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PUPUK

PUPUK HIJAU
HIJAU
Diabstraksikan
Diabstraksikanoleh:
oleh:
Prof.Dr.Ir.Soemarno,
Prof.Dr.Ir.Soemarno,M.S.
M.S.
Jurs
tanah
fpub
maret
2012
Jurs tanah fpub maret 2012

Green manure, also called a cover crop, is a great way to add


nutrients to the soil. Green manure means planting a crop that is
meant to be incorporated into the soil to increase it's fertility.
Green manures can be planted in the fall after the herbs have been
harvested. You can also plant your green manures as part of your
crop rotation during the growing season.
Sumber; http://herbgardens.about.com/od/fertilizer/a/greenmanure.htm

PUPUK ORGANIK
Pupuk organik adalah pupuk yang tersusun dari materi
/substansi organik, seperti hasil-hasil pelapukan sisa -sisa
tanaman, hewan, dan manusia.
Pupuk organik dapat berbentuk padat atau cair yang
digunakan untuk memperbaiki sifat fisik, kimia, dan
biologi tanah. Pupuk organik mengandung banyak bahan
organik daripada kadar haranya.
Sumber bahan organik dapat berupa kompos, pupuk hijau,
pupuk kandang, sisa panen (jerami, brangkasan, tongkol
jagung, bagas tebu, dan sabut kelapa), limbah ternak,
limbah industri yang menggunakan bahan pertanian, dan
limbah kota (sampah).

Sutanto, Rachman. (2002). Pertanian organik: Menuju


Pertanian Alternatif dan Berkelanjutan. Jakarta:Kanisius.
ISBN 979-21-0187-X,9789792101874
Suriadikarta, Didi Ardi., Simanungkalit, R.D.M.
(2006).Pupuk Organik dan Pupuk Hayati. Jawa Barat:Balai
Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Sumberdaya Lahan
Pertanian. Hal 2. ISBN 978-979-9474-57-5.
Sumber: http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pupuk_organik .. Diunduh 11/3/2012

PUPUK HIJAU
Pupuk hijau adalah pupuk organik yang berasal dari tanaman atau sisasisa panen. Bahan tanaman ini dapat dibenamkan pada waktu masih
hijau segar atau setelah dikomposkan.
Sumber pupuk hijau adalah sisa-sisa tanaman (sisa panen) atau tanaman
yang ditanam secara khusus sebagai penghasil pupuk hijau, seperti sisa
sisa tanaman, kacang-kacangan, dan tanaman paku air (Azolla).
Jenis tanaman yang dijadikan sumber pupuk hijau diutamakan dari jenis
legume, karena tanaman ini mengandung nitrogen yang relatif tinggi,
dibandingkan dengan jenis lainnya.
Legume juga relatif mudah terdekomposisi sehingga penyediaan
haranya menjadi lebih cepat.
Pupuk hijau bermanfaat untuk meningkatkan kandungan bahan organik
dan unsur hara di dalam tanah, sehingga terjadi perbaikan sifat fisika,
kimia, dan biologi tanah, yang selanjutnya berdampak pada peningkatan
produktivitas tanah dan ketahanan tanah terhadap erosi.
Pupuk hijau digunakan dalam:
Penggunaan tanaman pagar, yaitu dengan mengembangkan sistem
pertanaman lorong, dimana tanaman pupuk hijau ditanam sebagai
tanaman pagar berseling dengan tanaman utama.
Penggunaan tanaman penutup tanah, yaitu dengan mengembangkan
tanaman yang ditanam sendiri, pada saat tanah tidak ditanami tanaman
utama atau tanaman yang ditanam bersamaan dengan tanaman pokok
bila tanaman pokok berupa tanaman tahunan.
Parnata, Ayub.S. (2004). Pupuk Organik Cair. Jakarta:PT Agromedia
Pustaka. Hal 15-18.
Sumber: http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pupuk_organik .. Diunduh 11/3/2012

