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Manajemen Strategi

rifanzi@yahoo.com

Manajemen Strategis
Manajemen Strategis adalah:
satu set keputusan dan tindakan manajerial,
yang menentukan kinerja jangka panjang dari suatu
perusahaan.
Membangun:
memperjelas dari visi strategis bagi perusahaan.
Fokus tajam pada apa yang penting secara strategis.
Peningkatan pemahaman lingkungan yang berubah dengan
cepat.

Strategic management memegang peranan sangat penting


dalam berbisnis, strategic management perencanaan
menekankan pada rencana jangka panjang. Untuk sukses
dalam usaha, pengusaha tidak hanya melakukan aktivitas
dalam memenuhi permintaan pasar saat ini, tetapi juga harus
juga beradaptasi dalam aktivitas memenuhi permintaan dari
pasar yang terus berubah dan menembus pasar baru.

Sumber daya

perusahaan

Tujuan
Perusahaan

Strateg

Kebutuhan

Pasar

Tujuan Perusahaan

Model of Strategic Management


Environmental
Scanning
External
Societal
Environment:
General forces

Task
Environment:
Industry analysis

Internal
Structure:
Chain of Command

Culture:
Beliefs,
expectations, values

Resources:
Assets, skills,
competencies,
knowledge

Strategy Formulation

Strategy Implementation

Evaluation
& Control

Mission
Reason for
Existence

Objectives
What results Strategies
to
accomplish Plan to
Policies
by when
achieve the
mission &
Broad
objectives
guidelines
for decision
making

Programs
Activities
needed to
accomplish
a plan

Budgets
Cost of
programs

Procedures
Sequence of
steps needed
to do the job

Performance
Actual results

Environmental Scanning
What?

Monitoring, evaluating, and disseminating of

How?

SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities


and Threats) analysis:

information from the external and internal


environments.
The purpose: to identify strategic factors.

External Opportunities & Threats


Internal Strengths and Weaknesses

External Environmental
Scanning
Societal Environment
Identifying External Environmental Variables
Identifying External Strategic Factors

Industry Analysis: Analyzing the Task Environment


Porter Approach to Industry Analysis; Industry Evolution;
Categorizing International Industries; International Risk
Assessment; Strategic Group; Strategic Types; Hypercompetition; Using Key Success Factors; Competitive
Intelligence; Strategy Canvas.

Forecasting
Synthesis of External Factors-EFAS (External Factors
Analysis Summary)
Impact on the Internet on Environmental Scanning
and Industry Analysis

Internal Scanning
Resource-Based Approach
Using Resources to Gain Competitive Advantage
Determining the Sustainability of an Advantage

Value Chain Analysis


Industry Value Chain; Corporate Value Chain Analysis.

Scanning Functional Resources


Strategic Audit
Synthesis of Internal Factors: IFAS (Internal Factors
Analysis Summary)
Impact of Internet on Internal Scanning and
Organization

Environmental Variables
A. External 1.

Societal Environment

2.

B. Internal

Economic Forces, Technological Forces, PoliticalLegal Forces, Socio-cultural Forces

Task Environment (Industry)

Shareholders, Suppliers, Employees/Labor


Unions, Competitors, Trade Association,
Communities, Creditors, Special Interest Groups,
Governments

Structure, Culture, Resources

Strategy Formulation
Strategy:

Situatio
n
Analysi
s
(SWOT)

Corporat
e Vision,
Mission
&
Objectiv
es

Corporate strategy
Directional Strategy
Portfolio Analysis
Corporate Parenting
Impact of the Internet
Business Strategy
Competitive Strategy
Cooperative Strategy
Impact of The Internet
Functional Strategy
Functional strategy Formulation
Strategic Choice
Development of Policy
Impact of The Internet

Strategy Formulation
Company Vision:
What the organization would like to become.
Identifies activities firm intends to pursue.
Sets forth long-term direction.
Provides big picture perspective of Who WE are,

what WE do, where WE are headed.

Example:

Vision

statement

Airlines:
Worldwide Airline of Choice.

of

Delta

Strategy Formulation
Corporate Mission:
Is

the purpose or reason for organizations


existence.
Include what some people consider as vision
and mission (mission what organization is
now; vision what the organization would like
to become).
Example: mission statement of Maytag

Corporation:

To improve the quality of home life by


designing, building, marketing, and serving the
best appliances in the world.

Strategy Formulation
Corporate Objectives:
Are the end results of planned activity.
Should result in the fulfillment of a

corporations mission.
Objective & Goal:

Goal is an open ended statement of what one wants

to accomplish with no qualification of what is


achieved and no time criteria for completion.
Objective increase profits 10% over last year.
Goal increase profitability

Strategy Formulation
Strategy of a Corporation
Form a comprehensive master plan stating how the

corporation will achieve its mission and objective.


Corporate Strategy

Companys overall
direction.

Business (Division
Level) Strategy

Strategy at the business


unit or product level

Functional
Strategy

Strategy taken by
functional area to achieve
corporate or business unit
objectives

Strategy Formulation
Policy
Is a broad guidelines for decision making that

links the formulation of strategy with it


implementation.
Ex:

Maytag will not approve any cost


reduction proposal if it reduces product
quality in any way.

Strategy Implementation
Who Implements Strategy?
What Must be Done?
How is Strategy Implemented?
International Issues
Impact of The Internet

Evaluation & Control


Definition & Scope
Measuring Performance
Strategic Information System
Problem in Measuring Performance
Guidelines for Proper Control
Strategic Incentive Management

Advance Topics
Strategy Maps
Value Creating Processes
Building Strategies and Strategy Maps
Aligning The Organization to Create Synergy
Making Strategy a Continual Process
Other Approaches

Strategy at The Edge of Chaos


Hypercompetition
Flexibility & Adaptability
Knowledge Management
Dynamic Approach to Strategy