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Mechanical Vibrations

Fifth Edition in SI Units


Singiresu S. Rao

Chapter 2
Free Vibration of Single-Degree-of-Freedom Systems

2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition in SI Units

Learning Objective

Derive the equation of motion of SDOF using


Newtons second law, DAlembert s principle, Virtual
displacement and energy Conservation.
Linearise the non linear equation of motion
Solve a spring-mass-damper system for different type
of free vibration
Compute the natural frequency of vibration system
Determine whether the system stable or not

2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition in SI Units

Chapter Outline
2.1

Introduction

2.2

Free Vibration of an Undamped Translational System

2.3

Free Vibration of an Undamped Torsional System

2.4

Response of First-Order Systems and Time Constant

2.5

Rayleighs Energy Method

2.6

Free Vibration with Viscous Damping

2.7
Graphical Representation of Characteristic Roots and Corresponding Solutions
2.8

Parameter Variations and Root Locus Representations

2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition in SI Units

Chapter Outline

2.9

Free Vibration with Coulomb Damping

2.10

Free Vibration with Hysteretic Damping

2.11

Stability of Systems

2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition in SI Units

2.1
Introduction

2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition in SI Units

2.1

2.1 Introduction

Free

Vibration occurs when a system oscillates only under an initial


disturbance with no external forces acting after the initial
disturbance
Undamped vibrations result when amplitude of motion remains
constant with time (e.g. in a vacuum)
Damped vibrations occur when the amplitude of free vibration
diminishes gradually overtime, due to resistance offered by the
surrounding medium (e.g. air)

2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition in SI Units

2.1 Introduction

Several

mechanical and structural systems can be idealized as


single degree of freedom systems, for example, the mass and
stiffness of a system

2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition in SI Units

2.2
Free Vibration of an Undamped Translational System

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2.2

2.2 Free Vibration of an Undamped Translational


System
Equation

of Motion Using Newtons Second Law of Motion:

If mass m is displaced
a distance x (t ) when acted upon by a

resultant force F (t ) in the same direction,

d dx (t )
F (t ) m

dt
dt

If mass m is constant, this equation reduces to

d x (t )

F (t ) m
mx
(2.1)
2
dt
2

d
x (t )

where x
is the acceleration of the mass
2
dt
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2.2 Free Vibration of an Undamped Translational


System
For a rigid body undergoing rotational motion, Newtons Law gives

M (t ) J

where M

(2.2)

is the resultant moment acting on the body and and

d 2 (t ) / dt 2

are the resulting angular displacement and angular


acceleration, respectively.
For undamped single degree of freedom system, the application of Eq.
(2.1) to mass m yields the equation of motion:

F (t ) kx mx or mx kx 0

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( 2.3)

2.2 Free Vibration of an Undamped Translational


System

Equation of Motion Using Other Methods:

1.

DAlemberts Principle
The equations of motion, Eqs. (2.1) & (2.2) can be rewritten as

F (t ) mx 0

M (t ) J 0

(2.4a )
(2.4b)

The application of DAlemberts principle to the system shown in Fig.


(c) yields the equation of motion:

kx mx 0
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or

mx kx 0

(2.3)

2.2 Free Vibration of an Undamped Translational


System

Equation of Motion Using Other Methods:

2.

Principle of Virtual Displacements


If a system that is in equilibrium under the
action of a set of forces is subjected to a
virtual displacement, then the total virtual
work done by the forces will be zero.
Consider spring-mass system as shown,
the virtual work done by each force can be
computed as:

Virtual work done by the spring force WS (kx)x


Virtual work done by the inertia force Wi (mx)x
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2.2 Free Vibration of an Undamped Translational


System

Equation of Motion Using Other Methods:

2.

Principle of Virtual Displacements (Cont)


When the total virtual work done by all the forces is set equal to
zero, we obtain

mxx kxx 0

(2.5)

Since the virtual displacement can have an arbitrary value, x 0 ,


Eq.(2.5) gives the equation of motion of the spring-mass system as

mx kx 0

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(2.3)

2.2 Free Vibration of an Undamped Translational


System

Equation of Motion Using Other Methods:

3.

Principle of Conservation of Energy


A system is said to be conservative if no energy is lost due to
friction or energy-dissipating nonelastic members.
If no work is done on the conservative system by external forces,
the total energy of the system remains constant. Thus the principle
of conservation of energy can be expressed as:

T U constant or

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d
(T U ) 0
dt

( 2.6)

2.2 Free Vibration of an Undamped Translational


System

Equation of Motion Using Other Methods:

3.

Principle of Conservation of Energy (Cont)


The kinetic and potential energies are given by:

1 2
T mx
2
1 2
U kx
2

(2.7)
(2.8)

Substitution of Eqs. (2.7) & (2.8) into Eq. (2.6) yields the desired
equation

mx kx 0

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(2.3)

2.2 Free Vibration of an Undamped Translational


System

Equation of Motion of a Spring-Mass System in Vertical Position:


Consider the configuration of the spring-mass system shown in the
figure.

