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Anda di halaman 1dari 149

Singiresu S. Rao

Chapter 2

Free Vibration of Single-Degree-of-Freedom Systems

Learning Objective

Newtons second law, DAlembert s principle, Virtual

displacement and energy Conservation.

Linearise the non linear equation of motion

Solve a spring-mass-damper system for different type

of free vibration

Compute the natural frequency of vibration system

Determine whether the system stable or not

Chapter Outline

2.1

Introduction

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

2.6

2.7

Graphical Representation of Characteristic Roots and Corresponding Solutions

2.8

Chapter Outline

2.9

2.10

2.11

Stability of Systems

2.1

Introduction

2.1

2.1 Introduction

Free

disturbance with no external forces acting after the initial

disturbance

Undamped vibrations result when amplitude of motion remains

constant with time (e.g. in a vacuum)

Damped vibrations occur when the amplitude of free vibration

diminishes gradually overtime, due to resistance offered by the

surrounding medium (e.g. air)

2.1 Introduction

Several

single degree of freedom systems, for example, the mass and

stiffness of a system

2.2

Free Vibration of an Undamped Translational System

2.2

System

Equation

If mass m is displaced

a distance x (t ) when acted upon by a

d dx (t )

F (t ) m

dt

dt

d x (t )

F (t ) m

mx

(2.1)

2

dt

2

d

x (t )

where x

is the acceleration of the mass

2

dt

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System

For a rigid body undergoing rotational motion, Newtons Law gives

M (t ) J

where M

(2.2)

d 2 (t ) / dt 2

acceleration, respectively.

For undamped single degree of freedom system, the application of Eq.

(2.1) to mass m yields the equation of motion:

F (t ) kx mx or mx kx 0

( 2.3)

System

1.

DAlemberts Principle

The equations of motion, Eqs. (2.1) & (2.2) can be rewritten as

F (t ) mx 0

M (t ) J 0

(2.4a )

(2.4b)

(c) yields the equation of motion:

kx mx 0

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or

mx kx 0

(2.3)

System

2.

If a system that is in equilibrium under the

action of a set of forces is subjected to a

virtual displacement, then the total virtual

work done by the forces will be zero.

Consider spring-mass system as shown,

the virtual work done by each force can be

computed as:

Virtual work done by the inertia force Wi (mx)x

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System

2.

When the total virtual work done by all the forces is set equal to

zero, we obtain

mxx kxx 0

(2.5)

Eq.(2.5) gives the equation of motion of the spring-mass system as

mx kx 0

(2.3)

System

3.

A system is said to be conservative if no energy is lost due to

friction or energy-dissipating nonelastic members.

If no work is done on the conservative system by external forces,

the total energy of the system remains constant. Thus the principle

of conservation of energy can be expressed as:

T U constant or

d

(T U ) 0

dt

( 2.6)

System

3.

The kinetic and potential energies are given by:

1 2

T mx

2

1 2

U kx

2

(2.7)

(2.8)

Substitution of Eqs. (2.7) & (2.8) into Eq. (2.6) yields the desired

equation

mx kx 0

(2.3)

System

Consider the configuration of the spring-mass system shown in the

figure.

System

For static equilibrium,

W mg k st

(2.9)

st = static deflection

g = acceleration due to gravity

mx k ( x st ) W

and since k st W , we obtain

mx kx 0

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(2.10)

System

Notice that Eqs. (2.3) and (2.10) are identical. This indicates that

when a mass moves in a vertical direction, we can ignore its

weight, provided we measure x from its static equilibrium position.

Hence, Eq. (2.3) can be expressed as

(2.15)

where A1 and A2 are new constants

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(2.16)

System

From Eq (2.16), we have

x(t 0) A1 x0

x (t 0) n A2 x 0

(2.17)

Hence, A1 x0 and A2 x 0 / n

Solution of Eq. (2.3) is subjected to the initial conditions of Eq.

(2.17) which is given by

x 0

x(t ) x0 cos nt

sin nt

n

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(2.18)

System

Harmonic Motion

Eqs.(2.15), (2.16) & (2.18) are harmonic functions of time. Eq.

