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# Mechanical Vibrations

## Fifth Edition in SI Units

Singiresu S. Rao

Chapter 2
Free Vibration of Single-Degree-of-Freedom Systems

## 2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition in SI Units

Learning Objective

## Derive the equation of motion of SDOF using

Newtons second law, DAlembert s principle, Virtual
displacement and energy Conservation.
Linearise the non linear equation of motion
Solve a spring-mass-damper system for different type
of free vibration
Compute the natural frequency of vibration system
Determine whether the system stable or not

Chapter Outline
2.1

Introduction

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

2.6

## Free Vibration with Viscous Damping

2.7
Graphical Representation of Characteristic Roots and Corresponding Solutions
2.8

Chapter Outline

2.9

2.10

## Free Vibration with Hysteretic Damping

2.11

Stability of Systems

2.1
Introduction

2.1

2.1 Introduction

Free

## Vibration occurs when a system oscillates only under an initial

disturbance with no external forces acting after the initial
disturbance
Undamped vibrations result when amplitude of motion remains
constant with time (e.g. in a vacuum)
Damped vibrations occur when the amplitude of free vibration
diminishes gradually overtime, due to resistance offered by the
surrounding medium (e.g. air)

2.1 Introduction

Several

## mechanical and structural systems can be idealized as

single degree of freedom systems, for example, the mass and
stiffness of a system

## 2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition in SI Units

2.2
Free Vibration of an Undamped Translational System

2.2

System
Equation

## of Motion Using Newtons Second Law of Motion:

If mass m is displaced
a distance x (t ) when acted upon by a

d dx (t )
F (t ) m

dt
dt

## If mass m is constant, this equation reduces to

d x (t )

F (t ) m
mx
(2.1)
2
dt
2

d
x (t )

where x
is the acceleration of the mass
2
dt
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## 2.2 Free Vibration of an Undamped Translational

System
For a rigid body undergoing rotational motion, Newtons Law gives

M (t ) J

where M

(2.2)

d 2 (t ) / dt 2

## are the resulting angular displacement and angular

acceleration, respectively.
For undamped single degree of freedom system, the application of Eq.
(2.1) to mass m yields the equation of motion:

F (t ) kx mx or mx kx 0

( 2.3)

System

## Equation of Motion Using Other Methods:

1.

DAlemberts Principle
The equations of motion, Eqs. (2.1) & (2.2) can be rewritten as

F (t ) mx 0

M (t ) J 0

(2.4a )
(2.4b)

## The application of DAlemberts principle to the system shown in Fig.

(c) yields the equation of motion:

kx mx 0
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or

mx kx 0

(2.3)

System

2.

## Principle of Virtual Displacements

If a system that is in equilibrium under the
action of a set of forces is subjected to a
virtual displacement, then the total virtual
work done by the forces will be zero.
Consider spring-mass system as shown,
the virtual work done by each force can be
computed as:

## Virtual work done by the spring force WS (kx)x

Virtual work done by the inertia force Wi (mx)x
14 2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition in SI Units

System

2.

## Principle of Virtual Displacements (Cont)

When the total virtual work done by all the forces is set equal to
zero, we obtain

mxx kxx 0

(2.5)

## Since the virtual displacement can have an arbitrary value, x 0 ,

Eq.(2.5) gives the equation of motion of the spring-mass system as

mx kx 0

(2.3)

System

3.

## Principle of Conservation of Energy

A system is said to be conservative if no energy is lost due to
friction or energy-dissipating nonelastic members.
If no work is done on the conservative system by external forces,
the total energy of the system remains constant. Thus the principle
of conservation of energy can be expressed as:

T U constant or

d
(T U ) 0
dt

( 2.6)

System

3.

## Principle of Conservation of Energy (Cont)

The kinetic and potential energies are given by:

1 2
T mx
2
1 2
U kx
2

(2.7)
(2.8)

Substitution of Eqs. (2.7) & (2.8) into Eq. (2.6) yields the desired
equation

mx kx 0

(2.3)

System

## Equation of Motion of a Spring-Mass System in Vertical Position:

Consider the configuration of the spring-mass system shown in the
figure.

System

## Equation of Motion of a Spring-Mass System in Vertical Position:

For static equilibrium,

W mg k st

(2.9)

## where w = weight of mass m,

st = static deflection
g = acceleration due to gravity

## The application of Newtons second law of motion to mass m gives

mx k ( x st ) W
and since k st W , we obtain

mx kx 0
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(2.10)

System

## Equation of Motion of a Spring-Mass System in Vertical Position:

Notice that Eqs. (2.3) and (2.10) are identical. This indicates that
when a mass moves in a vertical direction, we can ignore its
weight, provided we measure x from its static equilibrium position.
Hence, Eq. (2.3) can be expressed as

(2.15)

## x(t ) A1 cos nt A2 sin nt

where A1 and A2 are new constants
20 2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition in SI Units

(2.16)

System

## Equation of Motion of a Spring-Mass System in Vertical Position:

From Eq (2.16), we have

x(t 0) A1 x0
x (t 0) n A2 x 0

(2.17)

Hence, A1 x0 and A2 x 0 / n
Solution of Eq. (2.3) is subjected to the initial conditions of Eq.
(2.17) which is given by

x 0
x(t ) x0 cos nt
sin nt
n
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(2.18)

## 2.2 Free Vibration of an Undamped Translational

System

Harmonic Motion
Eqs.(2.15), (2.16) & (2.18) are harmonic functions of time. Eq.
(2.16) can also be expressed as:

x(t ) A0 sin(nt 0 )
where A0 and
respectively:

(2.23)

x
A0 A x 0

n
2
0

x0n

0 tan
x 0
1

2 1/ 2

(2.24)

(2.25)

## 2.2 Free Vibration of an Undamped Translational

System

Harmonic Motion
The nature of harmonic oscillation can be represented graphically as
shown in the figure.