KOMPOS
Kompos merupakan sisa bahan organik yang berasal dari tanaman,
hewan, dan limbah organik yang telah mengalami proses dekomposisi
atau fermentasi.
Jenis tanaman yang sering digunakan untuk kompos di antaranya jerami,
sekam padi, tanaman pisang, gulma, sayuran yang busuk, sisa tanaman
jagung, dan sabut kelapa.
Bahan dari ternak yang sering digunakan untuk kompos di antaranya
kotoran ternak, urine, pakan ternak yang terbuang, dan cairan biogas.
Tanaman air yang sering digunakan untuk kompos di antaranya
ganggang biru, gulma air, eceng gondok, dan azola.
Beberapa manfaat kompos adalah:
Memperbaiki struktur tanah.
Memperkuat kemantapan agregat pada tanah berpasir.
Meningkatkan daya simpan dan daya serap air.
Memperbaiki drainase dan pori pori tanah.
Menambah ketersediaan unsur hara.
Kompos diaplikasikan dengan cara menyebarkannya di sekeliling
tanaman. Kompos yang layak digunakan adalah yang sudah matang,
ditandai dengan menurunnya temperatur kompos (di bawah 40 0 c).
Djuarni, Nan, Kristian, Setiawan, Budi Susilo.(2006). Cara Cepat
Membuat Kompos. Jakarta:AgroMedia.Hal 36-38.
Sumber: http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pupuk_organik .. Diunduh 11/3/2012

Tanaman Orok-orok (Crotalaria juncea


) cocok sebagai pupuk hijau
Tanaman Crotalaria juncea di samping hasil biomasanya tinggi juga
mempunyai kandungan N tinggi pula (3,01 % N). Tanaman ini cukup
lunak sehingga cocok digunakan utuk sebagai pupuk hijau. Pada waktu
yang lalu tanaman selalu ditanam setelah panen selesai.
Sebenarnya penggunaan pupuk hijau ini bukan barang baru lagi, namun
karena sudah banyak ditinggalkan oleh petani maka pupuk hijau ini
terabaikan. Misalnya pada tahun tujuh puluhan, merupakan suatu
keharusan pihak pabrik tembakau di Klaten, menanam Crotalaria
juncea (orok-orok) pada setiap habis panen tembakau, bertujuan untuk
mengembalikan dan memperbaiki kesuburan tanahnya.

Setelah tembakau dipanen, ditanam orok-orok, setelah


besar maka tanaman orok-orok ini dirobohkan dan
dicampur dengan tanah saat pengolahan tanah
(pembajakan) yang kemudian digenangi.
Pada saat ini keharusan tersebut sukar dipenuhi baik
oleh pihak penguysaha maupun petani.
Petani merasa keberatan bila sawahnya ditanami legum
(orok-orok), karena dianggap tidak produktif, selama
penanaman orok-orok (sekitar 1 bulan).

Sumber: http://lestarimandiri.org/id/pupuk-organik/pupuk-hijau.html .. Diunduh


10/3/2012

TANAMAN PUPUK HIJAU


Pupuk hijau adalah pupuk organik yang berasal dari
tanaman atau berupa sisa panen. Bahan tanaman ini dapat
dibenamkan pada waktu masih hijau atau setelah
dikomposkan.
Manfaat pupuk hijau :
Meningkatkan kandungan bahan organik dan unsur hara di
dalam tanah sehingga terjadi perbaikan sifat fisika, kimia,
dan biologi tanah, yang selanjutnya berdampak pada
peningkatan produktivitas tanah dan ketahanan tanah
terhadap erosi.
Sumber pupuk hijau :
Sumber pupuk hijau dapat berupa sisa-sisa tanaman (sisa
panen) atau tanaman yang ditanam secara khusus sebagai
penghasil pupuk hijau atau berasal dari tanaman liar.
Jenis tanaman yang dijadikan sumber pupuk hijau
diutamakan dari jenis legume, karena tanaman ini
mengandung hara yang relatif tinggi(terutama N)
dibandingkan dengan jenis tanaman lainnya, tanaman legume
juga relatif mudah terdekomposisi sehingga penyediaan
haranya menjadi lebih cepat.
Sumber: http://lestarimandiri.org/id/pupuk-organik/pupuk-hijau.html .. Diunduh
10/3/2012