(2.16) can also be expressed as:

x(t ) A0 sin(nt 0 )

where A0 and

respectively:

(2.23)

x

A0 A x 0

n

2

0

x0n

0 tan

x 0

1

2 1/ 2

(2.24)

(2.25)

System

Harmonic Motion

The nature of harmonic oscillation can be represented graphically as

shown in the figure.

System

Harmonic Motion

Note the following aspects of spring-mass systems:

1.

Circular natural frequency: n k

m

Spring constant, k:

Hence, n

st

W mg

st st

1/ 2

(2.28)

1/ 2

(2.26)

(2.27)

System

Harmonic Motion

Note the following aspects of spring-mass systems:

1.

Natural frequency in cycles per second:

1

fn

2

Natural period:

st

1/ 2

st

1

n

2

fn

g

(2.29)

1/ 2

(2.30)

System

Harmonic Motion

Note the following aspects of spring-mass systems:

2.

can be obtained as:

dx

(t ) n A sin(nt ) n A cos(nt )

dt

2

d 2x

x(t ) 2 (t ) n2 A cos(nt ) n2 A cos(nt )

dt

x (t )

(2.31)

System

Harmonic Motion

Note the following aspects of spring-mass systems:

3.

If initial displacement

x0

is zero,

x 0

x 0

x(t )

cos nt

sin nt

n

2 n

x(t ) x0 cos n t

(2.33)

(2.32)

System

Harmonic Motion

Note the following aspects of spring-mass systems:

4.

represented by:

x (t ) An sin(nt )

(2.34)

sin(nt )

x

y

An

A

(2.35)

x2 y 2

2 1

2

A

A

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(2.36)

where

y x / n

System

Harmonic Motion

Note the following aspects of spring-mass systems:

4.

System

Example 2.2

Free Vibration Response Due to Impact

A cantilever beam carries a mass M at the free end as shown in the

figure. A mass m falls from a height h on to the mass M and adheres

to it without rebounding. Determine the resulting transverse vibration

of the beam.

System

Example 2.2

Free Vibration Response Due to Impact

Solution

Using the principle of conservation of momentum:

mvm ( M m) x 0

m

m

vm

M m

M m

x 0

2 gh

(E.1)

mg

x0

,

k

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M m

x 0

2 gh

(E.2)

System

Example 2.2

Free Vibration Response Due to Impact

Solution (Cont)

Thus the resulting free transverse vibration of the beam can be

expressed as

x(t ) A cos(nt )

where

x 0

A x

n

2

0

2 1/ 2

x 0

tan

x0n

, n

k

3EI

3

M m

l ( M m)

System

Example 2.5

Natural Frequency of Pulley System

Determine the natural frequency of the system.

Assume the pulleys to be frictionless and of negligible mass.

System

Example 2.5

Natural Frequency of Pulley System

Solution

2W 2W

The total movement of the mass m (point O) is 2

k k

2

1

The equivalent spring constant of the system is

Weight of the mass

Net displacement of the mass

Equivalent spring constant

1 1 4W (k1 k 2 )

W

4W

k eq

k1k 2

k1 k 2

k1k 2

k eq

4(k1 k 2 )

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(E.1)

System

Example 2.5

Natural Frequency of Pulley System

Solution

By displacing mass m from the static equilibrium position by x, the

equation of motion of the mass can be written as

mx keq x 0

(E.2)

keq

n

m

1/ 2

k1k 2

m

(

k

k

)

1

2

1

k1k 2

fn n

2 4 m(k1 k 2 )

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1/ 2

rad/sec

(E.3)

cycles/sec

(E.4)

1/ 2

2.3

Free Vibration of an Undamped Torsional System

2.3

Mt

GI 0

l

(2.37)

where

Mt = torque that produces the twist ,

G = shear modulus,

l = is the length of shaft,

I0 = polar moment of inertia of cross section of shaft

d 4

I0

32

(2.38)

M t GI 0 Gd 4

kt

l

32l

(2.39)

Equation of Motion:

J 0 kt 0

(2.40)

kt

n

J0

1/ 2

(2.41)

J0

n 2

kt

1/ 2

(2.42) ,

1

fn

2

kt

J0

1/ 2

(2.43)

1)

If the cross section of the shaft supporting the disc is not circular,

an appropriate torsional spring constant is to be used.