## 2.2 Free Vibration of an Undamped Translational

System

Harmonic Motion
Note the following aspects of spring-mass systems:
1.

## When the spring-mass system is in a vertical position

Circular natural frequency: n k
m
Spring constant, k:

Hence, n
st

W mg

st st

1/ 2

(2.28)

1/ 2

(2.26)

(2.27)

## 2.2 Free Vibration of an Undamped Translational

System

Harmonic Motion
Note the following aspects of spring-mass systems:
1.

## When the spring-mass system is in a vertical position (Cont)

Natural frequency in cycles per second:

1
fn
2
Natural period:

st

1/ 2

st
1
n
2
fn
g

(2.29)
1/ 2

(2.30)

## 2.2 Free Vibration of an Undamped Translational

System

Harmonic Motion
Note the following aspects of spring-mass systems:
2.

## Velocity x (t ) and the acceleration x(t ) of the mass m at time t

can be obtained as:

dx

(t ) n A sin(nt ) n A cos(nt )
dt
2
d 2x
x(t ) 2 (t ) n2 A cos(nt ) n2 A cos(nt )
dt
x (t )

(2.31)

## 2.2 Free Vibration of an Undamped Translational

System

Harmonic Motion
Note the following aspects of spring-mass systems:
3.

If initial displacement

x0

is zero,

x 0
x 0

x(t )
cos nt
sin nt
n
2 n

x(t ) x0 cos n t

(2.33)

(2.32)

## 2.2 Free Vibration of an Undamped Translational

System

Harmonic Motion
Note the following aspects of spring-mass systems:
4.

## The response of a single degree of freedom system can be

represented by:
x (t ) An sin(nt )
(2.34)

sin(nt )

x
y

An
A

(2.35)

## cos 2 (nt ) sin 2 (nt ) 1

x2 y 2
2 1
2
A
A
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(2.36)

where

y x / n

## 2.2 Free Vibration of an Undamped Translational

System

Harmonic Motion
Note the following aspects of spring-mass systems:
4.

## 2.2 Free Vibration of an Undamped Translational

System
Example 2.2
Free Vibration Response Due to Impact
A cantilever beam carries a mass M at the free end as shown in the
figure. A mass m falls from a height h on to the mass M and adheres
to it without rebounding. Determine the resulting transverse vibration
of the beam.

## 2.2 Free Vibration of an Undamped Translational

System
Example 2.2
Free Vibration Response Due to Impact
Solution
Using the principle of conservation of momentum:
mvm ( M m) x 0

m
m

vm

M m
M m

x 0

2 gh

(E.1)

## The initial conditions of the problem can be stated:

mg
x0
,
k
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M m

x 0

2 gh

(E.2)

## 2.2 Free Vibration of an Undamped Translational

System
Example 2.2
Free Vibration Response Due to Impact
Solution (Cont)
Thus the resulting free transverse vibration of the beam can be
expressed as

x(t ) A cos(nt )
where

x 0

A x

n
2
0

2 1/ 2

x 0

tan
x0n

, n

k
3EI
3
M m
l ( M m)

## 2.2 Free Vibration of an Undamped Translational

System
Example 2.5
Natural Frequency of Pulley System
Determine the natural frequency of the system.
Assume the pulleys to be frictionless and of negligible mass.

## 2.2 Free Vibration of an Undamped Translational

System
Example 2.5
Natural Frequency of Pulley System
Solution

2W 2W
The total movement of the mass m (point O) is 2
k k
2
1
The equivalent spring constant of the system is
Weight of the mass
Net displacement of the mass
Equivalent spring constant
1 1 4W (k1 k 2 )
W
4W

k eq
k1k 2
k1 k 2
k1k 2
k eq
4(k1 k 2 )
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(E.1)

## 2.2 Free Vibration of an Undamped Translational

System
Example 2.5
Natural Frequency of Pulley System
Solution
By displacing mass m from the static equilibrium position by x, the
equation of motion of the mass can be written as

mx keq x 0

(E.2)

## Natural frequency is given by

keq

n
m

1/ 2

k1k 2

m
(
k

k
)
1
2

1
k1k 2
fn n

2 4 m(k1 k 2 )
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1/ 2

(E.3)

cycles/sec

(E.4)

1/ 2

2.3
Free Vibration of an Undamped Torsional System

2.3

## From the theory of torsion of circular shafts, we have the relation:

Mt

GI 0
l

(2.37)

where
Mt = torque that produces the twist ,
G = shear modulus,
l = is the length of shaft,
I0 = polar moment of inertia of cross section of shaft

d 4
I0
32

(2.38)

M t GI 0 Gd 4
kt

l
32l

(2.39)

## 2.3 Free Vibration of an Undamped Torsional System

Equation of Motion:

J 0 kt 0

(2.40)

kt

n
J0

1/ 2

(2.41)

J0

n 2
kt

1/ 2

(2.42) ,

1
fn
2

kt

J0

1/ 2

(2.43)

## Note the following aspects of this system:

1)

If the cross section of the shaft supporting the disc is not circular,
an appropriate torsional spring constant is to be used.

