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IE 337: Material & Proses

Pembuatan
Topik 2:
Sifat Alam dan Mekanik
Sebuah Logam

Chapters 2 and 3

Tempo Dulu
Hubungan

Proses Material - Geometri


Pembutan material
Proses Pembuatan
Bagaimana kita memproses karakterisasinya?

Masa Kini
Logam

Sifat Original Logam (Chapter 2)


Sifat Mekanik (Chapter 3)

Ikatan Ionik
Atom dari salah satu unsur melepaskan
elektron terluar mereka (s), yang pada
gilirannya tertarik pada atom dari beberapa
unsur lain untuk meningkatkan jumlah
elektron di kulit terluar menjadi delapan
Gambar 2.4
Tiga bentuk
ikatan utama: (a)
Ionic

Ikatan Kovalen
Elektron dipakai bersama (sebagai lawan
ditransfer) antara atom dalam kulit terluarnya
untuk mencapai sekumpulan yang stabil dari
delapan

Gambar 2.4
Tiga bentuk ikatan
utama: (b) kovalen

Ikatan Logam
Membagi elektron kulit terluar oleh semua
atom untuk membentuk awan elektron secara
umum yang menembus seluruh blok

Gambar 2.4
Tiga bentuk ikatan utama:
(c) logam

Tabel Periodik

Gambar 2.1 Tabel Periodik Unsur. Nomor atom dan simbol terdaftar
dalam 103 unsur.

Struktur Makroskopik Sebuah Materi


Atom dan molekul adalah blok bangunan dari
struktur makroskopik suatu material
Ketika bahan memperkuat dari keadaan cair,
material cenderung menyatu dengan
erat/kuat, mengatur diri menjadi salah satu
dari dua struktur :
Kristal
Nonkristal

Struktur Kristal
Struktur di mana atom berada pada posisi teratur
dan berulang dalam tiga dimensi
Sel satuan - mengelompokkan dengan geometris
dasar atom yang berulang
Pola ini dapat ditiru jutaan kali dalam kristal
tertentu
Karakteristik struktur hampir semua logam,
maupun banyak keramik serta beberapa dari
polimer

Tiga Struktur Kristal pada Logam


1. Body-centered cubic
2. Face centered cubic
3. Hexagonal close-packed

Gambar 2.8 Tiga jenis struktur kristal dalam logam

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Struktur kristal untuk Logam Umum


Suhu kamar/ruang struktur kristal untuk beberapa
logam biasa:
Bodycentered cubic (BCC)
Kromium, Besi, Molibdenum, Tungsten
Facecentered cubic (FCC)
Aluminium, Tembaga, Emas, Timbal,
Perak, Nikel
Hexagonal closepacked (HCP)
Magnesium, Titanium, Seng

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Ketidaksempurnaan (Cacat) dalam


Kristal

Ketidaksempurnaan sering muncul akibat


ketidakmampuan memperkuat bahan untuk
melanjutkan replikasi sel satuan, misalnya,
batas butir dalam logam

Ketidaksempurnaan bisa juga diperkenalkan


dengan sengaja, misalnya, penambahan bahan
paduan dalam sebuah logam

Jenis jenis dari cacat:


1. Cacat Titik
2. Cacat Garis
3. Cacat Permukaan

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Cacat Titik
Ketidaksempurnaan dalam struktur kristal yang
melibatkan baik satu atom atau beberapa jumlah
atom

Gambar 2.9 Cacat Titik: (a) kekosongan, (b) pasangan ion


lowongan, (c) interstitialcy, (d) ion pengungsi (Frenkel Defect).