2)

hD 4 WD 4

J0

32

8g

3)

h = thickness

D = diameter

W = weight of the disc

clock

Example 2.6

Natural Frequency of Compound Pendulum

Any rigid body pivoted at a point other than its center of mass will

oscillate about the pivot point under its own gravitational force. Such a

system is known as a compound pendulum as shown. Find the natural

frequency of such a system.

Example 2.6

Natural Frequency of Compound Pendulum

Solution

For a displacement , the restoring torque (due to the weight of the

body W) is (Wd sin ) and the equation of motion is

J 0 Wd sin 0

(E.1)

J 0 Wd 0

(E.2)

pendulum is

2

1/ 2

Wd

n

J0

mgd

J0

(E.3)

Example 2.6

Natural Frequency of Compound Pendulum

Solution

Comparing with natural frequency, the length of equivalent simple

pendulum is

J0

md

(E.4)

1/ 2

about O,

gd

k 02

k0

(E.5) , l

(E.6)

Example 2.6

Natural Frequency of Compound Pendulum

Solution

If kG denotes the radius of gyration of the body about G, we have:

k k d

2

0

2

G

kG2

(E.7) and l

d

d

kG2

GA

d

Eq.(E.8) becomes

l GA d OA

(E.9)

(E.10)

(E.8)

Example 2.6

Natural Frequency of Compound Pendulum

Solution

Hence, from Eq.(E.5), n is given by

g

n 2

k

/

d

0

1/ 2

g

l

1/ 2

OA

1/ 2

(E.11)

This equation shows that, no matter whether the body is pivoted from

O or A, its natural frequency is the same. The point A is called the

center of percussion.

Example 2.6

Natural Frequency of Compound Pendulum

Solution

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2.4

Response of First-Order Systems and Time Constant

2.4

Constant

Constant

equation of motion of the rotor as

2.47

Jw ct w 0

where w

dw

dt

w t Ae st 2.48

where A and s are unknown constants

w t w0 e st

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2.49

Constant

w0 e st Js ct 0

2.50

Eq. (2.50) can be satisfied only if

Js ct 0

2.51

ct

c

Jt t

. Thus the solution, Eq. (2.49), becomes w t w0 e

J

Because the exponent of Eq. (2.52) is known to be ct , the time

J

constant will be equal to J

2.53

ct

Constant

For t

w t w0 e

Jt

w0 e 1 0.368w0

2.54

Thus the response reduces to 0.368 times its initial value at a time

equal to the time constant of the system.

2.5

Rayleighs Energy Method

2.5

undamped vibrating system, can be restated as

T1 U1 T2 U 2

(2.55)

Tmax U max

(2.57)

Example 2.8

Effect of Mass on wn of a Spring

Determine the effect of the mass of the spring on the natural

frequency of the spring-mass system shown in the figure below.

Example 2.8

Effect of Mass on wn of a Spring

Solution

The kinetic energy of the spring element of length dy is

1 m

yx

dTs s dy

2 l

l

(E.1)

T kinetic energy of mass (Tm ) kinetic energy of spring (Ts )

1 2 l 1 ms y 2 x 2 1 2 1 ms 2

mx

mx y 0

dy

x

2

2

2 l

2 3

l 2

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(E.2)

Example 2.8

Effect of Mass on wn of a Spring

Solution

The total potential energy of the system is given by

1 2

kx

2

(E.3)

x(t ) X cos n t

(E.4)

Tmax

1

ms 2 2

m

X n

2

3

1 2

kX

2

(E.6)

Example 2.8

Effect of Mass on wn of a Spring

Solution

By equating Tmax and Umax, we obtain the expression for the natural

frequency:

1/ 2

m ms

(E.7)

Thus the effect of the mass of spring can be accounted for by adding

one-third of its mass to the main mass.