2)

hD 4 WD 4
J0

32
8g
3)

## where = mass density

h = thickness
D = diameter
W = weight of the disc

clock

## 2.3 Free Vibration of an Undamped Torsional System

Example 2.6
Natural Frequency of Compound Pendulum
Any rigid body pivoted at a point other than its center of mass will
oscillate about the pivot point under its own gravitational force. Such a
system is known as a compound pendulum as shown. Find the natural
frequency of such a system.

## 2.3 Free Vibration of an Undamped Torsional System

Example 2.6
Natural Frequency of Compound Pendulum
Solution
For a displacement , the restoring torque (due to the weight of the
body W) is (Wd sin ) and the equation of motion is

J 0 Wd sin 0

(E.1)

J 0 Wd 0

(E.2)

pendulum is
2
1/ 2

Wd

n
J0

mgd

J0

(E.3)

## 2.3 Free Vibration of an Undamped Torsional System

Example 2.6
Natural Frequency of Compound Pendulum
Solution
Comparing with natural frequency, the length of equivalent simple
pendulum is
J0

md

(E.4)

1/ 2
gd
k 02

k0

(E.5) , l

(E.6)

## 2.3 Free Vibration of an Undamped Torsional System

Example 2.6
Natural Frequency of Compound Pendulum
Solution
If kG denotes the radius of gyration of the body about G, we have:

k k d
2
0

2
G

kG2

(E.7) and l
d
d

kG2
GA
d
Eq.(E.8) becomes

l GA d OA

(E.9)

(E.10)

(E.8)

## 2.3 Free Vibration of an Undamped Torsional System

Example 2.6
Natural Frequency of Compound Pendulum
Solution
Hence, from Eq.(E.5), n is given by

g
n 2

k
/
d
0

1/ 2

g

l

1/ 2

OA

1/ 2

(E.11)

This equation shows that, no matter whether the body is pivoted from
O or A, its natural frequency is the same. The point A is called the
center of percussion.

## 2.3 Free Vibration of an Undamped Torsional System

Example 2.6
Natural Frequency of Compound Pendulum
Solution

## Applications of centre of percussion

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2.4
Response of First-Order Systems and Time Constant

2.4

Constant

Constant

## The application of Newtons second law of motion yields the

equation of motion of the rotor as

2.47

Jw ct w 0
where w

dw
dt

## Assuming the trial solution as

w t Ae st 2.48
where A and s are unknown constants

## Using the initial condition, w t 0 w0 , Eq. (2.48) can be written as

w t w0 e st
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2.49

Constant

w0 e st Js ct 0

2.50

## Since w0 0 leads to no motion of the rotor, we assume w0 0 and

Eq. (2.50) can be satisfied only if

Js ct 0

2.51

## Equation (2.51) is known as the characteristic equation which yields

ct
c
Jt t
. Thus the solution, Eq. (2.49), becomes w t w0 e
J
Because the exponent of Eq. (2.52) is known to be ct , the time
J
constant will be equal to J
2.53
ct

## 2.4 Response of First-Order Systems and Time

Constant

For t

w t w0 e

Jt

w0 e 1 0.368w0

2.54

Thus the response reduces to 0.368 times its initial value at a time
equal to the time constant of the system.

## 51 2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition in SI Units

2.5
Rayleighs Energy Method

2.5

## The principle of conservation of energy, in the context of an

undamped vibrating system, can be restated as

T1 U1 T2 U 2

(2.55)

Tmax U max

(2.57)

## 2.5 Rayleighs Energy Method

Example 2.8
Effect of Mass on wn of a Spring
Determine the effect of the mass of the spring on the natural
frequency of the spring-mass system shown in the figure below.

## 2.5 Rayleighs Energy Method

Example 2.8
Effect of Mass on wn of a Spring
Solution
The kinetic energy of the spring element of length dy is

1 m
yx
dTs s dy

2 l
l

(E.1)

## The total kinetic energy of the system can be expressed as

T kinetic energy of mass (Tm ) kinetic energy of spring (Ts )
1 2 l 1 ms y 2 x 2 1 2 1 ms 2
mx
mx y 0
dy
x
2
2
2 l
2 3
l 2
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(E.2)

## 2.5 Rayleighs Energy Method

Example 2.8
Effect of Mass on wn of a Spring
Solution
The total potential energy of the system is given by

1 2
kx
2

(E.3)

x(t ) X cos n t

(E.4)

Tmax

1
ms 2 2
m
X n
2
3

1 2
kX
2

(E.6)

## 2.5 Rayleighs Energy Method

Example 2.8
Effect of Mass on wn of a Spring
Solution
By equating Tmax and Umax, we obtain the expression for the natural
frequency:

1/ 2

m ms

(E.7)

Thus the effect of the mass of spring can be accounted for by adding
one-third of its mass to the main mass.