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2.2 Free Vibration of an Undamped Translational


System

Equation of Motion of a Spring-Mass System in Vertical Position:


For static equilibrium,

W mg k st

(2.9)

where w = weight of mass m,


st = static deflection
g = acceleration due to gravity

The application of Newtons second law of motion to mass m gives

mx k ( x st ) W
and since k st W , we obtain

mx kx 0
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(2.10)

2.2 Free Vibration of an Undamped Translational


System

Equation of Motion of a Spring-Mass System in Vertical Position:


Notice that Eqs. (2.3) and (2.10) are identical. This indicates that
when a mass moves in a vertical direction, we can ignore its
weight, provided we measure x from its static equilibrium position.
Hence, Eq. (2.3) can be expressed as

x(t ) C1e int C2 e int

(2.15)

where C1 and C2 are constants

By using the identities

x(t ) A1 cos nt A2 sin nt


where A1 and A2 are new constants
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(2.16)

2.2 Free Vibration of an Undamped Translational


System

Equation of Motion of a Spring-Mass System in Vertical Position:


From Eq (2.16), we have

x(t 0) A1 x0
x (t 0) n A2 x 0

(2.17)

Hence, A1 x0 and A2 x 0 / n
Solution of Eq. (2.3) is subjected to the initial conditions of Eq.
(2.17) which is given by

x 0
x(t ) x0 cos nt
sin nt
n
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(2.18)

2.2 Free Vibration of an Undamped Translational


System

Harmonic Motion
Eqs.(2.15), (2.16) & (2.18) are harmonic functions of time. Eq.
(2.16) can also be expressed as:

x(t ) A0 sin(nt 0 )
where A0 and
respectively:

(2.23)

0 are new constants, amplitude and phase angle

x
A0 A x 0

n
2
0

x0n

0 tan
x 0
1

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2 1/ 2

(2.24)

(2.25)

2.2 Free Vibration of an Undamped Translational


System

Harmonic Motion
The nature of harmonic oscillation can be represented graphically as
shown in the figure.

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2.2 Free Vibration of an Undamped Translational


System

Harmonic Motion
Note the following aspects of spring-mass systems:
1.

When the spring-mass system is in a vertical position


Circular natural frequency: n k
m
Spring constant, k:

Hence, n
st

W mg

st st

1/ 2

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(2.28)

1/ 2

(2.26)

(2.27)

2.2 Free Vibration of an Undamped Translational


System

Harmonic Motion
Note the following aspects of spring-mass systems:
1.

When the spring-mass system is in a vertical position (Cont)


Natural frequency in cycles per second:

1
fn
2
Natural period:

st

1/ 2

st
1
n
2
fn
g

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(2.29)
1/ 2

(2.30)

2.2 Free Vibration of an Undamped Translational


System

Harmonic Motion
Note the following aspects of spring-mass systems:
2.

Velocity x (t ) and the acceleration x(t ) of the mass m at time t


can be obtained as:

dx

(t ) n A sin(nt ) n A cos(nt )
dt
2
d 2x
x(t ) 2 (t ) n2 A cos(nt ) n2 A cos(nt )
dt
x (t )

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(2.31)

2.2 Free Vibration of an Undamped Translational


System

Harmonic Motion
Note the following aspects of spring-mass systems:
3.

If initial displacement

x0

is zero,

x 0
x 0

x(t )
cos nt
sin nt
n
2 n

If initial velocity x 0 is zero,

x(t ) x0 cos n t

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(2.33)

(2.32)

2.2 Free Vibration of an Undamped Translational


System

Harmonic Motion
Note the following aspects of spring-mass systems:
4.

The response of a single degree of freedom system can be


represented by:
x (t ) An sin(nt )
(2.34)

sin(nt )

x
y

An
A

(2.35)

By squaring and adding Eqs. (2.34) & (2.35)

cos 2 (nt ) sin 2 (nt ) 1


x2 y 2
2 1
2
A
A
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(2.36)

where

y x / n

2.2 Free Vibration of an Undamped Translational


System

Harmonic Motion
Note the following aspects of spring-mass systems:
4.

Phase plane representation of an undamped system

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2.2 Free Vibration of an Undamped Translational


System
Example 2.2
Free Vibration Response Due to Impact
A cantilever beam carries a mass M at the free end as shown in the
figure. A mass m falls from a height h on to the mass M and adheres
to it without rebounding. Determine the resulting transverse vibration
of the beam.

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2.2 Free Vibration of an Undamped Translational


System
Example 2.2
Free Vibration Response Due to Impact
Solution
Using the principle of conservation of momentum:
mvm ( M m) x 0

m
m

vm

M m
M m

x 0

2 gh

(E.1)

The initial conditions of the problem can be stated:

mg
x0
,
k
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M m

x 0

2 gh

(E.2)

2.2 Free Vibration of an Undamped Translational


System
Example 2.2
Free Vibration Response Due to Impact
Solution (Cont)
Thus the resulting free transverse vibration of the beam can be
expressed as

x(t ) A cos(nt )
where

x 0

A x

n
2
0

2 1/ 2

x 0

tan
x0n

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, n

k
3EI
3
M m
l ( M m)

2.2 Free Vibration of an Undamped Translational


System
Example 2.5
Natural Frequency of Pulley System
Determine the natural frequency of the system.
Assume the pulleys to be frictionless and of negligible mass.

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2.2 Free Vibration of an Undamped Translational


System
Example 2.5
Natural Frequency of Pulley System
Solution

2W 2W
The total movement of the mass m (point O) is 2
k k
2
1
The equivalent spring constant of the system is
Weight of the mass
Net displacement of the mass
Equivalent spring constant
1 1 4W (k1 k 2 )
W
4W

k eq
k1k 2
k1 k 2
k1k 2
k eq
4(k1 k 2 )
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(E.1)

2.2 Free Vibration of an Undamped Translational


System
Example 2.5
Natural Frequency of Pulley System
Solution
By displacing mass m from the static equilibrium position by x, the
equation of motion of the mass can be written as

mx keq x 0

(E.2)

Natural frequency is given by


keq

n
m

1/ 2

k1k 2

m
(
k

k
)
1
2

1
k1k 2
fn n

2 4 m(k1 k 2 )
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1/ 2

rad/sec

(E.3)

cycles/sec

(E.4)

1/ 2

2.3
Free Vibration of an Undamped Torsional System

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2.3

2.3 Free Vibration of an Undamped Torsional System

From the theory of torsion of circular shafts, we have the relation:

Mt

GI 0
l

(2.37)

where
Mt = torque that produces the twist ,
G = shear modulus,
l = is the length of shaft,
I0 = polar moment of inertia of cross section of shaft

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2.3 Free Vibration of an Undamped Torsional System

Polar Moment of Inertia:

d 4
I0
32

(2.38)

Torsional Spring Constant:


M t GI 0 Gd 4
kt

l
32l

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(2.39)

2.3 Free Vibration of an Undamped Torsional System

Equation of Motion:

Applying Newtons Second Law of Motion,

J 0 kt 0

(2.40)

The natural circular frequency is

kt

n
J0

1/ 2

(2.41)

The period and frequency of vibration in cycles per second are:

J0

n 2
kt

1/ 2

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(2.42) ,

1
fn
2

kt

J0

1/ 2

(2.43)

2.3 Free Vibration of an Undamped Torsional System

Note the following aspects of this system:

1)

If the cross section of the shaft supporting the disc is not circular,
an appropriate torsional spring constant is to be used.