PUPUK HIJAU: Sisa tanaman


Sisa tanaman (sisa panen) merupakan sumber BO yang paling ekonomis karena
bahan ini merupakan hasil sampingan dari kegiatan usaha tani, sehingga tidak
membutuhkan biaya untuk pengadaannya. Sisa tanaman walaupun kandungan
haranya relatif rendah, namun karena total sisa tanaman yang dihasilkan setiap
musim panen banyak, maka total unsur hara yang disumbangkan dari setiap
musim panen tidak kalah dibandingkan jenis legume.
Total hara yang terkandung dalam sisa panen (kecuali akar)
Tanaman

Kacangkacangan
K. Tunggak
K. Tanah
K. Hijau
Kedelai
K. Panjang
Biji-bijian

Total hara dalam sisa tanaman kecuali akar


N
P
K
Ca
Mg
S
-1
Kg ha
25
7
35
15
65

2
5
3
2
6

21
59
54
13
33

17
60
18
1
23

8
17
9
2
16

6
16
7
6
8

Jagung hibrida
Jagung local
Padi unggul
Padi local
Umbi-umbian

45
25
30
15

7
4
2
2

58
32
93
49

7
4
10
5

12
7
6
3

6
4
1
1

Singkong
Kentang
Ubi jalar

61
39
30

5
8
5

41
46
29

42
9
4

11
4
2

6
5
3

Sumber: Pupuk Organik dan Pupuk Hayati by Litbang, Bogor


http://lestarimandiri.org/id/pupuk-organik/pupuk-hijau/273-tanaman-pupuk-hijau.html..
Diunduh 10/3/2012

TANAMAN PAGAR
Salah satu cara menyediakan sumber pupuk hijau adalah dengan
mengembangkan sistem pertanaman lorong, dimana tanaman
pupuk hijau ditanam sebagai tanaman pagar berseling dengan
tanaman utama.
Tanaman pagar dapat menghasilkan biomasa secara periodik;
pada usim hujan tanaman dapat dipangkas setiap 2 bulan.
Aplikasi sistem pertanaman lorong pada lahan miring, dimana
legume ditanam searah kontur sangat efektif untuk menekan
erosi.
Secara umum setiap legume dapat digunakan sebagai tanaman
pagar, namun lebih efektif bila tanaman pagar memenuhi sifatsifat sebagai berikut :
1.Berakar dalam agar tidak menjadi pesaing bagi tanaman
semusim
2.Pertumbuhan cepat dan setelah pemangkasan cepat bertunas
kembali
3.Mampu menghasilkan bahan hijauan dalam jumlah banyak dan
terus menerus yang dapat digunakan sebagai pupuk hijau
4.Mampu memperbaiki kandungan N dalam tanah dan
kandungan hara lainnya.

Sumber: Pupuk Organik dan Pupuk Hayati by Litbang, Bogor


http://lestarimandiri.org/id/pupuk-organik/pupuk-hijau/273-tanaman-pupuk-hijau.html..
Diunduh 10/3/2012

Tanaman legume yang dapat digunakan sebagai


tanaman pagar :
Produksi pangkasan (data pangkasan tahun kedua dan
ketiga) beberapa jenis tanaman pagar

Jenis tanaman pagar

Hasil bahan
hijauan segar

Sumber

Ton ha-1tahun-1
Flemingia (Plemingia
macrophylla)

4,7-26,2

Suganda et al., 1991 ; Haryati


et al., 1991; Erfandi et al.,
1988

Glirisidia (Gliricidia
sepium)