## 57 2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition in SI Units

2.6
Free Vibration with Viscous Damping

2.6

## 2.6 Free Vibration with Viscous Damping

Equation of Motion:

F cx

(2.58)

where c = damping

## From the figure, Newtons law yields

that the equation of motion is

mx cx kx
mx cx kx 0

(2.59)

x(t ) Ce st

(2.60)

ms 2 cs k 0

(2.61)

s1, 2

c c 4mk
c
k
c

2m
2m
2
m
m

## x1 (t ) C1e s1t and x2 (t ) C2 e s2t

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(2.63)

(2.62)

## x(t ) C1e s1t C2 e s2t

c
k
c

t

2
m
2
m
m

C1e

c
k
c

t

2
m
2
m
m

C2 e

(2.64)

where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants to be determined from the initial conditions of the system

## Critical Damping Constant and Damping Ratio:

The critical damping cc is defined as the value of the damping
constant c for which the radical in Eq.(2.62) becomes zero:
2

k
k
cc
2 km 2mn

0 cc 2m
m
m
2m
The damping ratio is defined as:

c / cc

(2.66)

(2.65)

## Critical Damping Constant and Damping Ratio:

Thus the general solution for Eq.(2.64) is

x(t ) C1e

2 1 t

C2 e

2 1 t

(2.69)

## Assuming that 0, consider the following 3 cases:

Case 1: Underdamped system ( 1 or c cc or c/ 2m k / m )
For this condition, (2-1) is negative and the roots are

s1 i 1

s2

n
n

## Critical Damping Constant and Damping Ratio:

Case 1: Underdamped system ( 1 or c cc or c/ 2m k / m )
The solution can be written in different forms:

x(t ) C1e
e

i 1 2 t

n t

C e

C2 e

i 1 2 n t

i 1 2 t

C2 e

i 1 2 n t

e nt C1 cos 1 2 nt C2 sin 1 2 nt

Xe nt sin 1 2 nt

X 0 e nt cos 1 2 nt 0
64 2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition in SI Units

(2.70)

## where (C1,C2), (X,),

and (X0, 0) are arbitrary constants

## Critical Damping Constant and Damping Ratio:

Case 1: Underdamped system ( 1 or c cc or c/ 2m k / m )
For the initial conditions at t = 0,

C1 x0 and C2

x 0 n x0

(2.71)

1 n
2

x(t ) e

n t

x0 cos 1 nt
2

x 0 n x0
1 n
2

sin 1 nt

(2.72)

## Critical Damping Constant and Damping Ratio:

Case 1: Underdamped system ( 1 or c cc or c/ 2m k / m )
Eq.(2.72) describes a damped harmonic motion. Its amplitude
decreases exponentially with time, as shown in the figure below.
The frequency of damped vibration is: d 1 2 n

( 2.76)

## Critical Damping Constant and Damping Ratio:

Case 2: Critically damped system ( 1 or c cc or c/ 2m k / m )
In this case, the two roots are:

cc
s1 s2
n (2.77)
2m
Due to repeated roots, the solution of Eq.(2.59) is given by

(2.78)

## Critical Damping Constant and Damping Ratio:

Case 2: Critically damped system ( 1 or c cc or c/ 2m k / m )
Application of initial conditions gives:

C1 x0 and C2 x 0 n x0

(2.79)

## Thus the solution becomes:

x(t ) x0 x 0 n x0 t e nt

(2.80)

## Critical Damping Constant and Damping Ratio:

Case 2: Critically damped system ( 1 or c cc or c/ 2m k / m )
It can be seen that the motion represented by Eq.(2.80) is a
periodic (i.e., non-periodic).
Since e t 0 as t , the motion will eventually diminish to zero,
as indicated in the figure below.
n

## Comparison of motions with different types of damping

69 2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition in SI Units

## Critical Damping Constant and Damping Ratio:

Case 3: Overdamped system ( 1 or c cc or c/ 2m k / m )
The roots are real and distinct and are given by:

s1 2 1 n 0
s2

x(t ) C1e

2 1 t

C2 e

2 1 t

(2.81)

## Critical Damping Constant and Damping Ratio:

Case 3: Overdamped system ( 1 or c cc or c/ 2m k / m )
For the initial conditions at t = 0,

C1

C2

x0n 2 1 x 0
2n 2 1

x0n 2 1 x 0

2n 1
2

(2.82)

## 2.6 Free Vibration with Viscous Damping

Logarithmic Decrement:
Using Eq.(2.70),

x1 X 0 e nt1 cos(d t1 0 )

x2 X 0 e nt 2 cos(d t 2 0 )

e nt1

n t1 d

e n d

(2.83)
(2.84)

## The logarithmic decrement can be obtained from Eq.(2.84):

x1
2
2 c
ln n d n

(2.85)
2
x2
d 2m
1
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## 2.6 Free Vibration with Viscous Damping

Logarithmic Decrement:
For small damping,
Hence,

or

Thus

if

1 x1

ln
m xm 1

## 73 2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition in SI Units

(2.86)
(2.87)

(2.88)
(2.92)

where m is an integer

## Energy dissipated in Viscous Damping:

In a viscously damped system, the rate of change of energy with
time is given by:

dW
dx
2
force velocity Fv cv c

dt
dt

(2.93)

## The energy dissipated in a complete cycle is:

( 2 / d )

W t 0

dx
2
2
2
2
dt

0 cX d cos d t d (d t ) cd X
dt

(2.94)