2.6

Free Vibration with Viscous Damping

2.6

Equation of Motion:

F cx

(2.58)

where c = damping

that the equation of motion is

mx cx kx

mx cx kx 0

(2.59)

x(t ) Ce st

(2.60)

ms 2 cs k 0

(2.61)

s1, 2

c c 4mk

c

k

c

2m

2m

2

m

m

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(2.63)

(2.62)

c

k

c

t

2

m

2

m

m

C1e

c

k

c

t

2

m

2

m

m

C2 e

(2.64)

where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants to be determined from the initial conditions of the system

The critical damping cc is defined as the value of the damping

constant c for which the radical in Eq.(2.62) becomes zero:

2

k

k

cc

2 km 2mn

0 cc 2m

m

m

2m

The damping ratio is defined as:

c / cc

(2.66)

(2.65)

Thus the general solution for Eq.(2.64) is

x(t ) C1e

2 1 t

C2 e

2 1 t

(2.69)

Case 1: Underdamped system ( 1 or c cc or c/ 2m k / m )

For this condition, (2-1) is negative and the roots are

s1 i 1

s2

n

n

Case 1: Underdamped system ( 1 or c cc or c/ 2m k / m )

The solution can be written in different forms:

x(t ) C1e

e

i 1 2 t

n t

C e

C2 e

i 1 2 n t

i 1 2 t

C2 e

i 1 2 n t

e nt C1 cos 1 2 nt C2 sin 1 2 nt

Xe nt sin 1 2 nt

X 0 e nt cos 1 2 nt 0

64 2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition in SI Units

(2.70)

and (X0, 0) are arbitrary constants

Case 1: Underdamped system ( 1 or c cc or c/ 2m k / m )

For the initial conditions at t = 0,

C1 x0 and C2

x 0 n x0

(2.71)

1 n

2

x(t ) e

n t

x0 cos 1 nt

2

x 0 n x0

1 n

2

sin 1 nt

(2.72)

Case 1: Underdamped system ( 1 or c cc or c/ 2m k / m )

Eq.(2.72) describes a damped harmonic motion. Its amplitude

decreases exponentially with time, as shown in the figure below.

The frequency of damped vibration is: d 1 2 n

( 2.76)

Case 2: Critically damped system ( 1 or c cc or c/ 2m k / m )

In this case, the two roots are:

cc

s1 s2

n (2.77)

2m

Due to repeated roots, the solution of Eq.(2.59) is given by

(2.78)

Case 2: Critically damped system ( 1 or c cc or c/ 2m k / m )

Application of initial conditions gives:

C1 x0 and C2 x 0 n x0

(2.79)

x(t ) x0 x 0 n x0 t e nt

(2.80)

Case 2: Critically damped system ( 1 or c cc or c/ 2m k / m )

It can be seen that the motion represented by Eq.(2.80) is a

periodic (i.e., non-periodic).

Since e t 0 as t , the motion will eventually diminish to zero,

as indicated in the figure below.

n

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Case 3: Overdamped system ( 1 or c cc or c/ 2m k / m )

The roots are real and distinct and are given by:

s1 2 1 n 0

s2

x(t ) C1e

2 1 t

C2 e

2 1 t

(2.81)

Case 3: Overdamped system ( 1 or c cc or c/ 2m k / m )

For the initial conditions at t = 0,

C1

C2

x0n 2 1 x 0

2n 2 1

x0n 2 1 x 0

2n 1

2

(2.82)

Logarithmic Decrement:

Using Eq.(2.70),

x1 X 0 e nt1 cos(d t1 0 )

x2 X 0 e nt 2 cos(d t 2 0 )

e nt1

n t1 d

e n d

(2.83)

(2.84)

x1

2

2 c

ln n d n

(2.85)

2

x2

d 2m

1

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Logarithmic Decrement:

For small damping,

Hence,

or

Thus

if

1 x1

ln

m xm 1

(2.86)

(2.87)

(2.88)

(2.92)

where m is an integer

In a viscously damped system, the rate of change of energy with

time is given by:

dW

dx

2

force velocity Fv cv c

dt

dt

(2.93)

( 2 / d )

W t 0

dx

2

2

2

2

dt

0 cX d cos d t d (d t ) cd X

dt

(2.94)

Consider the system shown in the figure.