2,9-9,2

Suganda et al., 1991

1,3-2,9

Suganda et al., 1991; Kang et


al., 1984

6,1-20

Erfandi et al., 1988

Thephrosia (Theprosia
candida)

13,5

Haryati et al., 1991

Kaliandra (Calliandra
callothyrsus)

4,3-22,8

Suganda et al., 1991; Erfandi


et al., 1988

Sengon ( Paraserianthes
falcataria)

1,5-1,6

Suganda et al., 1991

Lamtoro gung
Lamtoro (Leucaena
leucephala)

Sumber: Pupuk Organik dan Pupuk Hayati by Litbang, Bogor


http://lestarimandiri.org/id/pupuk-organik/pupuk-hijau/273-tanaman-pupuk-hijau.html..
Diunduh 10/3/2012

TANAMAN PENUTUP TANAH


Tanaman penutup tanah adalah tanaman yang ditanam sendiri yakni
pada saat tanah tidak ditanami tanaman utama atau tanaman yang
ditanam bersamaan dengan tanaman pokok bila tanaman pokok berupa
tanaman tahunan.
Tujuan penanaman tanaman penutup tanah :
1.Melindungi tanah dari daya perusak butir-butir hujan
2.Mempertahankan/memperbaiki kesuburan tanah
3.Menyediakan BO
4.Merupakan tindakan rehabilitasi lahan yang murah dan mudah
diaplikasikan

Cover crops are crops planted primarily to manage soil fertility,


soil quality, water, weeds, pests, diseases, biodiversity and
wildlife in agroecosystems (Lu et al. 2000), ecological systems
managed and largely shaped by humans across a range of
intensities to produce food, feed, or fiber.
Cover crops are of interest in sustainable agriculture as many of
them improve the sustainability of agroecosystem attributes and
may also indirectly improve qualities of neighboring natural
ecosystems. Farmers choose to grow and manage specific cover
crop types based on their own needs and goals, influenced by
the biological, environmental, social, cultural, and economic
factors of the food system within which farmers operate.
Lu, Y. C., K. B. Watkins, J. R. Teasdale, and A. A. Abdul-Baki. 2000. Cover crops
in sustainable food production. Food Reviews International 16:121-157.

Sumber: Pupuk Organik dan Pupuk Hayati by Litbang, Bogor


http://lestarimandiri.org/id/pupuk-organik/pupuk-hijau/273-tanaman-pupuk-hijau.html..
Diunduh 10/3/2012

AZOLLA
Azolla merupakan salah satu sumber N alternatif khususnya untuk padi
sawah. Azolla merupakan paku air ukuran mini yang bersimbiosis
dengan Cyanobacteria pemfiksasi N2.
Azolla merupakan satu-satunya genus dari paku air mengapung suku
Azollaceae. Terdapat tujuh spesies yang termasuk dalam genus ini.
Azolla dikenal mampu bersimbiosis dengan bakteri biru-hijau Anabaena
azollae dan mengikat nitrogen langsung dari udara. Potensi ini membuat
Azolla digunakan sebagai pupuk hijau baik di lahan sawah maupun
lahan kering. Pada kondisi optimal Azolla akan tumbuh baik dengan laju
pertumbuhan 35% tiap hari Nilai nutrisi Azolla mengandung kadar
protein tinggi antara 24-30%. Kandungan asam amino essensialnya,
terutama lisin 0,42% lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan konsentrat
jagung, dedak, dan beras pecah (Arifin, 1996) dalam Akrimin 2002.
Tanaman Azolla Sp. memang sudah tidak diragukan lagi konstribusinya
dalam memengaruhi peningkatan tanaman padi. Hal ini telah dibuktikan
dibeberpa tempat dan beberapa negara. Konstribusi terbesar azolla
adalah dengan menjaga hasil panen tetap tinggi. Meskipun
penggunaannya sebagai pupuk hijau pada tanaman padi masih dilakukan
di China dan Vietnam, dengan adanya peningkatan biaya tenaga kerja,
membuatnya kurang diminati.
Sejalan dengan perkembangan pupuk hijau, penggunaan azolla lebih
banyak dimanfaatkan untuk budidaya perikanan. Dengan adanya
mindazbesi yang menggabungkan mina padi dengan azolla, selain
menjadikannya sebagai pakan perikanan juga konstribusi dapat
digunakan untuk peningkatan produksi padi.
Sumber: Pupuk Organik dan Pupuk Hayati by Litbang, Bogor
http://lestarimandiri.org/id/pupuk-organik/pupuk-hijau/273-tanaman-pupuk-hijau.html..
Diunduh 10/3/2012

