loads

Linear loads
Resistance is constant

Current is proportional to voltage

Resistance is not-constant

Current is not proportional to voltage


V

V
I

HARMONICS
Harmonics are defined as sinusoidal voltages or currents
having frequencies that are integer multiples of the
fundamental frequency.
Voltage function, v(t) =V sin(t)
... (1)
Current function, i(t) = I sin(t )

(2)

The non sinusoidal voltage & current waveform can be expressed as follows:
V (t)= V0 + V1Sin(t) + V2 Sin(2t) + V3 Sin(3t) + V4 Sin(4t)+ +Vn Sin(nt).
...(3)
I(t) = I0 + I1Sin(t) + I2 Sin(2t) + I3 Sin(3t) + I4 Sin(4t)..+In Sin(nt).
.(4)
I1
I2
I3

Fundamental (f)
Second Harmonic (2f)
Third Harmonic (3f)

SOURCES OF HARMONICS
Distributed non-linear components of small rating.
Large static power converters and transmission system
power
electronic devices.
randomly varying nonlinear loads.
Nonlinear loads can be broadly divided into two categories;
1.Voltage based converter type loads.
2.Current based converter type loads.

EFFECTS OF HARMONICS
Voltage distortion
Increased value of RMS currents
Overheating of power transformers
De-rating of distribution equipment
Overloading of phase and neutral conductors
Parallel resonances between the utility system
Decreases efficiency of motor

TOTAL HARMONIC DISTORTION


Total harmonic distortion is the ratio between the RMS value
of the harmonics and the RMS value of the fundamental.

Where V1 is the fundamental component of voltage


V2,V3,V4,.Vn are the harmonic components

ABOUT MATLAB
It is a high-level language for numerical computation.
It provides vast library of mathematical functions.
It provides built-in graphics for visualizing data.
It provides tools for building applications

Uses of MATLAB:Signal Processing and Communications


Image and Video Processing
Control Systems
Test and Measurement

MATLAB MODEL
Three phase rectifier with resistive load

ource current waveform

Source voltage waveform

Load voltage and


current waveform

THD for source current

CONCLUSION
These non linear loads are the main source of harmonic current
distortion of the supply mains.
Most industries uses large number of non-linear loads.
Fast Fourier transform can be used to determine total harmonic
distortion.
If frequencies of harmonic components are known, filtration can be
easily provided.
Further compensation can be provided using active, passive and
hybrid filters.

QUERIES;