The total force resisting the motion is

F kx cv kx cx

(2.95)

x(t ) X sin d t

(2.96)

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(2.97)

The energy dissipated in a complete cycle will be

2 / d

t 0

2 / d

t 0

2 / d

t 0

Fvdt

kX 2d sin d t cos d t d (d t )

cd X 2 cos 2 d t d (d t ) cd X 2

(2.98)

Computing the fraction of the total energy of the vibrating system

that is dissipated in each cycle of motion,

2

W

cd X 2

2

1

W

d

m d2 X 2

2

2 4 constant

2m

(2.99)

where W is either the max potential energy or the max kinetic energy

(W / 2 ) W

loss coefficient

W

2W

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(2.100)

Consider a single degree of freedom torsional system with a viscous

damper as shown in figure.

The viscous damping torque is given by

T ct

(2.101)

J 0 ct kt 0

(2.102)

kt = spring constant of system

= angular displacement of disc

In the underdamped case, the frequency of damped vibration is

given by

d 1 2 n

(2.103)

where

n

and

kt

J0

(2.104)

ct

ct

ct

ctc 2 J 0n 2 kt J 0

(2.105)

ctc = critical torsional damping constant

Example 2.11

Shock Absorber for a Motorcycle

An underdamped shock absorber is to be designed for a motorcycle of

mass 200kg (shown in Fig.(a)). When the shock absorber is subjected

to an initial vertical velocity due to a road bump, the resulting

displacement-time curve is to be as indicated in Fig.(b). Find the

necessary stiffness and damping constants of the shock absorber if

the damped period of vibration is to be 2 s and the amplitude x1 is to

be reduced to one-fourth in one half cycle (i.e., x1.5 = x1/4). Also find

the minimum initial velocity that leads to a maximum displacement of

250 mm.

Example 2.11

Shock Absorber for a Motorcycle

Example 2.11

Shock Absorber for a Motorcycle

Solution

Since x1.5

becomes

x1

2

ln

ln 16 2.7726

1 2

x2

(E.1)

Example 2.11

Shock Absorber for a Motorcycle

Solution

From which can be found as 0.4037 and the damped period of

vibration is given by 2 s. Hence,

2

2

2 d

d n 1 2

2

2 1 (0.4037)

3.4338 rad/s

Example 2.11

Shock Absorber for a Motorcycle

Solution

The critical damping constant can be obtained as

Thus the damping constant is

The stiffness is

k mn2 (200)(3.4338) 2 2358.2652 N/m

Example 2.11

Shock Absorber for a Motorcycle

Solution

The displacement of the mass will attain its max value at time t 1 is

sin d t1 1 2

sin d t1 sin t1 1 (0.4037) 2 0.9149

sin 1 (0.9149)

t1

0.3678 sec

Example 2.11

Shock Absorber for a Motorcycle

Solution

The envelope passing through the max points is x 1 2 Xe nt

Since x = 250mm, 0.25 1 (0.4037) 2 Xe ( 0.4037 )(3.4338)( 0.3678) X 0.4550 m

The velocity of mass can be obtained by

x(t ) Xe nt sin d t

x (t ) Xe nt ( n sin d t d cos d t )

87 2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition in SI Units

(E.3)

(E.2)

Example 2.11

Shock Absorber for a Motorcycle

Solution

When t = 0,

x (t 0) x 0 Xd Xn 1 2

(0.4550)(3.4338) 1 (0.4037) 2

1.4294 m/s

2.7

Graphical Representation of Characteristic Roots and

Corresponding Solutions

2.7

and Corresponding Solutions

The free vibration of a single-degree-of-freedom spring-massviscous-damper system is governed by Eq. (2.59):

mx cx kx 0

2.106

ms 2 cs k 0

s 2 2wn s wn2 0

2.108

and Corresponding Solutions

The roots of Eq. (2.107) or (2.108) are given by (see Eqs. (2.62)

and (2.68)):

c c 2 4mk

s1 , s2

2m

s1 , s2 wn iwn 1 2

2.110

and Corresponding Solutions

The response of the system is given by

2.111

(2.111):

1. The roots lying farther to the left in the s-plane indicate that the

corresponding responses decay faster than those associated with

roots closer to the imaginary axis.