Terdapat tujuh jenis Azolla:


Asia
Azolla japonica Franch. & Sav. dari Jepang
A. filiculoides Lam.
A. pinnata R. Br. dari Asia Tenggara, juga dari Afrika
Afrika
A. nilotica Dcne. ex Mett.
Amerika
A. caroliniana Willd., dari Amerika Utara
A. mexicana Presl., dari Meksiko
A. microphylla Kaulf.

Rice-duck-azolla system developed by a Japanese farmer


http://www.asahi-net.or.jp/~it6i-wtnb/azollaE.html
Sumber: http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Azolla.. Diunduh 11/3/2012

Sesbania rostrata
Sesbania rostrata merupakan tanaman legume yang potensial sebagai sumber N
pada lahan sawah. Tanaman ini dapat tumbuh pada keadaan tergenang, dan dapat
membentuk bintil tidak hanya pada akar tetapi juga pada batang.
Oleh karena itu tanaman ini mempunyai kemampuan menambat N yang relatif
tinggi.

Sesbania is a genus of flowering plants in the


pea family, Fabaceae and the only genus
found in Tribe Sesbanieae. Notable species
include the Rattlebox (Sesbania drummondii),
Spiny Sesbania (Sesbania bispinosa), and
Sesbania sesban, which is used in cooking.
Plants of this genus, some of which are
aquatic, can be used in alley cropping to
increase the soil's nitrogen content.
The species of Rhizobia responsible for
Nitrogen fixation in Sesbania rostrata is
Azorhizobium caulinodans.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sesbania
Sumber: Pupuk Organik dan Pupuk Hayati by Litbang, Bogor
http://lestarimandiri.org/id/pupuk-organik/pupuk-hijau/273-tanaman-pupuk-hijau.html..
Diunduh 10/3/2012

Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Poir.


Sesbania grandiflora is a loosely branching tree up to 15 m tall. Its
leaves are pinnately compound up to 30 cm long with 20-50 leaflets in
pairs, dimensions 12-44 x 5-15 mm, oblong to elliptical in shape.
Flowers are large, white, yellowish, rose pink or red with a calyx 15-22
mm long. The standard has dimensions up to 10.5 x 6 cm. Pods are long
(20-60 cm) and thin (6-9 mm) with broad sutures containing 15-50
seeds.
It is well adapted to hot, humid environments and does not grow well in
the subtropics particularly in areas with cool season minimum
temperatures below about 10C. It is outstanding in its ability to tolerate
waterlogging and is ideally suited to seasonally waterlogged or flooded
environments. When flooded, they initiate floating adventitious roots
and protect their stems, roots and nodules with spongy, aerenchyma
tissue. Evans and Macklin (1990) report that S. grandiflora is adapted to
rainfall conditions of 2,000-4,000 mm but will grow in areas receiving
only 800 mm.
In northern Thailand, S. grandiflora was an excellent supplement to
dairy cows fed predominantly grass hay. Most reports indicate that the
crude protein content of S. grandiflora foliage is generally greater than
20% and often above 25%. Dry matter digestibility of Sesbania species
is superior to that of most other tree and shrub legumes. In northeast
Thailand, Akkasaeng et al. (1989) found that the in vitro dry matter
digestibility of S. grandiflora, S. sesban and S. sesban var. nubica was
66, 75 and 66% respectively, all higher than that of 15 other tree
legumes that were tested. van Eys et al. (1986) reported that S.
grandiflora contained more crude protein but less fibre than Gliricidia
sepium and Leucaena leucocephala while their in vitro dry matter
digestibilities were 73.3, 65.2 and 62.2% respectively.
Sumber: http://www.fao.org/ag/AGP/AGPC/doc/Gbase/data/pf000171.htm .. Diunduh
11/3/2012