2)

The polar mass moment of inertia of a disc is given by

hD 4 WD 4
J0

32
8g
3)

where = mass density


h = thickness
D = diameter
W = weight of the disc

An important application of a torsional pendulum is in a mechanical


clock

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2.3 Free Vibration of an Undamped Torsional System

Example 2.6
Natural Frequency of Compound Pendulum
Any rigid body pivoted at a point other than its center of mass will
oscillate about the pivot point under its own gravitational force. Such a
system is known as a compound pendulum as shown. Find the natural
frequency of such a system.

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2.3 Free Vibration of an Undamped Torsional System

Example 2.6
Natural Frequency of Compound Pendulum
Solution
For a displacement , the restoring torque (due to the weight of the
body W) is (Wd sin ) and the equation of motion is

J 0 Wd sin 0

(E.1)

Hence, approximated by linear equation is

J 0 Wd 0

(E.2)

The natural frequency of the1/compound


pendulum is
2
1/ 2

Wd

n
J0

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mgd

J0

(E.3)

2.3 Free Vibration of an Undamped Torsional System

Example 2.6
Natural Frequency of Compound Pendulum
Solution
Comparing with natural frequency, the length of equivalent simple
pendulum is
J0

md

(E.4)

If J0 is replaced by mk02, where k0 is the radius of gyration of the body


1/ 2
about O,
gd
k 02

k0

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(E.5) , l

(E.6)

2.3 Free Vibration of an Undamped Torsional System

Example 2.6
Natural Frequency of Compound Pendulum
Solution
If kG denotes the radius of gyration of the body about G, we have:

k k d
2
0

2
G

kG2

(E.7) and l
d
d

If the line OG is extended to point A such that

kG2
GA
d
Eq.(E.8) becomes

l GA d OA

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(E.9)

(E.10)

(E.8)

2.3 Free Vibration of an Undamped Torsional System

Example 2.6
Natural Frequency of Compound Pendulum
Solution
Hence, from Eq.(E.5), n is given by

g
n 2

k
/
d
0

1/ 2

g

l

1/ 2

OA

1/ 2

(E.11)

This equation shows that, no matter whether the body is pivoted from
O or A, its natural frequency is the same. The point A is called the
center of percussion.

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2.3 Free Vibration of an Undamped Torsional System

Example 2.6
Natural Frequency of Compound Pendulum
Solution

Applications of centre of percussion


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2.4
Response of First-Order Systems and Time Constant

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2.4

2.4 Response of First-Order Systems and Time


Constant

Consider a turbine rotor mounted in bearings as shown

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2.4 Response of First-Order Systems and Time


Constant

The application of Newtons second law of motion yields the


equation of motion of the rotor as

2.47

Jw ct w 0
where w

dw
dt

Assuming the trial solution as

w t Ae st 2.48
where A and s are unknown constants

Using the initial condition, w t 0 w0 , Eq. (2.48) can be written as

w t w0 e st
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2.49

2.4 Response of First-Order Systems and Time


Constant

By substituting Eq. (2.49) into Eq. (2.47), we obtain

w0 e st Js ct 0

2.50

Since w0 0 leads to no motion of the rotor, we assume w0 0 and


Eq. (2.50) can be satisfied only if

Js ct 0

2.51

Equation (2.51) is known as the characteristic equation which yields

ct
c
Jt t
. Thus the solution, Eq. (2.49), becomes w t w0 e
J
Because the exponent of Eq. (2.52) is known to be ct , the time
J
constant will be equal to J
2.53
ct

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2.4 Response of First-Order Systems and Time


Constant

For t

w t w0 e

Jt

w0 e 1 0.368w0

2.54

Thus the response reduces to 0.368 times its initial value at a time
equal to the time constant of the system.

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2.5
Rayleighs Energy Method

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2.5

2.5 Rayleighs Energy Method

The principle of conservation of energy, in the context of an


undamped vibrating system, can be restated as

T1 U1 T2 U 2

(2.55)

where subscripts 1 and 2 denote two different instants of time

If the system is undergoing harmonic motion, then

Tmax U max

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(2.57)

2.5 Rayleighs Energy Method

Example 2.8
Effect of Mass on wn of a Spring
Determine the effect of the mass of the spring on the natural
frequency of the spring-mass system shown in the figure below.

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2.5 Rayleighs Energy Method

Example 2.8
Effect of Mass on wn of a Spring
Solution
The kinetic energy of the spring element of length dy is

1 m
yx
dTs s dy

2 l
l

(E.1)

where ms is the mass of the spring

The total kinetic energy of the system can be expressed as


T kinetic energy of mass (Tm ) kinetic energy of spring (Ts )
1 2 l 1 ms y 2 x 2 1 2 1 ms 2
mx
mx y 0
dy
x
2
2
2 l
2 3
l 2
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(E.2)

2.5 Rayleighs Energy Method

Example 2.8
Effect of Mass on wn of a Spring
Solution
The total potential energy of the system is given by

1 2
kx
2

(E.3)

By assuming a harmonic motion

x(t ) X cos n t

(E.4)

The maximum kinetic and potential energies can be expressed as

Tmax

1
ms 2 2
m
X n
2
3

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(E.5) and U max

1 2
kX
2

(E.6)

2.5 Rayleighs Energy Method

Example 2.8
Effect of Mass on wn of a Spring
Solution
By equating Tmax and Umax, we obtain the expression for the natural
frequency:

1/ 2

m ms

(E.7)

Thus the effect of the mass of spring can be accounted for by adding
one-third of its mass to the main mass.