2. If the roots have positive real values of sthat is, the roots lie in

the right half of the s-planethe corresponding response grows

exponentially and hence will be unstable.

and Corresponding Solutions

Solutions

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

If the roots lie on the imaginary axis (with zero real value), the

corresponding response will be naturally stable.

If the roots have a zero imaginary part, the corresponding response

will not oscillate.

The response of the system will exhibit an oscillatory behavior only

when the roots have nonzero imaginary parts.

The farther the roots lie to the left of the s-plane, the faster the

corresponding response decreases.

The larger the imaginary part of the roots, the higher the frequency of

oscillation of the corresponding response of the system.

and Corresponding Solutions

Solutions

2.8

Parameter Variations and Root Locus Representations

2.8

Representations

Interpretations of wn , wd ,

The angle made by the line OA with the imaginary axis is given by

wn

sin

wn

sin 1

2.113

damping ratios

1

The time constant of the system is defined as

wn

96 2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition in SI Units

Representations

Interpretations of wn , wd ,

Representations

Interpretations of wn , wd ,

Representations

Interpretations of wn , wd ,

different time constants

Representations

A plot or graph that shows how changes in one of the parameters

of the system will modify the roots of the characteristic equation of

the system is known as the root locus plot.

Variation of the damping ratio:

We vary the damping constant from zero to infinity and study the

migration of the characteristic roots in the s-plane.

From Eq. (2.109) when c = 0,

s1, 2

4mk

k

iwn

2m

m

2.115

Representations

Variation of the damping ratio:

Noting that the real and imaginary parts of the roots in Eq. (2.109)

can be expressed as

c

wn

2m

For

and

4mk c 2

wn 1 2 wd

2m

2.117

2.116

Representations

Variation of the damping ratio:

The radius vector will make an angle with the positive imaginary

axis with

wd

wn

sin

, cos

wn

wn

wn

with 1 2

The two roots trace loci or paths in the form of circular arcs as the

damping ratio is increased from zero to unity as shown

Representations

Variation of the damping ratio:

Representations

Example 2.13

Study of Roots with Variation of c

Plot the root locus diagram of the system governed by the equation by

varying the value of c >0

3s 2 c 27 0

Representations

Example 2.13

Study of Roots with Variation of c

Solution

The roots of equation are given by

s1, 2

c c 2 324

E.2

Eq. (E.2) gives the roots as indicated in the Table.

Representations

Example 2.13

Study of Roots with Variation of c

Solution

Representations

Variation of the spring constant:

Since the spring constant does not appear explicitly in Eq. (2.108),

we consider a specific form of the characteristic equation (2.107)

as:

2

s 16 s k 0 2.121

s1, 2

16 256 4k

8 64 k

2

2.122

Representations

Variation of the mass:

To find the migration of the roots with a variation of the mass m,

we consider a specific form of the characteristic equation, Eq.

(2.107), as

ms 2 14 s 20 0

2.123

s1, 2

14 196 80m

2.124

Representations

Variation of the mass:

Some values of m and the corresponding roots given by Eq.

(2.124) are shown in Table.

Representations

Variation of the mass:

Representations

Variation of the mass:

2.9

Free Vibration with Coulomb Damping

2.9

Coulombs law of dry friction states that, when two bodies are in

contact, the force required to produce sliding is proportional to the

normal force acting in the plane of contact. Thus, the friction force

F is given by:

F N W mg

(2.125)

is the coefficient of sliding or kinetic friction

is 0.1 for lubricated metal, 0.3 for non-lubricated metal on metal, 1.0 for rubber on metal

Equation of Motion:

Consider a single degree of freedom system with dry friction as

shown in Fig.(a) below.

consider two cases as indicated in Fig.(b) and (c).

