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Reading comprehension course

Alcoholism is a chronic disease or behavioral
disorder which it manifests repeated ingestion
alcoholic beverages in amounts dietary exceeding
limits social and accepted by the community,
causing harm to health drinker, its relations with
other people and finally their activity economic.

The psycho-physiological and drug-dynamic action of the

alcohol is basically depressive due to the reduction of the
synaptic transmission in the human nervous system. It is a
well-known fact that the excessive consumption of alcohol
causes a chronic and acute dysfunction of the brain,
producing disorders in the central nervous system,
presenting alterations in the memory and in the
intellectual functions such as calculations, comprehension
and learning.

95% of ingested alcohol remains in the body to be

metabolized in the liver, into carbon dioxide (CO2) and
water (H20). From 1 to 5% is excreted by the inhaled air
and 1 to 15% is excreted in the urine.
The sedative properties of alcohol make it have an
anesthetic on the body effect on areas of the brain,
reducing its activity; and as all sedative-hypnotic drug, it
acts to promote synaptic inhibition produced by the
transmitter called gamma-aminobutyric acid.
Alcohol is known to inhibit the release of oxytocin,
vasopressin and possibly other hypothalamic peptides,
when its concentration is in the pharmacological limits.
Both oxytocin and vasopressin appear to influence a
number of aspects of behavior in both experimental
animals and in humans. In particular, attention has focused
on its effects on memory and learning when administered
systematically or intracerebral.

Alcohol exerts its main influence on the nervous system,

and both tolerance and dependence depends largely on
its neural effects. Psychophysiological and their
pharmacodynamics action is primarily depressive, similar
to that produced by general anesthetics. Like them, it
acts on the neuronal membrane, thanks to its high lipid

The main organ involved in alcohol metabolism is the liver, since it

is performed 95% of its oxidation, and quite harmful chemical
effect. It has been shown that a diet rich alcohol represents a
massive overload on the liver. In this situation, the alcohol is
converted to the primary fuel, leaving the liver to metabolize their
usual fuel (which are fats); this results in multiple disorders such as
fat accumulation not oxidized, and the oxidation of ethanol that
produces large quantities of hydrogen.

Most alcoholics reach the state of alcoholic fatty liver, which

involves an enlarged liver and mild abnormalities in liver. Some
alcoholics develop acute fatty liver, jaundice, abdominal pain and
anorexia appear. In some patients necrosis of hepatocytes occurs
when the degree of necrosis and serious inflammation (alcoholic
hepatitis), which often represents a life-threatening; if the person
continues drinking, will develop cirrhosis.

A pathology associated with alcoholism is Wernicke syndrome,

whose appearance is associated with thiamine deficiency. In
Wernicke syndrome is a clinical anatomic location of the lesion;
delirium that appears stimulation of the cortex and the
thalamus, and irritation of the central gray matter of the brain
stem due. The patient is reassured and presented ocular
involvement because the midbrain injury becomes destructive
and affects the nuclei of cranial nerves. When you get to coma,
the lesions are located at the junction of the midbrain and

Korsakoff's psychosis, meanwhile, is a disease characterized by

severe loss of recent memory; in it, the patient is unable to retain
certain data for several seconds. Accepts any idea that he suggests,
has little capacity for judgment or intuition to recognize the
credibility of any suggestion that he made, or any statement made
by him.
Korsakoff's syndrome is caused by a vitamin deficiency, probably
thiamine. However, there is no doubt that vitamin A deficiency,
whether it is due to alcoholism, persistent vomiting, is not the only
cause. This may occur as a result of tumors or surgical lesions of the
mammillary of encephalitis or cerebral circulation disorders.

It is important to note that the effects of alcohol depend on the

amount that is concentrated in body fluids or blood. When
compared to the total liquid volume exists in the body, of
0.05% to 0.10% concentration in the blood thereof a feeling of
relaxation, sedation and euphoria occurs due to producing
disinhibition; therefore, it is considered wrongly as a stimulant.
But actually the alcohol is a depressant of the central nervous
system, what happens is that the individual initially deshinibe
and then depressed.
When the level of alcohol concentration in the blood is between
0.10% and 0.20%, most drinkers show signs of intoxication,
physical and mental disability that affects perception and motor
performance occurs, muscular coordination is impaired,
judgment is affected, reactions to stimuli slow, changes occur in
visual and auditory discrimination, the language is confusing,
the person becomes in some silly, outrageous, sometimes
melancholic or aggressive, there is an exaggerated confidence
own abilities, antisocial behaviors manifest, or in certain cases
the intoxicated individual is isolated silently.

The central nervous system is very sensitive to the effects of

alcohol. There is a general dose-dependent depression, starting

with mild sedation and anesthesia is carried, coma and even

With alcohol euphoria occurs; the alcoholic becomes

self-confident, assertive and talkative. Despite the

increase in confidence, motor skills are reduced almost

Euphoria, loss of disinhibition, muscular

incoordination and increased reaction time are the

five basic actions alcohol on the nervous system . The
intensity of each of the effects corresponds to a direct
relationship with the amount of alcohol in the blood,
in turn is directly related to the duration of drinking.

Loss of self confidence for relief to others.
Often want a drink more.
Try to control your drinking.
Drink when not planning to do.
Periods of abstinence.
Feelings of guilt.

Before arriving alcoholism is passed through three stages, the first

is to be a social drinker, the second is to be a heavy drinker and
the last is the problem drinker, after that comes the disease of
In their drinking alcohol worsens and there is no experience
whatsoever of someone who has been drinking binge was able to
return to normal and socially drink.
Once problem drinkers cross the line into alcoholism, you can not
go back.