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Cacat Garis
Terhubung kelompok cacat titik yang membentuk
garis dalam struktur kisi
Cacat garis yang paling penting adalah dislokasi,
yang dapat mengambil dua bentuk:
Dislokasi tepi
Dislokasi putaran

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Dislokasi Tepi
Pinggiran suatu bidang tambahan atom yang
ada di kisi

Gambar 2.10
Cacat garis:
(a) Dislokasi tepi

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Dislokasi Putaran
Imperfections that extend in two directions to
form a boundary
Examples:
External: the surface of a crystalline object
is an interruption in the lattice structure
Internal: grain boundaries are internal
surface interruptions

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Elastic Strain
When a crystal experiences a gradually
increasing stress, it first deforms elastically
If force is removed lattice structure returns to
its original shape

Figure 2.11 Deformation of a crystal structure: (a) original lattice: (b)


elastic deformation, with no permanent change in positions of atoms.

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Plastic Strain
If stress is higher than forces holding atoms in
their lattice positions, a permanent shape
change occurs

Figure 2.11 Deformation of a crystal structure: (c) plastic deformation


(slip), in which atoms in the lattice are forced to move to new "homes.

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Effect of Dislocations on Strain


In the series of diagrams, the movement of the
dislocation allows deformation to occur under a
lower stress than in a perfect lattice

Figure 2.12 Effect of dislocations in the lattice structure under stress

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Mechanical Properties in
Design and Manufacturing
Mechanical properties determine a materials
behavior when subjected to mechanical stresses
Properties include elastic modulus, ductility,
hardness, and various measures of strength

Dilemma: mechanical properties desirable to the


designer, such as high strength, usually make
manufacturing more difficult
The manufacturing engineer should appreciate the
design viewpoint
And the designer should be aware of the
manufacturing viewpoint

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StressStrain Relationships

Three types of static stresses to which


materials can be subjected:
1. Tensile - tend to stretch the material
2. Compressive - tend to squeeze it
3. Shear - tend to cause adjacent portions of
material to slide against each other

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Stressstrain curve - basic relationship that


describes mechanical properties for all three
types

Tensile Test

Most common test for


studying stressstrain
relationship, especially
metals
In the test, a force pulls the
material, elongating it and
reducing its diameter
Figure 3.1 Tensile test: (a) tensile
force applied in (1) and (2)
resulting elongation of material

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Tensile Test Specimen


ASTM (American
Society for Testing and
Materials) specifies
preparation of test
specimen

Figure 3.1 Tensile test:


(b) typical test specimen

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Tensile Test Setup

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Tensile Test Sequence


Figure 3.2 Typical progress of a tensile test: (1) beginning
of test, no load; (2) uniform elongation and reduction of
crosssectional area; (3) continued elongation, maximum
load reached; (4) necking begins, load begins to decrease;
and (5) fracture. If pieces are put back together as in (6),
final length can be measured.

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Engineering Stress
Defined as force divided by original area:

F
e
Ao
where e = engineering stress, F = applied
force, and Ao = original area of test specimen

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Engineering Strain
Defined at any point in the test as

L Lo
e
Lo
where e = engineering strain; L = length at any
point during elongation; and Lo = original gage
length

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Stress-Strain Relationships

Figure 3.3 Typical engineering stressstrain plot in a


tensile test of a metal.

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Two Regions of StressStrain Curve

The two regions indicate two distinct forms of


behavior:
1. Elastic region prior to yielding of the material
2. Plastic region after yielding of the material

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Elastic Region in StressStrain Curve


Relationship between stress and strain is
linear
Material returns to its original length when
stress is removed
Hooke's Law:

e = E e

where E = modulus of elasticity


E is a measure of the inherent stiffness of a
material
Its value differs for different materials
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Yield Point in StressStrain Curve


As stress increases, a point in the linear
relationship is finally reached when the material
begins to yield
Yield point Y can be identified by the change in
slope at the upper end of the linear region
Y = a strength property
Other names for yield point = yield strength,
yield stress, and elastic limit

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Plastic Region in StressStrain Curve


Yield point marks the beginning of plastic
deformation
The stress-strain relationship is no longer
guided by Hooke's Law
As load is increased beyond Y, elongation
proceeds at a much faster rate than before,
causing the slope of the curve to change
dramatically

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Tensile Strength in StressStrain Curve


