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Citations

Citations
Or
Or
Acknowledging
Acknowledging the
the Source
Source

Citations

IN-TEXT CITATION
ALSO CALLED:
PARENTHETICAL CITATION
AUTHOR-DATE
REFERENCE
REFERENCE LIST

Citation
A reference or listing of the key
pieces of information about a work
that make it possible to identify
and locate it again.
The citation normally include:
author, title, place of
publication, publisher, and
date
of publication for a book; and
journal title, volume, number,
issue, year, and page numbers for
an article or for a journal
reference.

Reference
What

we quoted in the text needs detail


consisting of :
author name (Not inverted), title, pages
of sources it could be as footnote, at the
end of chapter or at the end of thesis.

Bibliography
In the context of academic research, a list of
books or references to sources cited, for further
reading, usually printed at the end of an article
or in the back matter of a book. This includes:
author name, title, year, place of publication,
publisher.

Foot Note

Any note used to further explain a detail


outside of the main text. The term usually refers
to notes at the bottom of a page

Ibid
Latin word and stands for

"ibidem",
Meaning Same as above and is
used in numerical references.

op cite

A Latin word which stands for:


"opus citatum"
"opere citato",
Meaning as quoted above and is used in
numerical references.

Examples: for Ibid and Op-Cite


1. Henley and Bates (2007)

Commercialization of SOEs, London, OUP.

2. Ibid., p.3.
3. Tom Lines (2006) Potential of Foreign
Investment in Kenya, London, OUP.
4. Henley, OP Cite, p.5.

Types of Citation:
1.

Numerical Citations

2. Non numerical
Citations

1. Harvard Referencing Style


2. APA
3. MLA
4. Chicago Style
5.Turabian Style based on Chicago
Style
6. ASA
7. CBE - Council of Biology Editors
8. IEEE

Various Citation Style


1. Manuals
APA American Psychological
Association

[Used in Psychology, Education, and


other Social Sciences]
2. MLA Modern Language Association
[Used in literature, Arts, and
Humanities]
3. Chicago Style Chicago Manual of
Style

4.Turabian Style based on Chicago Style


[Designed to use with all subjects]
5. Harvard Referencing System
[Used for all scholarly work]
6. ASA American Sociological Association
[Used in all social Sciences Subjects]
7. CBE - Council of Biology Editors
[Used in all Medical Science Research]
8. IEEE
[Used for Computers and Engineering
fields]

Which one Style to


use?
Ask your Supervisor which style
he /she wants you to use.
If there is no preference, you can
use any of the style described.

Details of the
Citations Styles

APA, Turabian, Chicago, AMA


Author, Date, Title of Article/Title of
Periodical/Book, Page, Place, Publisher

Harvard
Author (s), Date, Title of Book, Title
of Article/Title of Periodical, Volume,
Page, Place of Publication, Publisher.
MLA
Author, Title of Article/Title of Periodical, Place, Publisher , Date, Page (if
any).

IEEE Format:
Same as MLA only diff of number in
the ref/bib at the end of the paper.
Author, Title of Article/Title of Periodical,
Place, Publisher , Date, Page
[1] Bates, Beyond the Miracles, Karachi,
SZABIST - Karachi. 1997.

Citation Details
How to quote through diff
sources?

Book
Author (s) Date, Title of Book, Place
of Publication, Publisher
Book with one author
Henley John [1987] Converging on
the evanescent, San-Francisco,
Threshold Publications.

Book Article or Chapter


James, N. E. (1988). Two sides of
paradise, in D. Palumbo (Ed.),
Spectrum of the fantastic (pp. 219223). Westport, OUP.

More than Two Authors


Jagezai Aurangzeb, et al [1976]
Introduction to Political Science, 3rd
ed., Macgraw, Hill Koga, Ltd., Tokyo.
et al is an Italian Phrase derived from
et alia means and others.

Journal
Author (s) Date, Title of Article,
Title of Journal, Volume, Pages,
Place of Publication, Publisher.
Khan Hamadullah [2007] Senior
Citizens in Pakistan: A Case Study
of Karachi. Journal of
Independent Studies and
Research, (Bi- Annual), volume: 2,
no: 5, Karachi, SZABIST-Khi.

Editor as an Author:

Lawrence H Seltzer, [1964] in ed.,


New Horizons of Economic
Progress, Oxford University Press,
London.

Books with both Author and


Editor
Hanley John, [1999] Beyond the
Privatization, in ed., John W.
Doberstein, Commercialization of
the SOEs, New York, OUP.

Group Author
American Psychological Association.
(2001). Publication Manual of the
American Psychological Association
Washington, DC, OUP .

Newspaper Article
Farooqui Jalees, [Jan 27 Feb 2,
2003] Sugar Economys
Complexities, Daily Dawn Karachi,
EBR section, p.I.