## Energy dissipated in Viscous Damping:

Consider the system shown in the figure.
The total force resisting the motion is

F kx cv kx cx

(2.95)

x(t ) X sin d t

(2.96)

## Eq.(2.95) becomes F kX sin d t cd X cos d t

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(2.97)

## Energy dissipated in Viscous Damping:

The energy dissipated in a complete cycle will be

2 / d

t 0

2 / d

t 0

2 / d

t 0

Fvdt
kX 2d sin d t cos d t d (d t )
cd X 2 cos 2 d t d (d t ) cd X 2

(2.98)

## Energy dissipated in Viscous Damping:

Computing the fraction of the total energy of the vibrating system
that is dissipated in each cycle of motion,

2
W
cd X 2

2
1
W
d
m d2 X 2
2

2 4 constant
2m

(2.99)

where W is either the max potential energy or the max kinetic energy

## The loss coefficient is defined as

(W / 2 ) W
loss coefficient

W
2W
77 2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition in SI Units

(2.100)

## Torsional systems with Viscous Damping:

Consider a single degree of freedom torsional system with a viscous
damper as shown in figure.

## Torsional systems with Viscous Damping:

The viscous damping torque is given by

T ct

(2.101)

J 0 ct kt 0

(2.102)

## where J0 = mass moment of inertia of disc

kt = spring constant of system
= angular displacement of disc

## Torsional systems with Viscous Damping:

In the underdamped case, the frequency of damped vibration is
given by

d 1 2 n

(2.103)

where

n
and

kt
J0

(2.104)

ct
ct
ct

ctc 2 J 0n 2 kt J 0

## 80 2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition in SI Units

(2.105)
ctc = critical torsional damping constant

## 2.6 Free Vibration with Viscous Damping

Example 2.11
Shock Absorber for a Motorcycle
An underdamped shock absorber is to be designed for a motorcycle of
mass 200kg (shown in Fig.(a)). When the shock absorber is subjected
to an initial vertical velocity due to a road bump, the resulting
displacement-time curve is to be as indicated in Fig.(b). Find the
necessary stiffness and damping constants of the shock absorber if
the damped period of vibration is to be 2 s and the amplitude x1 is to
be reduced to one-fourth in one half cycle (i.e., x1.5 = x1/4). Also find
the minimum initial velocity that leads to a maximum displacement of
250 mm.

## 2.6 Free Vibration with Viscous Damping

Example 2.11
Shock Absorber for a Motorcycle

## 2.6 Free Vibration with Viscous Damping

Example 2.11
Shock Absorber for a Motorcycle
Solution
Since x1.5
becomes

x1
2

ln
ln 16 2.7726

1 2
x2

(E.1)

## 2.6 Free Vibration with Viscous Damping

Example 2.11
Shock Absorber for a Motorcycle
Solution
From which can be found as 0.4037 and the damped period of
vibration is given by 2 s. Hence,

2
2
2 d

d n 1 2

2
2 1 (0.4037)

## 2.6 Free Vibration with Viscous Damping

Example 2.11
Shock Absorber for a Motorcycle
Solution
The critical damping constant can be obtained as

## cc 2mn 2(200)(3.4338) 1.373.54 N - s/m

Thus the damping constant is

## c cc (0.4037)(1373.54) 554.4981 N - s/m

The stiffness is
k mn2 (200)(3.4338) 2 2358.2652 N/m

## 2.6 Free Vibration with Viscous Damping

Example 2.11
Shock Absorber for a Motorcycle
Solution
The displacement of the mass will attain its max value at time t 1 is

sin d t1 1 2
sin d t1 sin t1 1 (0.4037) 2 0.9149
sin 1 (0.9149)
t1
0.3678 sec

## 2.6 Free Vibration with Viscous Damping

Example 2.11
Shock Absorber for a Motorcycle
Solution
The envelope passing through the max points is x 1 2 Xe nt
Since x = 250mm, 0.25 1 (0.4037) 2 Xe ( 0.4037 )(3.4338)( 0.3678) X 0.4550 m
The velocity of mass can be obtained by

x(t ) Xe nt sin d t
x (t ) Xe nt ( n sin d t d cos d t )
87 2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition in SI Units

(E.3)

(E.2)

## 2.6 Free Vibration with Viscous Damping

Example 2.11
Shock Absorber for a Motorcycle
Solution
When t = 0,

x (t 0) x 0 Xd Xn 1 2
(0.4550)(3.4338) 1 (0.4037) 2
1.4294 m/s

## 88 2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition in SI Units

2.7
Graphical Representation of Characteristic Roots and
Corresponding Solutions

2.7

## 2.7 Graphical Representation of Characteristic Roots

and Corresponding Solutions

## Roots of the Characteristic Equation

The free vibration of a single-degree-of-freedom spring-massviscous-damper system is governed by Eq. (2.59):

mx cx kx 0

2.106

ms 2 cs k 0
s 2 2wn s wn2 0

2.108

## 2.7 Graphical Representation of Characteristic Roots

and Corresponding Solutions

## Roots of the Characteristic Equation

The roots of Eq. (2.107) or (2.108) are given by (see Eqs. (2.62)
and (2.68)):

c c 2 4mk
s1 , s2
2m
s1 , s2 wn iwn 1 2

2.110

## 2.7 Graphical Representation of Characteristic Roots

and Corresponding Solutions

## Graphical Representation of Roots and Corresponding Solutions

The response of the system is given by

2.111

## Following observations can be made by examining Eqs. (2.110) and

(2.111):
1. The roots lying farther to the left in the s-plane indicate that the
corresponding responses decay faster than those associated with
roots closer to the imaginary axis.
2. If the roots have positive real values of sthat is, the roots lie in
the right half of the s-planethe corresponding response grows
exponentially and hence will be unstable.