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2.6
Free Vibration with Viscous Damping

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2.6

2.6 Free Vibration with Viscous Damping

Equation of Motion:

F cx

(2.58)

where c = damping

From the figure, Newtons law yields


that the equation of motion is

mx cx kx
mx cx kx 0

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(2.59)

2.6 Free Vibration with Viscous Damping

We assume a solution in the form

x(t ) Ce st

(2.60)

where C and s are undetermined constants

The characteristic equation is

ms 2 cs k 0

(2.61)

The roots and solutions are

s1, 2

c c 4mk
c
k
c

2m
2m
2
m
m

x1 (t ) C1e s1t and x2 (t ) C2 e s2t


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(2.63)

(2.62)

2.6 Free Vibration with Viscous Damping

Thus the general solution is

x(t ) C1e s1t C2 e s2t

c
k
c

t

2
m
2
m
m

C1e

c
k
c

t

2
m
2
m
m

C2 e

(2.64)

where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants to be determined from the initial conditions of the system

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2.6 Free Vibration with Viscous Damping

Critical Damping Constant and Damping Ratio:


The critical damping cc is defined as the value of the damping
constant c for which the radical in Eq.(2.62) becomes zero:
2

k
k
cc
2 km 2mn

0 cc 2m
m
m
2m
The damping ratio is defined as:

c / cc

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(2.66)

(2.65)

2.6 Free Vibration with Viscous Damping

Critical Damping Constant and Damping Ratio:


Thus the general solution for Eq.(2.64) is

x(t ) C1e

2 1 t

C2 e

2 1 t

(2.69)

Assuming that 0, consider the following 3 cases:


Case 1: Underdamped system ( 1 or c cc or c/ 2m k / m )
For this condition, (2-1) is negative and the roots are

s1 i 1

s2

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n
n

2.6 Free Vibration with Viscous Damping

Critical Damping Constant and Damping Ratio:


Case 1: Underdamped system ( 1 or c cc or c/ 2m k / m )
The solution can be written in different forms:

x(t ) C1e
e

i 1 2 t

n t

C e

C2 e

i 1 2 n t

i 1 2 t

C2 e

i 1 2 n t

e nt C1 cos 1 2 nt C2 sin 1 2 nt

Xe nt sin 1 2 nt

X 0 e nt cos 1 2 nt 0
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(2.70)

where (C1,C2), (X,),


and (X0, 0) are arbitrary constants

2.6 Free Vibration with Viscous Damping

Critical Damping Constant and Damping Ratio:


Case 1: Underdamped system ( 1 or c cc or c/ 2m k / m )
For the initial conditions at t = 0,

C1 x0 and C2

x 0 n x0

(2.71)

1 n
2

and hence the solution becomes

x(t ) e

n t

x0 cos 1 nt
2

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x 0 n x0
1 n
2

sin 1 nt

(2.72)

2.6 Free Vibration with Viscous Damping

Critical Damping Constant and Damping Ratio:


Case 1: Underdamped system ( 1 or c cc or c/ 2m k / m )
Eq.(2.72) describes a damped harmonic motion. Its amplitude
decreases exponentially with time, as shown in the figure below.
The frequency of damped vibration is: d 1 2 n

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( 2.76)

2.6 Free Vibration with Viscous Damping

Critical Damping Constant and Damping Ratio:


Case 2: Critically damped system ( 1 or c cc or c/ 2m k / m )
In this case, the two roots are:

cc
s1 s2
n (2.77)
2m
Due to repeated roots, the solution of Eq.(2.59) is given by

x(t ) (C1 C2t )e nt

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(2.78)

2.6 Free Vibration with Viscous Damping

Critical Damping Constant and Damping Ratio:


Case 2: Critically damped system ( 1 or c cc or c/ 2m k / m )
Application of initial conditions gives:

C1 x0 and C2 x 0 n x0

(2.79)

Thus the solution becomes:

x(t ) x0 x 0 n x0 t e nt

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(2.80)

2.6 Free Vibration with Viscous Damping

Critical Damping Constant and Damping Ratio:


Case 2: Critically damped system ( 1 or c cc or c/ 2m k / m )
It can be seen that the motion represented by Eq.(2.80) is a
periodic (i.e., non-periodic).
Since e t 0 as t , the motion will eventually diminish to zero,
as indicated in the figure below.
n

Comparison of motions with different types of damping


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2.6 Free Vibration with Viscous Damping

Critical Damping Constant and Damping Ratio:


Case 3: Overdamped system ( 1 or c cc or c/ 2m k / m )
The roots are real and distinct and are given by:

s1 2 1 n 0
s2

In this case, the solution Eq.(2.69) is given by:

x(t ) C1e

2 1 t

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C2 e

2 1 t

(2.81)

2.6 Free Vibration with Viscous Damping

Critical Damping Constant and Damping Ratio:


Case 3: Overdamped system ( 1 or c cc or c/ 2m k / m )
For the initial conditions at t = 0,

C1

C2

x0n 2 1 x 0
2n 2 1

x0n 2 1 x 0

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2n 1
2

(2.82)

2.6 Free Vibration with Viscous Damping

Logarithmic Decrement:
Using Eq.(2.70),

x1 X 0 e nt1 cos(d t1 0 )

x2 X 0 e nt 2 cos(d t 2 0 )

e nt1

n t1 d

e n d

(2.83)
(2.84)