Equation of Motion:

Case 1.

When x is positive and dx/dt is positive or when x is negative and

dx/dt is positive (i.e., for the half cycle during which the mass

moves from left to right) the equation of motion can be obtained

using Newtons second law (Fig.b):

mx kx N

Hence

or

mx kx N

N

x(t ) A1 cos nt A2 sin nt

k

where n = k/m is the frequency of vibration

A1 & A2 are constants

(2.126)

(2.127)

Equation of Motion:

Case 2.

When x is positive and dx/dt is negative or when x is negative and

dx/dt is negative (i.e., for the half cycle during which the mass

moves from right to left) the equation of motion can be derived

from Fig. (c):

kx N mx

or mx kx N

(2.128)

N

x(t ) A3 cos nt A4 sin nt

k

where A3 & A4 are constants

116 2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition in SI Units

(2.129)

Equation of Motion:

117 2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition in SI Units

Solution:

Eqs.(2.107) & (2.109) can be expressed as a single equation using

N = mg:

mx mg sgn( x ) kx 0

(2.130)

as 1 for y > 0, -1 for y< 0, and 0 for y = 0.

Assuming initial conditions as

x(t 0) x0

x (t 0) 0

118 2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition in SI Units

(2.131)

Solution:

The solution is valid for half the cycle only, i.e., for 0 t / n.

Hence, the solution becomes the initial conditions for the next half

cycle. The procedure continued until the motion stops, i.e., when x n

N/k. Thus the number of half cycles (r) that elapse before the

motion ceases is:

2 N N

k

k

N

x0

k (2.134)

2 N

k

x0 r

Solution:

Note the following characteristics of a system with Coulomb

damping:

1.

is linear with viscous damping

2.

of Coulomb damping, while it is reduced with the addition of

viscous damping.

Solution:

Note the following characteristics of a system with Coulomb

damping:

3.

nonperiodic in a viscously damped (overdamped) system.

4.

The system comes to rest after some time with Coulomb damping,

whereas the motion theoretically continues forever (perhaps with

an infinitesimally small amplitude) with viscous damping.

Solution:

Note the following characteristics of a system with Coulomb

damping:

5.

reduces exponentially with viscous damping.

6.

amount 4N/k, so the amplitudes at the end of any two

consecutive cycles are related:

X m X m 1

122 2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition in SI Units

4N

k

(2.135)

The equation governing the angular oscillations of the system is

J 0 kt T

J 0 kt T

(2.136)

(2.137)

kt

J0

(2.138)

The amplitude of motion at the end of the rth half cycle (r) is

given by:

2T

r 0 r

kt

(2.139)

0 k

t

r

2T

kt

124 2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition in SI Units

(2.140)

Example 2.15

Pulley Subjected to Coulomb Damping

A steel shaft of length 1 m and diameter 50 mm is fixed at one end

and carries a pulley of mass moment of inertia 25 kg-m2 at the other

end. A band brake exerts a constant frictional torque of 400 N-m

around the circumference of the pulley. If the pulley is displaced by 6

and released, determine (1) the number of cycles before the pulley

comes to rest and (2) the final settling position of the pulley.

Example 2.15

Pulley Subjected to Coulomb Damping

Solution

(1) The number of half cycles that elapse before the angular motion of

the pullet ceases is:

T

0 k

t

r

(E.1)

2

T

The torsional spring constant of the shaft given by

kt

GJ

(0.05) 4

32

49,087.5 N - m/rad

1

(8 1010 )

Example 2.15

Pulley Subjected to Coulomb Damping

Solution

With constant friction torque applied to the pulley = 400 N-m., Eq.

(E.1) gives

400

49

,

087

.

5

5.926

800

49,087.5

0.10472

r

127 2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition in SI Units

Example 2.15

Pulley Subjected to Coulomb Damping

Solution

(2) The angular displacement after six half cycles:

400

0.10472 6 2

0.006935 rad 0.39734

49,087.5

from the equilibrium position on the same side of the initial

displacement.