## 2.7 Graphical Representation of Characteristic Roots

and Corresponding Solutions

## Graphical Representation of Roots and Corresponding

Solutions
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

If the roots lie on the imaginary axis (with zero real value), the
corresponding response will be naturally stable.
If the roots have a zero imaginary part, the corresponding response
will not oscillate.
The response of the system will exhibit an oscillatory behavior only
when the roots have nonzero imaginary parts.
The farther the roots lie to the left of the s-plane, the faster the
corresponding response decreases.
The larger the imaginary part of the roots, the higher the frequency of
oscillation of the corresponding response of the system.

## 2.7 Graphical Representation of Characteristic Roots

and Corresponding Solutions

Solutions

## 94 2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition in SI Units

2.8
Parameter Variations and Root Locus Representations

2.8

## 2.8 Parameter Variations and Root Locus

Representations

Interpretations of wn , wd ,

## and in the s-plane

The angle made by the line OA with the imaginary axis is given by

wn
sin

wn
sin 1

2.113

## The radial lines pass through the origin correspond to different

damping ratios

1
The time constant of the system is defined as
wn
96 2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition in SI Units

## 2.8 Parameter Variations and Root Locus

Representations

Interpretations of wn , wd ,

## 2.8 Parameter Variations and Root Locus

Representations

Interpretations of wn , wd ,

## 2.8 Parameter Variations and Root Locus

Representations

Interpretations of wn , wd ,

## Different lines parallel to the imaginary axis denote reciprocals of

different time constants

Representations

## Root Locus and Parameter Variations

A plot or graph that shows how changes in one of the parameters
of the system will modify the roots of the characteristic equation of
the system is known as the root locus plot.
Variation of the damping ratio:
We vary the damping constant from zero to infinity and study the
migration of the characteristic roots in the s-plane.
From Eq. (2.109) when c = 0,

s1, 2

4mk
k

iwn
2m
m

2.115

Representations

## Root Locus and Parameter Variations

Variation of the damping ratio:
Noting that the real and imaginary parts of the roots in Eq. (2.109)
can be expressed as

c

wn
2m
For

and

4mk c 2
wn 1 2 wd
2m

2.117

2.116

Representations

## Root Locus and Parameter Variations

Variation of the damping ratio:
The radius vector will make an angle with the positive imaginary
axis with

wd
wn
sin
, cos

wn
wn
wn
with 1 2

The two roots trace loci or paths in the form of circular arcs as the
damping ratio is increased from zero to unity as shown

Representations

## Root Locus and Parameter Variations

Variation of the damping ratio:

## 2.8 Parameter Variations and Root Locus

Representations
Example 2.13
Study of Roots with Variation of c
Plot the root locus diagram of the system governed by the equation by
varying the value of c >0

3s 2 c 27 0

## 2.8 Parameter Variations and Root Locus

Representations
Example 2.13
Study of Roots with Variation of c
Solution
The roots of equation are given by

s1, 2

c c 2 324

E.2

## We start with a value of C = 0 and the roots is as shown in the figure.

Eq. (E.2) gives the roots as indicated in the Table.

## 2.8 Parameter Variations and Root Locus

Representations
Example 2.13
Study of Roots with Variation of c
Solution

Representations

## Root Locus and Parameter Variations

Variation of the spring constant:
Since the spring constant does not appear explicitly in Eq. (2.108),
we consider a specific form of the characteristic equation (2.107)
as:
2

s 16 s k 0 2.121

s1, 2

16 256 4k
8 64 k
2

2.122

Representations

## Root Locus and Parameter Variations

Variation of the mass:
To find the migration of the roots with a variation of the mass m,
we consider a specific form of the characteristic equation, Eq.
(2.107), as

ms 2 14 s 20 0

2.123

s1, 2

14 196 80m

2.124

Representations

## Root Locus and Parameter Variations

Variation of the mass:
Some values of m and the corresponding roots given by Eq.
(2.124) are shown in Table.

Representations

## Root Locus and Parameter Variations

Variation of the mass:

Representations

## Root Locus and Parameter Variations

Variation of the mass:

## 111 2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition in SI Units

2.9
Free Vibration with Coulomb Damping

2.9

## 2.9 Free Vibration with Coulomb Damping

Coulombs law of dry friction states that, when two bodies are in
contact, the force required to produce sliding is proportional to the
normal force acting in the plane of contact. Thus, the friction force
F is given by:

F N W mg

(2.125)

## where N is normal force,

is the coefficient of sliding or kinetic friction
is 0.1 for lubricated metal, 0.3 for non-lubricated metal on metal, 1.0 for rubber on metal

## 2.9 Free Vibration with Coulomb Damping

Equation of Motion:
Consider a single degree of freedom system with dry friction as
shown in Fig.(a) below.