The logarithmic decrement can be obtained from Eq.(2.84):

x1
2
2 c
ln n d n

(2.85)
2
x2
d 2m
1
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2.6 Free Vibration with Viscous Damping

Logarithmic Decrement:
For small damping,
Hence,


or


Thus

if

1 x1

ln
m xm 1

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(2.86)
(2.87)

(2.88)
(2.92)

where m is an integer

2.6 Free Vibration with Viscous Damping

Energy dissipated in Viscous Damping:


In a viscously damped system, the rate of change of energy with
time is given by:

dW
dx
2
force velocity Fv cv c

dt
dt

(2.93)

The energy dissipated in a complete cycle is:


( 2 / d )

W t 0

dx
2
2
2
2
dt

0 cX d cos d t d (d t ) cd X
dt

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(2.94)

2.6 Free Vibration with Viscous Damping

Energy dissipated in Viscous Damping:


Consider the system shown in the figure.
The total force resisting the motion is

F kx cv kx cx

(2.95)

If we assume simple harmonic motion is

x(t ) X sin d t

(2.96)

Eq.(2.95) becomes F kX sin d t cd X cos d t


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(2.97)

2.6 Free Vibration with Viscous Damping

Energy dissipated in Viscous Damping:


The energy dissipated in a complete cycle will be

2 / d

t 0

2 / d

t 0

2 / d

t 0

Fvdt
kX 2d sin d t cos d t d (d t )
cd X 2 cos 2 d t d (d t ) cd X 2

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(2.98)

2.6 Free Vibration with Viscous Damping

Energy dissipated in Viscous Damping:


Computing the fraction of the total energy of the vibrating system
that is dissipated in each cycle of motion,

2
W
cd X 2

2
1
W
d
m d2 X 2
2

2 4 constant
2m

(2.99)

where W is either the max potential energy or the max kinetic energy

The loss coefficient is defined as

(W / 2 ) W
loss coefficient

W
2W
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(2.100)

2.6 Free Vibration with Viscous Damping

Torsional systems with Viscous Damping:


Consider a single degree of freedom torsional system with a viscous
damper as shown in figure.

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2.6 Free Vibration with Viscous Damping

Torsional systems with Viscous Damping:


The viscous damping torque is given by

T ct

(2.101)

The equation of motion can be derived as:

J 0 ct kt 0

(2.102)

where J0 = mass moment of inertia of disc


kt = spring constant of system
= angular displacement of disc

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2.6 Free Vibration with Viscous Damping

Torsional systems with Viscous Damping:


In the underdamped case, the frequency of damped vibration is
given by

d 1 2 n

(2.103)

where

n
and

kt
J0

(2.104)

ct
ct
ct

ctc 2 J 0n 2 kt J 0

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(2.105)
ctc = critical torsional damping constant

2.6 Free Vibration with Viscous Damping

Example 2.11
Shock Absorber for a Motorcycle
An underdamped shock absorber is to be designed for a motorcycle of
mass 200kg (shown in Fig.(a)). When the shock absorber is subjected
to an initial vertical velocity due to a road bump, the resulting
displacement-time curve is to be as indicated in Fig.(b). Find the
necessary stiffness and damping constants of the shock absorber if
the damped period of vibration is to be 2 s and the amplitude x1 is to
be reduced to one-fourth in one half cycle (i.e., x1.5 = x1/4). Also find
the minimum initial velocity that leads to a maximum displacement of
250 mm.

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2.6 Free Vibration with Viscous Damping

Example 2.11
Shock Absorber for a Motorcycle

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2.6 Free Vibration with Viscous Damping

Example 2.11
Shock Absorber for a Motorcycle
Solution
Since x1.5
becomes

x1 / 4, x2 x1.5 / 4 x1 / 16 , the logarithmic decrement

x1
2

ln
ln 16 2.7726

1 2
x2

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(E.1)

2.6 Free Vibration with Viscous Damping

Example 2.11
Shock Absorber for a Motorcycle
Solution
From which can be found as 0.4037 and the damped period of
vibration is given by 2 s. Hence,

2
2
2 d

d n 1 2

2
2 1 (0.4037)

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3.4338 rad/s

2.6 Free Vibration with Viscous Damping

Example 2.11
Shock Absorber for a Motorcycle
Solution
The critical damping constant can be obtained as

cc 2mn 2(200)(3.4338) 1.373.54 N - s/m


Thus the damping constant is

c cc (0.4037)(1373.54) 554.4981 N - s/m


The stiffness is
k mn2 (200)(3.4338) 2 2358.2652 N/m

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2.6 Free Vibration with Viscous Damping

Example 2.11
Shock Absorber for a Motorcycle
Solution
The displacement of the mass will attain its max value at time t 1 is

sin d t1 1 2
sin d t1 sin t1 1 (0.4037) 2 0.9149
sin 1 (0.9149)
t1
0.3678 sec

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2.6 Free Vibration with Viscous Damping

Example 2.11
Shock Absorber for a Motorcycle
Solution
The envelope passing through the max points is x 1 2 Xe nt
Since x = 250mm, 0.25 1 (0.4037) 2 Xe ( 0.4037 )(3.4338)( 0.3678) X 0.4550 m
The velocity of mass can be obtained by

x(t ) Xe nt sin d t
x (t ) Xe nt ( n sin d t d cos d t )
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(E.3)

(E.2)

2.6 Free Vibration with Viscous Damping

Example 2.11
Shock Absorber for a Motorcycle
Solution
When t = 0,

x (t 0) x 0 Xd Xn 1 2
(0.4550)(3.4338) 1 (0.4037) 2
1.4294 m/s

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2.7
Graphical Representation of Characteristic Roots and
Corresponding Solutions