PUPUK HIJAU
(MAPORINA.COM -- Written by beta Monday, 09 August 2004. Last
Updated ( Wednesday, 02 September 2009 )
Pupuk hijau merupakan pupuk yang bahannya berasal dari tanaman atau
komponen tanaman yang dibenamkan ke dalam tanah. Jenis tanaman yang banyak
digunakan dan memang lebih baik kualitasnya dibanding tanaman lain adalah
jenis/familia Leguminoceae. Jenis tanaman tersebut mengandung unsur hara yang
lehih baik, terutama unsur Nitrogen dibanding tanaman lain. Jenis tanaman
leguminosa mempunyai daya serap hara yang lebih besar dan mempunyai bintil
akar. Di dalam metabolismenya bersimbiosis dengan bakteri
Rhizobium yang dapat mengikat unsur nitrogen dari udara.
Keuntungan yang didapat jika menggunakan pupuk hijau :
1.Mampu memperbaiki struktur dan tekstur tanah serta infiltrasi air.
2.Mencegah adanya erosi
3.Sangat bermanfaat pada daerah-daerah yang sulit dijangkau untuk suplai pupuk
anorganik.
4.Manfaat lain spesies pupuk hijau dapat dijadikan sebagai pakan ternak, kayu
bakar bahkan sebagai makanan manusia.
Syarat-syarat tanaman pupuk hijau yang akan di pilih adalah sebagai berikut :

1.Menghasilkan banyak biomas.


2.Dapat menekan dan mengendalikan gulma.
3.Prosentase produksi daun lebih besar dari pada bagian yang berkayu.
4.Mempunyai kemampuan kemampuan mengikat nitrogennya tinggi dan
melepaskan nutrisi pada tanah.
5.Berumur pendek, cepat tumbuh, mempunyai kemampuan
megakumulasi hara.

Sumber: .. Diunduh 10/3/2012. http://maporina.com/index.php?


option=com_content&task=view&id=2&Itemid=1

PUPUK HIJAU
(MAPORINA.COM -- Written by beta Monday, 09 August 2004. Last
Updated ( Wednesday, 02 September 2009 )

Tanaman yang berfungsi sebagai pupuk hijau, selain tanaman


kacang-kacangan/polong-polongan, jenis rumput-rumputan
( rumput gajah ), dan Azolla juga baik sebagai bahan pupuk
hijau.
Tanaman pupuk hijau yang cocok ditanam pada lahan pematang
tanaman padi maupun lahan-lahan yang kosong, sedangkan
Azolla adalah merupakan jenis tanaman pakuan air yang hidup di
perairan.
Seperti halnya tanaman leguminosae, Azolla mampu menambat
N2 udara karena berasosiasi dengan sianobakteri (Anabaena
azollae) yang hidup di dalam rongga daun Azolla.
Menurut Khan (1983), kemampuan Azolla mengikat N2 dari
udara berkisar antara 400 500 kg N/ha/tahun. Azolla
berkembang Sangat cepat dan dapat menghasilkan biomassa
sebanyak 10-15 ton/ha dengan C/N ratio 12 18, sehingga
dalam waktu satu minggu Azolla telah terdekomposisi dengan
sempurna.