## Since friction force varies with the direction of velocity, we need to

consider two cases as indicated in Fig.(b) and (c).

## 2.9 Free Vibration with Coulomb Damping

Equation of Motion:
Case 1.
When x is positive and dx/dt is positive or when x is negative and
dx/dt is positive (i.e., for the half cycle during which the mass
moves from left to right) the equation of motion can be obtained
using Newtons second law (Fig.b):

mx kx N
Hence

or

mx kx N

N
x(t ) A1 cos nt A2 sin nt
k
where n = k/m is the frequency of vibration
A1 & A2 are constants

(2.126)

(2.127)

## 2.9 Free Vibration with Coulomb Damping

Equation of Motion:
Case 2.
When x is positive and dx/dt is negative or when x is negative and
dx/dt is negative (i.e., for the half cycle during which the mass
moves from right to left) the equation of motion can be derived
from Fig. (c):

kx N mx

or mx kx N

(2.128)

## The solution of the equation is given by:

N
x(t ) A3 cos nt A4 sin nt
k
where A3 & A4 are constants
116 2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition in SI Units

(2.129)

## 2.9 Free Vibration with Coulomb Damping

Equation of Motion:

## Motion of the mass with Coulomb damping

117 2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition in SI Units

## 2.9 Free Vibration with Coulomb Damping

Solution:
Eqs.(2.107) & (2.109) can be expressed as a single equation using
N = mg:

mx mg sgn( x ) kx 0

(2.130)

## where sgn(y) is called the sigum function, whose value is defined

as 1 for y > 0, -1 for y< 0, and 0 for y = 0.
Assuming initial conditions as

x(t 0) x0
x (t 0) 0
118 2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition in SI Units

(2.131)

## 2.9 Free Vibration with Coulomb Damping

Solution:
The solution is valid for half the cycle only, i.e., for 0 t / n.
Hence, the solution becomes the initial conditions for the next half
cycle. The procedure continued until the motion stops, i.e., when x n
N/k. Thus the number of half cycles (r) that elapse before the
motion ceases is:
2 N N

k
k
N
x0
k (2.134)
2 N
k

x0 r

## 2.9 Free Vibration with Coulomb Damping

Solution:
Note the following characteristics of a system with Coulomb
damping:

1.

## The equation of motion is nonlinear with Coulomb damping, while it

is linear with viscous damping

2.

## The natural frequency of the system is unaltered with the addition

of Coulomb damping, while it is reduced with the addition of
viscous damping.

## 2.9 Free Vibration with Coulomb Damping

Solution:
Note the following characteristics of a system with Coulomb
damping:

3.

## The motion is periodic with Coulomb damping, while it can be

nonperiodic in a viscously damped (overdamped) system.

4.

The system comes to rest after some time with Coulomb damping,
whereas the motion theoretically continues forever (perhaps with
an infinitesimally small amplitude) with viscous damping.

## 2.9 Free Vibration with Coulomb Damping

Solution:
Note the following characteristics of a system with Coulomb
damping:

5.

## The amplitude reduces linearly with Coulomb damping, whereas it

reduces exponentially with viscous damping.

6.

## In each successive cycle, the amplitude of motion is reduced by the

amount 4N/k, so the amplitudes at the end of any two
consecutive cycles are related:

X m X m 1
122 2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition in SI Units

4N
k

(2.135)

## Torsional Systems with Coulomb Damping:

The equation governing the angular oscillations of the system is

J 0 kt T
J 0 kt T

(2.136)
(2.137)

kt
J0

(2.138)

## Torsional Systems with Coulomb Damping:

The amplitude of motion at the end of the rth half cycle (r) is
given by:

2T
r 0 r
kt

(2.139)

## The motion ceases when

0 k
t
r
2T

kt
124 2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition in SI Units

(2.140)

## 2.9 Free Vibration with Viscous Damping

Example 2.15
Pulley Subjected to Coulomb Damping
A steel shaft of length 1 m and diameter 50 mm is fixed at one end
and carries a pulley of mass moment of inertia 25 kg-m2 at the other
end. A band brake exerts a constant frictional torque of 400 N-m
around the circumference of the pulley. If the pulley is displaced by 6
and released, determine (1) the number of cycles before the pulley
comes to rest and (2) the final settling position of the pulley.

## 2.9 Free Vibration with Viscous Damping

Example 2.15
Pulley Subjected to Coulomb Damping
Solution
(1) The number of half cycles that elapse before the angular motion of
the pullet ceases is:
T

0 k
t
r
(E.1)

2
T

## kt where 0 = 6 = 0.10472 rad,

The torsional spring constant of the shaft given by
kt

GJ

(0.05) 4
32
49,087.5 N - m/rad
1

(8 1010 )

## 2.9 Free Vibration with Viscous Damping

Example 2.15
Pulley Subjected to Coulomb Damping
Solution
With constant friction torque applied to the pulley = 400 N-m., Eq.
(E.1) gives

400

49
,
087
.
5

5.926
800

49,087.5

0.10472
r

## Thus the motion ceases after six half cycles.

127 2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition in SI Units

## 2.9 Free Vibration with Viscous Damping

Example 2.15
Pulley Subjected to Coulomb Damping
Solution
(2) The angular displacement after six half cycles:

400

0.10472 6 2
49,087.5
from the equilibrium position on the same side of the initial
displacement.