2.10

Free Vibration with Hysteretic Damping

2.10

figure below. The force needed to cause a displacement:

F kx cx

(2.141)

F (t ) kX sin t cX cos t

kx c X 2 ( X sin t ) 2

kx c X 2 x 2

(2.143)

Spring-viscous-damper system

131 2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition in SI Units

shown in Fig(b). The area of the loop denotes the energy dissipated

by the damper in a cycle of motion and is given by:

W Fdx

2 /

(2.144)

h

c

(2.145)

(2.146)

Hysteresis loop

Complex Stiffness

For general harmonic motion, x Xe it , the force is given by

(2.147)

F (k ih) x

h

where k ih k 1 i k (1 i )

k

(2.148)

(2.149)

The energy loss per cycle can be expressed as W k X 2

The hysteresis logarithmic decrement can be defined as

Xj

ln

ln(1 )

X

j 1

Corresponding frequency

m

135 2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition in SI Units

(2.155)

(2.154)

(2.150)

The equivalent viscous damping ratio

2 eq

h

eq

k

2 2k

(2.156)

k h

ceq cc eq 2 mk mk

(2.157)

Example 2.17

Response of a Hysteretically Damped Bridge Structure

A bridge structure is modeled as a single degree of freedom system

with an equivalent mass of 5 X 105 kg and an equivalent stiffness of

25 X106 N/m. During a free vibration test, the ratio of successive

amplitudes was found to be 1.04. Estimate the structural damping

constant () and the approximate free vibration response of the

bridge.

Example 2.17

Response of a Hysteretically Damped Bridge Structure

Solution

Using the ratio of successive amplitudes,

Xj

ln(1.04) ln(1 )

ln

X

j 1

0.04

1 1.04 or

0.0127

k k

ceq

km

k

m

(E.1)

Example 2.17

Response of a Hysteretically Damped Bridge Structure

Solution

Using the known values of the equivalent stiffness and equivalent

mass,

ceq (0.0127) (25 106 )(5 105 ) 44.9013 103 N - s/m

Since ceq < cc, the bridge is underdamped. Hence, its free vibration

response is

x(t ) e

n t

x0 cos 1 nt

2

ceq

x 0 n x0

1 n

2

40.9013 103

0.0063

cc 7071.0678 103

140 2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition in SI Units

sin 1 n t

2.11

Stability of Systems

2.11

vibrating system

A asymptotically stable (called stable in controls literature) is when

its free-vibration response approaches zero as time approaches

infinity.

A system is considered to be unstable if its free-vibration response

grows without bound (approaches infinity) as time approaches

infinity.

A system is stable (called marginally stable in controls literature) if

its free-vibration response neither decays nor grows, but remains

constant or oscillates as time approaches infinity.

Example 2.18

Stability of a System

Consider a uniform rigid bar, of mass m and length l, pivoted at one

end and connected symmetrically by two springs at the other end, as

shown in the figure. Assuming that the springs are unstretched

when the bar is vertical, derive the equation of motion of the system

for small angular displacements of the bar about the pivot point, and

investigate the stability behavior of the system.

Example 2.18

Stability of a System

Example 2.18

Stability of a System

The equation of motion of the bar, for rotation about the point O, is

ml 2

l

2kl sin l cos W sin 0

3

2

E.1

ml 2

Wl

2

2kl 0

3

2

2 0 E.3

146 2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition in SI Units

E.2

Example 2.18

Stability of a System

12kl 2 3Wl

Where

2

2ml

E.4

The solution of Eq. (E.2) depends on the sign of 2 as indicated

below.

Case 1. When

12kl

3Wl / 2ml 2 0

where

12kl 2 3Wl

wn

2ml

E.6

1/ 2

E.7

Example 2.18

Stability of a System

2

t C1t C2

E.8

t t 0

E.9

Equation (E.9) shows that the system is unstable with the angular

displacement increasing linearly at a constant velocity

Example 2.18

Stability of a System

2

t B1et B2 e t

For the initial conditions

E.10

t 0 0 and t 0 0

E.11

1

0 0 et 0 0 e t

2

the motion is unstable.

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