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Heredity and

Environment

The Genetic Code

Chromosomes: a molecule of DNA


(Deoxyribonucletic Acid) that contains the
instructions to make proteins

The instructions are organized into genes,


the basic unit for transmitting heredity.

Humans have 46 chromosomes (23


pairs), and about 25,000 genes.
Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 3

Karyotype (Map of
Chromosomes)

Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 3

The Genetic Code (cont.)

Human genome: the code for making a


human being

Every person has a slightly different code,


but the human genome is 99.5% the same
for any 2 people.

Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 3

The Beginnings of Life

Development begins at conception, when


the sperm penetrates the ovum.

The organism is first called a zygote, and


is the fused nuclei of sperm and egg.

The genotype of the zygote is the genetic


information on the 23 chromosome pairs.
Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 3

Gene Pairs

Gene pairs are closely matched on 22 of


the 23 chromosomes.

In some cases, One of two or more


alternative forms of a gene that arise by
mutation and are found at the same place
on a chromosome occurs- (allele ) an
alternate version of variable genes.

On the 23rd pair, XX = female, XY = male.


Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 3

Determining a Zygotes Sex

Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 3

From One Cell to Many

The phenotype is the actual appearance


and behavior of a person, and occurs
because some instructions on the
genotype are ignored, and others
amplified.

This occurs through cell differentiation,


gene-gene (polygenic), and geneenvironment interactions.
Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 3

Examples of genotype:
The gene responsible for eye color
The gene responsible for hair color
The gene responsible for height
The gene responsible for how your voice sounds

Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 3

Examples of phenotype
Eye color (brown, black)
Height (tall, short)
Hair color ( brown, black, brunette)

Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 3

Heredity

The process and the result of the process


by which the characteristics or traits are
produced and transmitted from parents to
offspring through the genes

Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 3

Additive Heredity

Additive genes combine to make a


phenotype.
Example:

HEIGHT. The inherited genes from


mother and from father are added together.
However, some additive genes get enhanced
by other genes, making their input greater.

Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 3

Dominant-Recessive Heredity

A dominant-recessive pattern occurs


when the influence of one gene in the
allele is greater than the other gene.
Example:

Blood types A and B and brown


eyes result from dominant genes.

This pattern may be X-linked (on the X


chromosome), in which case males are
more affected (e.g., color-blindness).
Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 3

Twins and Clones

Dizygotic (fraternal) twins result from


two sperm penetrating two ova, and share
50% of their genes.

Monozygotic (identical) twins originate


from one zygote, and share 100% genes.

A clone originates from a live organism.


Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 3

Dizygotic or monozygotic?

DAVID YOUNG-WOLFF / PHOTOEDIT

BRUCE ROBERTS / PHOTO RESEARCHERS, INC.

Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 3

Multiple Births

The likelihood of multiple births vary by


age and ethnicity. Fertility treatments
may also cause them.

Hazards of multiples include birth


complications, death, disease, and
disabilities.
Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 3

Research on the Effects of Genes

Researchers have employed several


methods (e.g., twin studies, adoption
studies) to investigate the relative
influence and interaction of genes and
environment in shaping human behavior
and traits.

The results may surprise you!


Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 3

Findings from Genetic Research

Genes affect every aspect of human


behavior.

The non-shared environment of families is


powerful.

Genes elicit responses from other people


that shape development (an indirect
effect).
Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 3

Psychopathology

Genes have been found to influence


several disorders, including:
Schizophrenia
Addiction
Nearsightedness
Diabetes

However, the environment ALSO plays a


key role in these disorders.
Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 3

Chromosomal Abnormalities

Chromosomal abnormalities when the


zygotes cells have fewer or more
chromosomes than 46.

Maternal age is the most common


correlate of chromosomal abnormalities.

Many zygotes with chromosomal


abnormalities are spontaneously aborted.
Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 3

Down Syndrome (Trisomy 21)

Down syndrome occurs when a zygote


has 3 copies of chromosome 21.

Sufferers experience mental slowness,


faster aging, and physical problems.

Social support and a positive attitude help.


Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 3

Abnormalities of the 23rd pair

About 1 in 500 infants have either one too


many or too few chromosomes on the
23rd pair.

This can lead to underdeveloped sexual


organs (girls), breast development (boys),
or other anomalies.
Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 3

Dominant Disorders

Huntingtons disease is a fatal CNS


disorder caused by a genetic miscode. It
is inactive until middle adulthood.

Tourette syndrome, a dominant disorder,


can lead to uncontrollable tics and
obscenities.
Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 3

Fragile X Syndrome

Fragile X syndrome is caused by a single


gene that has 200 repetitions of a triplet.

The effects of Fragile X include cognitive


deficits and poor social skills.

Males are at greater risk of developing


this syndrome.
Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 3

Genetic Counseling

Genetic counseling provides facts. It is


recommended for:
Couples

from the same ethnic group


Individuals with a close relative with a genetic
condition
Couples with a history of infertility or miscarriage
Women 35 or older, men 40 or older

Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 3

Environment

Internal environment intracellular system


of physical and chemica lforces within the
cell that influence the genetic materials of
the nucleus and the extra cellular systems
consisting of the blood and the lymph and
the pressures that surrounds the cells.

Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 3

Pre natal environment


Fetus is attached to the mother through the
umbilical cord
Developing child is susceptible to the
changing conditions within the mother such
as
- nutritional deficiencies
- infections
- chemical changes in maternal blood as
a result of maternal emotion states and
exposure to radiation

Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 3

External Environment
Culture
Language
Customs

Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 3

Interaction of Heredity and


Environment

Danidoff (1987) classified into three the


gene-environment interaction
> Passive
> Evocative
> Active

Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 3

New Advances in the Field of


Psychology
In-vitro fertilization
Mapping of human genome discovery of
genes causing inherited forms of
diseases- cancer, huntingtons disease,

http://www.bing.com/videos/search?
q=huntingtons+Disease&docid=4574519279944137&mid=2EF0B9C936DF96B554362EF0B9C936DF96B55436
&view=detail

tuberculosis
homosexuality
Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 3

Identifying individuals especially criminals


(PCR and DNA FINGERPRINTING)
GENETIC PRE-SCREENING (child sure
to be boy
Gene therapy

Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 3