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2.7

2.7 Graphical Representation of Characteristic Roots


and Corresponding Solutions

Roots of the Characteristic Equation


The free vibration of a single-degree-of-freedom spring-massviscous-damper system is governed by Eq. (2.59):

mx cx kx 0

2.106

whose characteristic equation can be expressed as (Eq. (2.61)):

ms 2 cs k 0
s 2 2wn s wn2 0

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2.108

2.7 Graphical Representation of Characteristic Roots


and Corresponding Solutions

Roots of the Characteristic Equation


The roots of Eq. (2.107) or (2.108) are given by (see Eqs. (2.62)
and (2.68)):

c c 2 4mk
s1 , s2
2m
s1 , s2 wn iwn 1 2

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2.110

2.7 Graphical Representation of Characteristic Roots


and Corresponding Solutions

Graphical Representation of Roots and Corresponding Solutions


The response of the system is given by

x t C1e s1t C2 e s2t

2.111

Following observations can be made by examining Eqs. (2.110) and


(2.111):
1. The roots lying farther to the left in the s-plane indicate that the
corresponding responses decay faster than those associated with
roots closer to the imaginary axis.
2. If the roots have positive real values of sthat is, the roots lie in
the right half of the s-planethe corresponding response grows
exponentially and hence will be unstable.

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2.7 Graphical Representation of Characteristic Roots


and Corresponding Solutions

Graphical Representation of Roots and Corresponding


Solutions
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

If the roots lie on the imaginary axis (with zero real value), the
corresponding response will be naturally stable.
If the roots have a zero imaginary part, the corresponding response
will not oscillate.
The response of the system will exhibit an oscillatory behavior only
when the roots have nonzero imaginary parts.
The farther the roots lie to the left of the s-plane, the faster the
corresponding response decreases.
The larger the imaginary part of the roots, the higher the frequency of
oscillation of the corresponding response of the system.

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2.7 Graphical Representation of Characteristic Roots


and Corresponding Solutions

Graphical Representation of Roots and Corresponding


Solutions

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2.8
Parameter Variations and Root Locus Representations

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2.8

2.8 Parameter Variations and Root Locus


Representations

Interpretations of wn , wd ,

and in the s-plane

The angle made by the line OA with the imaginary axis is given by

wn
sin

wn
sin 1

2.113

The radial lines pass through the origin correspond to different


damping ratios

1
The time constant of the system is defined as
wn
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2.8 Parameter Variations and Root Locus


Representations

Interpretations of wn , wd ,

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and in the s-plane

2.8 Parameter Variations and Root Locus


Representations

Interpretations of wn , wd ,

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and in the s-plane

2.8 Parameter Variations and Root Locus


Representations

Interpretations of wn , wd ,

and in the s-plane

Different lines parallel to the imaginary axis denote reciprocals of


different time constants

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2.8 Parameter Variations and Root Locus


Representations

Root Locus and Parameter Variations


A plot or graph that shows how changes in one of the parameters
of the system will modify the roots of the characteristic equation of
the system is known as the root locus plot.
Variation of the damping ratio:
We vary the damping constant from zero to infinity and study the
migration of the characteristic roots in the s-plane.
From Eq. (2.109) when c = 0,

s1, 2

4mk
k

iwn
2m
m

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2.115

2.8 Parameter Variations and Root Locus


Representations

Root Locus and Parameter Variations


Variation of the damping ratio:
Noting that the real and imaginary parts of the roots in Eq. (2.109)
can be expressed as

c

wn
2m
For

and

4mk c 2
wn 1 2 wd
2m

0 1 , we have 2 wd2 wn2

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2.117

2.116

2.8 Parameter Variations and Root Locus


Representations

Root Locus and Parameter Variations


Variation of the damping ratio:
The radius vector will make an angle with the positive imaginary
axis with

wd
wn
sin
, cos

wn
wn
wn
with 1 2

The two roots trace loci or paths in the form of circular arcs as the
damping ratio is increased from zero to unity as shown

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2.8 Parameter Variations and Root Locus


Representations

Root Locus and Parameter Variations


Variation of the damping ratio:

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2.8 Parameter Variations and Root Locus


Representations
Example 2.13
Study of Roots with Variation of c
Plot the root locus diagram of the system governed by the equation by
varying the value of c >0

3s 2 c 27 0

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2.8 Parameter Variations and Root Locus


Representations
Example 2.13
Study of Roots with Variation of c
Solution
The roots of equation are given by

s1, 2

c c 2 324

E.2

We start with a value of C = 0 and the roots is as shown in the figure.


Eq. (E.2) gives the roots as indicated in the Table.

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2.8 Parameter Variations and Root Locus


Representations
Example 2.13
Study of Roots with Variation of c
Solution

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2.8 Parameter Variations and Root Locus


Representations

Root Locus and Parameter Variations


Variation of the spring constant:
Since the spring constant does not appear explicitly in Eq. (2.108),
we consider a specific form of the characteristic equation (2.107)
as:
2

s 16 s k 0 2.121

The roots of Eq. (2.121) are given by

s1, 2

16 256 4k
8 64 k
2

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2.122

2.8 Parameter Variations and Root Locus


Representations

Root Locus and Parameter Variations


Variation of the mass:
To find the migration of the roots with a variation of the mass m,
we consider a specific form of the characteristic equation, Eq.
(2.107), as

ms 2 14 s 20 0

2.123

whose roots are given by

s1, 2

14 196 80m

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2.124

2.8 Parameter Variations and Root Locus


Representations

Root Locus and Parameter Variations


Variation of the mass:
Some values of m and the corresponding roots given by Eq.
(2.124) are shown in Table.