Website
Lynch, T. (1996) Pakistans Foreign
Policy. RetrievedOctober 8, 1997,
from Web site:
http://www.bradley.edu/campusorg/psi
phi/DS9/ep/503r.html

If no Author given:
Cite in the text the first one or
two words of the article title.

Example:
Full Title: California Cigarette Tax Deters
Smokers
Citation: (California, 1999)

News Paper without Author

Daily Dawn, Karachi [ Feb 17,


2003] Export Through Karachi
Customs up by 19 pc, Staff
Reporter.

Encyclopedia
Encyclopedia Americana, 1999,
ed., v.11.

Documents
U.S Department of State [Jan
2003] Declaration of the U.N
Conference on Food and
Agriculture, War Document
Series, no. 2162.

Interview
John Naught [12 May 2002] CEO
Primus Co. San Jose,
California.

Radio and TV Program


BBC Hard Talk, 28 October
2002, narrator xyz,

Personal
Communication/Interview

Example:
T.K. Lutes, September 19, [2001],
Personal Communication.

Multivolume book
Koch, S. (1959-1963). Psychology:
A study of science (Vols. 1-6).
New York: McGraw-Hill.

Corporate/Organization as an
Author

Ohio State University, [1977] College


of Administrative Science, Center for
Human Resources, The National
Longitudinal Surveys Handbook.

State/Organization as an
Author
Pakistan Government of [2003]
Economic Survey 2002-3,
Islamabad.
State Bank of Pakistan [2002] Annual
Report 2001-2, Karachi.

Thesis
Haleem Shaikh (2000). Coping Strategies of
Counseling Professionals, Masters
Thesis, Nanyang Technological University,
Singapore.

Videotape
Bethesda (1980) National Institute
on Mental Health,
Drug abuse
[videotape]

Cassette/CD:
Lake, F. L. (Author and speaker).
(1989). Bias and organizational
decision making [Cassette/CD].
Gainesville: Edwards

Web page
Green, C. (2000, April 16). History
& philosophy of psychology web
resources. Retrieved May 22,
2001,
from
ttp://www.yorku.ca/dept.htm

In source, if the date is


unknown:
1.

If the date is unknown, make a


guess and indicate [ca 2007].

2.

If impossible to guess the date


then indicate [no date].

Sample Reference List


Calvillo, D. (1999). The theoretical development of
aggression. Retrieved August

21, 2002 from:

http://www.csubak.edu/~1vega/dustin2.html
Flory, R. K. (1969a). Attack behavior as a function of
minimum inter-food

interval. Journal of the Experimental

Analysis of Behavior. 12, 825-828.

Flory, R. K. (1969b). Attack behavior in a multiple fixed-ratio


schedule of reinforcement. Psychonomic Science, 16, 383386.
Conti:

Citation in the text


One Author
Example: (Kosik, 1999, p. 127)
Two Authors citation
Example: (Kosik & Martin, 1999, p.
127)
Three or more authors citation:
Example (Wilson et al., 2000)

Quoting same author, with


several work published in diff
years
(chronological order, separated
by comma)
Example:
(Burke, 1998, 1999, in press)

Quoting same author, with


several work published in the
same year.

Example:
(Burke, 1998a, 1988b, 1988c)

Quoting same work of more than


one author with the same last
name.

Example:
(H. James, 1878; W. James, 1880)

If the source has no known Author ,


Then use an abbreviated version of the title:
Example:
Full Title: California Cigarette Tax Deters
Smokers
Citation: (California, 1999)

Text with Harvard Citations Style


Example:
The notion of an indivisible college has
been explored in the sciences (Crow,
1980). Its absence amongst historians
is noted by Sticks (1981b). As Barton
(1985) points out that they have no
assistant or are reluctant to delegate
(Smith, 1988, Chump 1999).

Text with Numerical Citations Style [APA]


Example:
The notion of an indivisible college has
been explored in the sciences1. Its
absence amongst historians is noted by
Sticks 2.
As Barton points out that they have no
assistant or are reluctant to delegate3

References
[Numerical Citation]
1. R. Millan, "Art of Latin grammar" (Academic,
New York, 1997), p. 23.
2. Ibid, 1
3. G.Wiki "Blah and its uses" (Blah Ltd., Old York,
2000), p.17.
4. R. Millan, Op cit

IEEE Citation Style

References should be numbered sequentially by


order of mention in the text, with the number
placed in brackets and printed on the same
line (not as a superscript) like [1]. The list of
all references cited in the text should appear
in numeric order at the end of the paper [2].
Don't use footnotes [1].
Samples of IEEE Reference Style
Books
[1] E. R. Tufte, Visual Explanations: Images and
Quantities, Evidence and Narrative. Cheshire,
CT: Graphics Press, 1996.
[2] J. H. Watt and S. A. van den Berg, Research
Methods for Communication Science. Boston,
MA: Allyn

Thank You