Sumber: .. Diunduh 10/3/2012. http://maporina.com/index.php?


option=com_content&task=view&id=2&Itemid=1

KEUNTUNGAN PUPUK HIJAU


Green manuring can bring a number of advantages to the grower:
1.Adding organic matter to the soil
2.Increasing biological activity
3.Improving soil structure
4.Reduction of erosion
5.Increasing the supply of nutrients available to plants
(particularly by adding nitrogen to the system by fixation)
6.Reducing leaching losses
7.Suppressing weeds
8.Reducing pest and disease problems
9.Providing supplementary animal forage
10.Drying and warming the soil
Green manure crops are also useful for weed control, erosion prevention,
and reduction of insect pests and diseases. The deep rooting properties of
many green manure crops make them efficient at suppressing weeds[2].
Green manure crops often provide habitat for many native pollinators as
well as predatory beneficial insects, which allow for a reduction in the
input of insecticides where cover crops are planted. Some green manures
are also successful at suppressing plant diseases, especially
Verticillium wilt in potato[3]. Incorporation of green manures into a farming
system can drastically reduce, if not eliminate, the need for additional
products such as supplemental fertilizers and pesticides.
Vasilakoglou, Ioannis, Dhima, Kico, Anastassopoulos, Elias, Lithourgidis, Anastasios, Gougoulias,
Nikolaos, and Chouliaras, Nikolaos. 2011. Oregano green manure for weed suppression in
sustainable cotton and corn fields. Weed Biology and Management 11:38-48.
Larkin, Robert P., Honeycutt, Wayne, and Olanya Modesto, O. 2011. Management of Verticillium
Wilt of Potato with Disease-Suppressive Green Manures and as Affected by Previous Cropping
History. Plant Dis. 95:568-576.

Sumber: www.organicadvice.org.uk/.../green_manures...... Diunduh 10/3/2012

KERUGIAN PUPUK HIJAU


A number of disadvantages can also be identified:
1.Direct costs of seed and extra cultivations
2.Lost opportunities for cash cropping
3.Extra work at busy times of the year
4.Exacerbated pest and disease problems (due to the green
bridge effect)
5.Potential for the green manures to become weeds in their own
right
A wide range of plant species can be used as green manures.
Different ones bring different benefits and the final choice is
influenced by many considerations which will be examined later
on in this review. If the most is to be made from green manure
crops it is important that they are carefully integrated into the
crop rotation and proper attention paid to their husbandry.

Green manure crops


Another important contribution of green manure to an agricultural field is
the nitrogen fixing ability and consequent nitrogen accumulation in the
soil, particularly of those leguminous crops used. Depending on the
species of cover crop grown, the amount of nitrogen released into the soil
lies between 40 and 200 pounds per acre. With green manure use, the
amount of nitrogen that is available to the succeeding crop is usually in
the range of 40-60% of the total amount of nitrogen that is contained
within the green manure crop[1].
Sullivan, Preston. 2003. Overview of Cover Crops and Green Manures:
Fundamentals of Sustainable Agriculture. www.attrat.ncat.org.
Sumber: www.organicadvice.org.uk/.../green_manures...... Diunduh 10/3/2012

THE EFFECTS OF GREEN MANURES


Minimising nitrate leaching
Large quantities of nitrate can be lost from soil which is left bare
overwinter. This is because, unlike other nutrient ions, nitrate is not
strongly attracted to soil particles. Any that is in solution in the autumn
will be washed away as water moves down through the soil with the
onset of heavy winter rains.
This is bad for the environment (nitrate can contribute to the formation
of algal blooms in watercourses) and for human health (when
contaminated water is drunk). As a result EU regulations have been
introduced to control farming practices likely to result in large nitrate
losses.
This has resulted in the establishment of Nitrate Sensitive Areas
(Tunney, 1992). For farmers, leaching also represents the loss of a
valuable resource this is particularly serious for organic farmers
because it is much harder for them to replace the lost nitrogen.
It is widely recognised that one of the best ways of preventing nitrate
leaching is to maintain a vigorously growing crop over the winter period
(MAFF, 1998).