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2.8 Parameter Variations and Root Locus


Representations

Root Locus and Parameter Variations


Variation of the mass:

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2.8 Parameter Variations and Root Locus


Representations

Root Locus and Parameter Variations


Variation of the mass:

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2.9
Free Vibration with Coulomb Damping

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2.9

2.9 Free Vibration with Coulomb Damping

Coulombs law of dry friction states that, when two bodies are in
contact, the force required to produce sliding is proportional to the
normal force acting in the plane of contact. Thus, the friction force
F is given by:

F N W mg

(2.125)

where N is normal force,


is the coefficient of sliding or kinetic friction
is 0.1 for lubricated metal, 0.3 for non-lubricated metal on metal, 1.0 for rubber on metal

Coulomb damping is sometimes called constant damping

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2.9 Free Vibration with Coulomb Damping

Equation of Motion:
Consider a single degree of freedom system with dry friction as
shown in Fig.(a) below.

Since friction force varies with the direction of velocity, we need to


consider two cases as indicated in Fig.(b) and (c).

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2.9 Free Vibration with Coulomb Damping

Equation of Motion:
Case 1.
When x is positive and dx/dt is positive or when x is negative and
dx/dt is positive (i.e., for the half cycle during which the mass
moves from left to right) the equation of motion can be obtained
using Newtons second law (Fig.b):

mx kx N
Hence

or

mx kx N

N
x(t ) A1 cos nt A2 sin nt
k
where n = k/m is the frequency of vibration
A1 & A2 are constants

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(2.126)

(2.127)

2.9 Free Vibration with Coulomb Damping

Equation of Motion:
Case 2.
When x is positive and dx/dt is negative or when x is negative and
dx/dt is negative (i.e., for the half cycle during which the mass
moves from right to left) the equation of motion can be derived
from Fig. (c):

kx N mx

or mx kx N

(2.128)

The solution of the equation is given by:

N
x(t ) A3 cos nt A4 sin nt
k
where A3 & A4 are constants
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(2.129)

2.9 Free Vibration with Coulomb Damping

Equation of Motion:

Motion of the mass with Coulomb damping


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2.9 Free Vibration with Coulomb Damping

Solution:
Eqs.(2.107) & (2.109) can be expressed as a single equation using
N = mg:

mx mg sgn( x ) kx 0

(2.130)

where sgn(y) is called the sigum function, whose value is defined


as 1 for y > 0, -1 for y< 0, and 0 for y = 0.
Assuming initial conditions as

x(t 0) x0
x (t 0) 0
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(2.131)

2.9 Free Vibration with Coulomb Damping

Solution:
The solution is valid for half the cycle only, i.e., for 0 t / n.
Hence, the solution becomes the initial conditions for the next half
cycle. The procedure continued until the motion stops, i.e., when x n
N/k. Thus the number of half cycles (r) that elapse before the
motion ceases is:
2 N N

k
k
N
x0
k (2.134)
2 N
k

x0 r

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2.9 Free Vibration with Coulomb Damping

Solution:
Note the following characteristics of a system with Coulomb
damping:

1.

The equation of motion is nonlinear with Coulomb damping, while it


is linear with viscous damping

2.

The natural frequency of the system is unaltered with the addition


of Coulomb damping, while it is reduced with the addition of
viscous damping.

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2.9 Free Vibration with Coulomb Damping

Solution:
Note the following characteristics of a system with Coulomb
damping:

3.

The motion is periodic with Coulomb damping, while it can be


nonperiodic in a viscously damped (overdamped) system.

4.

The system comes to rest after some time with Coulomb damping,
whereas the motion theoretically continues forever (perhaps with
an infinitesimally small amplitude) with viscous damping.

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2.9 Free Vibration with Coulomb Damping

Solution:
Note the following characteristics of a system with Coulomb
damping:

5.

The amplitude reduces linearly with Coulomb damping, whereas it


reduces exponentially with viscous damping.

6.

In each successive cycle, the amplitude of motion is reduced by the


amount 4N/k, so the amplitudes at the end of any two
consecutive cycles are related:

X m X m 1
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4N
k

(2.135)

2.9 Free Vibration with Coulomb Damping

Torsional Systems with Coulomb Damping:


The equation governing the angular oscillations of the system is

J 0 kt T
J 0 kt T

(2.136)
(2.137)

The frequency of vibration is given by

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kt
J0

(2.138)

2.9 Free Vibration with Coulomb Damping

Torsional Systems with Coulomb Damping:


The amplitude of motion at the end of the rth half cycle (r) is
given by:

2T
r 0 r
kt

(2.139)

The motion ceases when

0 k
t
r
2T

kt
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(2.140)

2.9 Free Vibration with Viscous Damping

Example 2.15
Pulley Subjected to Coulomb Damping
A steel shaft of length 1 m and diameter 50 mm is fixed at one end
and carries a pulley of mass moment of inertia 25 kg-m2 at the other
end. A band brake exerts a constant frictional torque of 400 N-m
around the circumference of the pulley. If the pulley is displaced by 6
and released, determine (1) the number of cycles before the pulley
comes to rest and (2) the final settling position of the pulley.

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2.9 Free Vibration with Viscous Damping

Example 2.15
Pulley Subjected to Coulomb Damping
Solution
(1) The number of half cycles that elapse before the angular motion of
the pullet ceases is:
T

0 k
t
r
(E.1)

2
T

kt where 0 = 6 = 0.10472 rad,


The torsional spring constant of the shaft given by
kt

GJ

(0.05) 4
32
49,087.5 N - m/rad
1

(8 1010 )

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2.9 Free Vibration with Viscous Damping

Example 2.15
Pulley Subjected to Coulomb Damping
Solution
With constant friction torque applied to the pulley = 400 N-m., Eq.
(E.1) gives

400

49
,
087
.
5

5.926
800

49,087.5

0.10472
r

Thus the motion ceases after six half cycles.


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2.9 Free Vibration with Viscous Damping

Example 2.15
Pulley Subjected to Coulomb Damping
Solution
(2) The angular displacement after six half cycles:

400

0.10472 6 2
0.006935 rad 0.39734
49,087.5
from the equilibrium position on the same side of the initial
displacement.