Elongation is accompanied by a uniform
reduction in crosssectional area, consistent
with maintaining constant volume
Finally, the applied load F reaches a maximum
value, and engineering stress at this point is
called the tensile strength TS (a.k.a. ultimate
tensile strength)
TS =

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Fmax
Ao

Ductility in Tensile Test


Ability of a material to plastically strain
without fracture
Ductility measure = elongation EL

Lf Lo
EL
Lo
where EL = elongation; Lf = specimen length
at fracture; and Lo = original specimen length
Lf is measured as the distance between gage
marks after two pieces of specimen are put
back together
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True Stress
Stress value obtained by dividing the
instantaneous area into applied load

F

A
where = true stress; F = force; and A =
actual (instantaneous) area resisting the
load

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True Strain
Provides a more realistic assessment of
"instantaneous" elongation per unit length
L

dL
L

ln
Lo
L L
o

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True Stress-Strain Curve


Figure 3.4 True stressstrain curve for the previous
engineering stressstrain plot in Figure 3.3.

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Strain Hardening in Stress-Strain Curve


Note that true stress increases continuously in
the plastic region until necking
In the engineering stressstrain curve, the
significance of this was lost because stress was
based on an incorrect area value

It means that the metal is becoming stronger


as strain increases
This is the property called strain hardening

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True Stress-Strain in Log-Log Plot

Figure 3.5 True stressstrain curve plotted on loglog


scale.

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Flow Curve
Because it is a straight line in a log-log plot,
the relationship between true stress and true
strain in the plastic region is

K n
where K = strength coefficient; and n = strain
hardening exponent

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Compression Test
Applies a load that
squeezes the ends of a
cylindrical specimen
between two platens

Figure 3.7 Compression test:


(a) compression force applied
to test piece in (1) and (2)
resulting change in height.

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Compression Test Setup

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Shear Properties
Application of stresses in opposite directions
on either side of a thin element

Figure 3.11 Shear (a) stress and (b) strain.

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Hardness
Resistance to permanent indentation
Good hardness generally means material is
resistant to scratching and wear
Most tooling used in manufacturing must be
hard for scratch and wear resistance

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Hardness Tests
Commonly used for assessing material
properties because they are quick and
convenient
Variety of testing methods are appropriate due
to differences in hardness among different
materials
Most wellknown hardness tests are Brinell and
Rockwell
Other test methods are also available, such as
Vickers, Knoop, Scleroscope, and durometer

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Brinell Hardness Test


Widely used for
testing metals and
nonmetals of low to
medium hardness
A hard ball is
pressed into
specimen surface
with a load of 500,
1500, or 3000 kg
Figure 3.14 Hardness testing methods: (a) Brinell

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Brinell Hardness Number


Load divided into indentation area = Brinell
Hardness Number (BHN)

HB

2F

Db (Db Db2 Di2 )

where HB = Brinell Hardness Number (BHN),


F = indentation load, kg; Db = diameter of ball,
mm, and Di = diameter of indentation, mm

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Rockwell Hardness Test


Another widely used test
A cone shaped indenter is pressed into
specimen using a minor load of 10 kg, thus
seating indenter in material
Then, a major load of 150 kg is applied,
causing indenter to penetrate beyond its initial
position
Additional penetration distance d is converted
into a Rockwell hardness reading by the testing
machine

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Rockwell Hardness Test

Figure 3.14 Hardness testing methods: (b) Rockwell:


(1) initial minor load and (2) major load.

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Effect of Temperature on Properties

Figure 3.15 General effect of temperature on strength and ductility.

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Hot Hardness
Ability of a material to
retain hardness at
elevated temperatures

Figure 3.16 Hot hardness


typical hardness as a
function of temperature for
several materials.

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You should have learned:


The

nature of metals

Different crystalline structures


Different crystalline defects that affect properties
The

properties of metals

Mechanical properties
What they are and what they mean

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Next Class
Manufacturing

Materials (Chapter 6)
How can we modify mechanical properties in
metals? (Chapter 6 and 27)
How are metal alloys classified and how are
they used? (Chapter 6)
Assignment

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