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Nervous System

Dewi Rinjani
Ummy Apita Ningrum

Nervous System
The nervous system is a complex network

of nerves and cells that carry messages to

and from the brain and spinal cord to
various parts of the body
The nervous system includes both the
Central nervous system and Peripheral
nervous system.

The Parts of Nervous System

1. The Central Nervous System
The Central nervous system (CNS) is made up of the
brain and spinal cord.
The brain lies within the skull and is shaped like a
mushroom. The brain consists of four principal parts:
1. The brain stem: The brain stem is also known as the
Medulla oblongata. It is located between the pons and
the spinal cord and is only about one inch long.
2. The cerebrum: The cerebrum forms the bulk of the
brain and is supported on the brain stem. The
cerebrum is divided into two hemispheres. Each
hemisphere controls the activities of the side of the
body opposite that hemisphere.

3. the cerebellum: This is located behind

and below the cerebrum.
4. the diencephalon: The diencephalon is
also known as the fore brain stem. It
includes the thalamus and hypothalamus.
The thalamus is where sensory and other
impulses go and coalesce.The
hypothalamus is a smaller part of the
The brain weighs approximately 1.3 to 1.4
kg. It has nerve cells called the neurons
and supporting cells called the glia.

The spinal cord is along tube like structure which

extends from the brain. The spinal cord is

composed of a series of 31 segments. A pair of
spinal nerves comes out of each segment. The
region of the spinal cord from which a pair of
spinal nerves originates is called the spinal
segment. Both motor and sensory nerves are
located in the spinal cord.
The spinal cord is about 43 cm long in adult
women and 45 cm long in adult men and weighs
about 35-40 grams. It lies within the vertebral
column, the collection of bones (back bone).

2. The Peripheral Nervous System

The peripheral nervous system (PNS),
encompassing the cranial nerves and spinal
12 pairs of cranial nerves: Olfactorius, opticus,
oculomotor, trochlearis,trigeminus, abdusen,
facialis,vestibulokoklearis, glosofaringeal,
vagus, aksesorius, hipoglossus.
32 pairs of spinal nerves: segment
cervical(8pairs), thoracal (12pairs),
lumbal(5pairs), sacral (5 pairs), koksigeal

The structure of neuron

The structure of neuron:

1. Dendrites
Filaments that receive information from other neurons, receptors, etc.

2. Soma (cell body)

Contains nucleus of the cell
Manufactures enzymes and molecules to maintain cell life.
Note: In the PNS, a group of cell bodies and dendrites are called

ganglion and in the CNS, it would be called a nucleus.

3. Axon
Filament that transmits information to the dendrites or soma of other

Note: In the PNS, a group of axons is called a nerve and in the CNS it
is called a tract.

4. Myelin Sheath
Insulation on axon to improve speed of transmission.
Also insulates axon from activity of other neurons.
Other manufacturing, nurturing, and clean-up tasks

5. Axon Terminal
Where neurotransmitters are stored.

The basic structure

of the neuron

How does the nervous

system work or process?
Each neuron sends a signal to the next.

These signals control all functions of the

body and are made up of
neurotransmitters. All sensory neurons
send information to the brain and the brain
decodes it and sends information to
systems of the body to regulate what is

Some common problems of the nervous

system include:
Epilepsy : storms of abnormal electrical activity in the

brain causing seizures

Meningitis : inflammation of the membrane covering the
Multiple sclerosis : the myelin sheaths protecting the
electrical cables of the central nervous system are attacked
Parkinsons disease : death of neurones in a part of the
brain called the midbrain. Symptoms include shaking and
problems with movement
Sciatica : pressure on a nerve caused by a slipped disc in
the spine or arthritis of the spine and, sometimes, other
Shingles : infection of sensory nerves caused by the
varicella-zoster virus
Stroke : a lack of blood to part of the brain.

The nervous system helps all the parts of

the body to communicate with each other.

The brain and spinal cord make up the
central nervous system.
The other nerves of the body are called the
peripheral nervous system.

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