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2.10
Free Vibration with Hysteretic Damping

2.10

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2.10 Free Vibration with Hysteretic Damping

Consider the spring-viscous damper arrangement shown in the


figure below. The force needed to cause a displacement:

F kx cx

(2.141)

For a harmonic motion of frequency and amplitude X,

F (t ) kX sin t cX cos t
kx c X 2 ( X sin t ) 2
kx c X 2 x 2

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(2.143)

2.10 Free Vibration with Hysteretic Damping

Spring-viscous-damper system
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2.10 Free Vibration with Hysteretic Damping

When F versus x is plotted, Eq.(2.143) represents a closed loop, as


shown in Fig(b). The area of the loop denotes the energy dissipated
by the damper in a cycle of motion and is given by:

W Fdx
2 /

(2.144)

Hence, the damping coefficient:

h
c

kX sin t cX cos t X cos t dt cX 2

(2.145)

where h = hysteresis damping constant

Eqs.(2.144) and (2.145) gives W hX

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(2.146)

2.10 Free Vibration with Hysteretic Damping

Hysteresis loop

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2.10 Free Vibration with Hysteretic Damping

Complex Stiffness
For general harmonic motion, x Xe it , the force is given by

F kXeit ciXe it (k ic) x

(2.147)

Thus, the force-displacement relation:

F (k ih) x
h

where k ih k 1 i k (1 i )
k

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(2.148)
(2.149)

2.10 Free Vibration with Hysteretic Damping

Response of the system


The energy loss per cycle can be expressed as W k X 2
The hysteresis logarithmic decrement can be defined as

Xj

ln

ln(1 )

X
j 1

Corresponding frequency

m
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(2.155)

(2.154)

(2.150)

2.10 Free Vibration with Hysteretic Damping

Response of the system

Response of a hysteretically damped system

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2.10 Free Vibration with Hysteretic Damping

Response of the system


The equivalent viscous damping ratio

2 eq

h
eq
k
2 2k

(2.156)

Thus the equivalent damping constant is

k h
ceq cc eq 2 mk mk

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(2.157)

2.10 Free Vibration with Viscous Damping

Example 2.17
Response of a Hysteretically Damped Bridge Structure
A bridge structure is modeled as a single degree of freedom system
with an equivalent mass of 5 X 105 kg and an equivalent stiffness of
25 X106 N/m. During a free vibration test, the ratio of successive
amplitudes was found to be 1.04. Estimate the structural damping
constant () and the approximate free vibration response of the
bridge.

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2.10 Free Vibration with Viscous Damping

Example 2.17
Response of a Hysteretically Damped Bridge Structure
Solution
Using the ratio of successive amplitudes,
Xj
ln(1.04) ln(1 )
ln
X
j 1

0.04
1 1.04 or

0.0127

The equivalent viscous damping coefficient is

k k
ceq

km

k
m

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(E.1)

2.10 Free Vibration with Viscous Damping

Example 2.17
Response of a Hysteretically Damped Bridge Structure
Solution
Using the known values of the equivalent stiffness and equivalent
mass,
ceq (0.0127) (25 106 )(5 105 ) 44.9013 103 N - s/m
Since ceq < cc, the bridge is underdamped. Hence, its free vibration
response is
x(t ) e

n t

x0 cos 1 nt
2

ceq

x 0 n x0
1 n
2

40.9013 103

0.0063
cc 7071.0678 103
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sin 1 n t

2.11
Stability of Systems

2.11

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2.11 Stability of Systems

Stability is one of the most important characteristics for any


vibrating system
A asymptotically stable (called stable in controls literature) is when
its free-vibration response approaches zero as time approaches
infinity.
A system is considered to be unstable if its free-vibration response
grows without bound (approaches infinity) as time approaches
infinity.
A system is stable (called marginally stable in controls literature) if
its free-vibration response neither decays nor grows, but remains
constant or oscillates as time approaches infinity.

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2.11 Stability of Systems

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2.11 Stability of Systems

Example 2.18
Stability of a System
Consider a uniform rigid bar, of mass m and length l, pivoted at one
end and connected symmetrically by two springs at the other end, as
shown in the figure. Assuming that the springs are unstretched
when the bar is vertical, derive the equation of motion of the system
for small angular displacements of the bar about the pivot point, and
investigate the stability behavior of the system.

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2.11 Stability of Systems

Example 2.18
Stability of a System

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2.11 Stability of Systems

Example 2.18
Stability of a System
The equation of motion of the bar, for rotation about the point O, is
ml 2
l
2kl sin l cos W sin 0
3
2

E.1

For small oscillations, Eq. (E.1) reduces to

ml 2
Wl
2
2kl 0
3
2
2 0 E.3
146 2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition in SI Units

E.2

2.11 Stability of Systems

Example 2.18
Stability of a System
12kl 2 3Wl

Where
2
2ml

E.4

The characteristic equation is given by s 2 2 0 E.5


The solution of Eq. (E.2) depends on the sign of 2 as indicated
below.
Case 1. When

12kl

3Wl / 2ml 2 0

t A1 cos wnt A2 sin wnt


where

12kl 2 3Wl

wn
2ml

147 2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition in SI Units

E.6
1/ 2

E.7

2.11 Stability of Systems

Example 2.18
Stability of a System

Case 2. When 12kl 3Wl / 2ml 0


2

t C1t C2

E.8

For the initial conditions t 0 0 and t 0 0

t t 0

E.9

Equation (E.9) shows that the system is unstable with the angular
displacement increasing linearly at a constant velocity

148 2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition in SI Units

2.11 Stability of Systems

Example 2.18
Stability of a System

Case 3. When 12kl 3Wl / 2ml 0


2

t B1et B2 e t
For the initial conditions

E.10
t 0 0 and t 0 0

E.11

1
0 0 et 0 0 e t
2

Equation (E.11) shows that increases exponentially with time; hence


the motion is unstable.

149 2011 Mechanical Vibrations Fifth Edition in SI Units