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Biotechnol

ogy
Krisnhaliani Wetarini
9P-04
What’s Biotechnology?
• It is the utilization of biological processes
to produce goods or services, by using
fermentation engineering, biochemistry,
and genetics
• There are 2 kinds of biotechnology, the
conventional and the modern
biotechnology
Conventional Biotechnology
• It is a biotechnology which uses
microorganism to produce food and
services needed by human through simple
process
• The examples are :
– The production of bread, beer, wine
– The production of tempe, oncom, or soy
sauce
Modern Biotechnology
• It is a biotechnology which uses cell and
molecular technology to make products,
improve crops and livestock to benefit
humans
• The examples are :
– Single cell-protein
– Transgenic plants or animals
– Tissue culture
– Etc.
Food Biotechnology
• It’s the biotechnology which is used to
increasing food production
• The uses are on the fermentation,
production of cell-protein, and enzyme
Example of Biotechnology
Fermentation
• It’s a process of changing raw material
into food or beverages by using
microorganisms such as yeast and fungi
• The examples of fermented food are:
– Nata de Coco
– Tapai
– Tempe
Single-Cell Protein
Production
• It’s a human effort to replicate one-celled
living things to meet their needs
• The examples of microorganisms which is
used are:
– Chlorella sp.
– Spirulina sp.
– Saccharomyces sp.
Production of Food Softener
Enzyme
No. Enzymes Microorganism Function
1. Amylase Aspergillus aryzae and Food Industry
2. Mold protease Bacillus subtilis
Aspergillus aryzae Dough Softener
3. Bacteria protease Bacillus subtilis Meat Softener
4. Rennin Mucor sp. Cheese
Production
Agricultural Biotechnology
• It’s a biotechnology which is used to increase and
improve the production of agricultural crops
• Some products of Agricultural Biotechnology are:
– Biological fertilizer
– Biological control
– Hydroponics and Aeroponics
– Tissue culture
– Transgenic plants
– Excellent Characteristic of Engineering Techniques
Biological Fertilizer
Nitrogen-fixing
Microorganism Mycorrhizae
• microorganisms which • are symbiotic
are able to convert relationships between
nitrogen of the air to plant roots and fungi.
another form of There hypae increases
nitrogen soil, such as the surface are of a
root nodule bacteria plant’s roots so that
and Anabaena. the plant can absorb
more water and
phosphorus from the
soil. Types of
contributions of
mycorrhizae are
forestry, agriculture
and animal culture.
Biological Control
• It’s used to control the pests and pathogens by
using the enemies of the pests or pathogens.
• The examples are:
 Predator i.e. flea-eater beetles
 Parasitic fungi i.e. Trichoderma
 Parasitic bacteria i.e. Bacillus
thuringeinsis
 Viruses i.e. NVP

Hydroponic and Aeroponic
 Hydroponic  Aeroponic
• It’s a technique of • It’s a technique of
planting plants in planting plants
water without using using air contain
soil nutrition substances
which is sprayed
over the plant roots.
Tissue Culture
• Or micropropagation, is a technique of growing and
manipulating pieces of plant tissue in a sterile medium
• The main idea of plant tissue culture is to create new plants
which are genetically identical to the origin by using the
totipotency of cells.
• Totipotency is the ability of cells to become new individual
plant.
• Tissue or cell from the organism is grown by using in vitro
technique
Transgenic Plants
• Transgenic organism is an organism that
has been inserted with gene from another
organism and is aimed to get new
organisms with new characteristics
• The technique used to get transgenic plants
is genetic engineering or DNA
recombinant
• The example of transgenic plants are the
pests and parasitic fungi
Excellent Characteristic
Engineering Techniques
• It is a technique to change the DNA
structure of living things by entering the
foreign genes into an organism so that
the organism has a special ability which
is not possessed before

Animal Husbandry
Biotechnology
Animal Cloning
 Transgenic Animals
• The animal’s gene will
be inserted with
gene from another
organism and is
aimed to get new
organisms with new
characteristics
The Impact of Biotechnology
• Food Processing
– Fermented products give positive
contributions to raise financial prosperity
in any aspects of life
• As money-maker and decrease jobless
• Be the extra earnings
• Increase economy value of food
• Easier to do

– It gives alternative food sources


– Solve problems concerned with food
production
• Agriculture and Animal Husbandry
 Biological fertilizer can increase agricultural
products
 Economic value of transgenic products
increase such as supply great amounts of
uniformed seeds
 The use of biological control reduces the use
of pesticides, herbicides
Negative Impact of
Biotechnology
• Cause environmental pollution from the waste
• Transgenic organism that’s released to nature
can maybe disturb the ecosystem balance
• Organism from genetic engineering can give
bad effects to human health
• The use of chemical substances and radiation
can cause environment damage

 Have a Nice Day 

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