## 128 2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition in SI Units

2.10
Free Vibration with Hysteretic Damping

2.10

## Consider the spring-viscous damper arrangement shown in the

figure below. The force needed to cause a displacement:

F kx cx

(2.141)

## For a harmonic motion of frequency and amplitude X,

F (t ) kX sin t cX cos t
kx c X 2 ( X sin t ) 2
kx c X 2 x 2

(2.143)

## 2.10 Free Vibration with Hysteretic Damping

Spring-viscous-damper system
131 2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition in SI Units

## When F versus x is plotted, Eq.(2.143) represents a closed loop, as

shown in Fig(b). The area of the loop denotes the energy dissipated
by the damper in a cycle of motion and is given by:

W Fdx
2 /

(2.144)

h
c

(2.145)

(2.146)

Hysteresis loop

## 2.10 Free Vibration with Hysteretic Damping

Complex Stiffness
For general harmonic motion, x Xe it , the force is given by

(2.147)

## Thus, the force-displacement relation:

F (k ih) x
h

where k ih k 1 i k (1 i )
k

(2.148)
(2.149)

## Response of the system

The energy loss per cycle can be expressed as W k X 2
The hysteresis logarithmic decrement can be defined as

Xj

ln

ln(1 )

X
j 1

Corresponding frequency

m
135 2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition in SI Units

(2.155)

(2.154)

(2.150)

## Response of the system

The equivalent viscous damping ratio

2 eq

h
eq
k
2 2k

(2.156)

## Thus the equivalent damping constant is

k h
ceq cc eq 2 mk mk

(2.157)

## 2.10 Free Vibration with Viscous Damping

Example 2.17
Response of a Hysteretically Damped Bridge Structure
A bridge structure is modeled as a single degree of freedom system
with an equivalent mass of 5 X 105 kg and an equivalent stiffness of
25 X106 N/m. During a free vibration test, the ratio of successive
amplitudes was found to be 1.04. Estimate the structural damping
constant () and the approximate free vibration response of the
bridge.

## 2.10 Free Vibration with Viscous Damping

Example 2.17
Response of a Hysteretically Damped Bridge Structure
Solution
Using the ratio of successive amplitudes,
Xj
ln(1.04) ln(1 )
ln
X
j 1

0.04
1 1.04 or

0.0127

k k
ceq

km

k
m

(E.1)

## 2.10 Free Vibration with Viscous Damping

Example 2.17
Response of a Hysteretically Damped Bridge Structure
Solution
Using the known values of the equivalent stiffness and equivalent
mass,
ceq (0.0127) (25 106 )(5 105 ) 44.9013 103 N - s/m
Since ceq < cc, the bridge is underdamped. Hence, its free vibration
response is
x(t ) e

n t

x0 cos 1 nt
2

ceq

x 0 n x0
1 n
2

40.9013 103

0.0063
cc 7071.0678 103
140 2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition in SI Units

sin 1 n t

2.11
Stability of Systems

2.11

## Stability is one of the most important characteristics for any

vibrating system
A asymptotically stable (called stable in controls literature) is when
its free-vibration response approaches zero as time approaches
infinity.
A system is considered to be unstable if its free-vibration response
grows without bound (approaches infinity) as time approaches
infinity.
A system is stable (called marginally stable in controls literature) if
its free-vibration response neither decays nor grows, but remains
constant or oscillates as time approaches infinity.

## 2.11 Stability of Systems

Example 2.18
Stability of a System
Consider a uniform rigid bar, of mass m and length l, pivoted at one
end and connected symmetrically by two springs at the other end, as
shown in the figure. Assuming that the springs are unstretched
when the bar is vertical, derive the equation of motion of the system
for small angular displacements of the bar about the pivot point, and
investigate the stability behavior of the system.

## 2.11 Stability of Systems

Example 2.18
Stability of a System

## 2.11 Stability of Systems

Example 2.18
Stability of a System
The equation of motion of the bar, for rotation about the point O, is
ml 2
l
2kl sin l cos W sin 0
3
2

E.1

## For small oscillations, Eq. (E.1) reduces to

ml 2
Wl
2
2kl 0
3
2
2 0 E.3
146 2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition in SI Units

E.2

## 2.11 Stability of Systems

Example 2.18
Stability of a System
12kl 2 3Wl

Where
2
2ml

E.4

## The characteristic equation is given by s 2 2 0 E.5

The solution of Eq. (E.2) depends on the sign of 2 as indicated
below.
Case 1. When

12kl

3Wl / 2ml 2 0

where

12kl 2 3Wl

wn
2ml

E.6
1/ 2

E.7

## 2.11 Stability of Systems

Example 2.18
Stability of a System

2

t C1t C2

E.8

## For the initial conditions t 0 0 and t 0 0

t t 0

E.9

Equation (E.9) shows that the system is unstable with the angular
displacement increasing linearly at a constant velocity

## 2.11 Stability of Systems

Example 2.18
Stability of a System

## Case 3. When 12kl 3Wl / 2ml 0

2

t B1et B2 e t
For the initial conditions

E.10
t 0 0 and t 0 0

E.11

1
0 0 et 0 0 e t
2

## Equation (E.11) shows that increases exponentially with time; hence

the motion is unstable.