Tunney, H (1992). The EC Nitrate Directive. Aspects of Applied Biology 30: 5-10.
MAFF (1998). Code of Good Agricultural Practice for the Protection of Water (Available
form DEFRA).
Sumber: www.organicadvice.org.uk/.../green_manures...... Diunduh 10/3/2012

An example of overwinter nitrate concentrations below bare soil plots


and plots on which grazing rye was growing. This trial was set up
directly after the incorporation of a grass/clover ley.

Winter green manures can be very effective crops for mopping up excess nitrate
in the soil in the autumn and this effect was studied at HDRA. One example is
shown in figure , nitrate concentrations were measured at 60cm depth and the
wave of nitrate passing down the profile can be clearly seen.
GREEN MANURES. A review conducted by HDRA as part of HDC Project FV 299: An
investigation into the adoption of green manures in both organic and conventional rotations
to aid nitrogen management and maintain soil structure.
Project Leader: Peter Knight
Vegetable Consultancy Services Ltd. The Finches, Cake Street Old Buckenham .
Attleborough, Norfolk NR17 1RU

KETERSEDIAAN N BAGI TANAMAN


BERIKUTNYA
Of all the nutrient elements, nitrogen is the most labile in soil
and the one most likely to be affected by green manures. This is
because it exists in so many different forms that are interconverted by a range of biological processes some of these
forms are prone to losses (by leaching or gaseous emissions of
ammonia, nitrogen or nitrous oxides).
For some crops (eg cauliflowers) it is particularly important that
sufficient nitrogen is available at certain growth stages to ensure
that the plants produce yields of a marketable quality and correct
management of green manures can be used to manipulate its
availability.
Large amounts of nitrogen are added to the soil by a successful
green manure (eg an overwintered crop of vetch may accumulate
up to 200kg N/ha by early May). How soon this becomes
available to plants (a process of conversion of complex
molecules to ammonium and nitrate ions known as
mineralisation) will depend on many factors (Jarvis et al , 1996).

Jarvis, SC, Stockdale, EA, Shepherd MA & Powlson DS (1996). Nitrogen


mineralization in temperate agricultural soils; processes and measurements.
Advances in Agronomy 57: 187-235.

MINERALISASI PUPUK HIJAU


Mineralisation proceeds fastest when the soil is warm and moist. The
quantity of nitrogen released is also dependant on the total amount
actually added to the soil and the chemical composition of the
incorporated material. It is not just the C;N ratio which is important. The
carbon can be in different forms (eg lignin is more resistant to
decomposition than cellulose) and some plants contain chemicals (eg
polyphenols) which can inhibit microbial action.
Rahn et al (1999) compared the chemical characteristics of various
agricultural residues with their patterns of decomposition.
Incorporation of cover crops into the soil is immediately followed by an
increase in abundance of soil microorganisms that aid in the
decomposition of this fresh material. The degradation of plant material
allows the nutrients held within the green manure to be released and made
available to the succeeding crop. This additional decomposition also
allows for the re-incorporation of nutrients that are found in the soil on a
particular farm such as nitrogen (N), potassium (K), phosphorus (P),
calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sulfur (S). Microbial activity in the
soil also leads to the formation of mycelium and viscous materials which
benefit the health of the soil by increasing its soil structure (i.e. by
aggregation).
Soil that is well- aggregated has increased aeration and water infiltration
rates, and is more easily turned or tilled than non- aggregated soil. Further
aeration of the soil results from the ability of the root systems of many
green manure crops to efficiently penetrate compact soils. The amount of
humus found in the soil also increases with higher rates of decomposition,
which is beneficial for the growth of the crop succeeding the green
manure crop.
Rahn, C.R., Bending, G., Lillywhite, R., Turner M. (1999). Chemical
characterisation of vegetable and arable crop residue materials: a comparison of
methods.. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 79 p1715-1721

PUPUK HIJAU KESUBURAN TANAH


Results from an experiment where overwintered vetch was incorporated
at three different dates in the spring. Vetch is a plant which has a high
nitrogen content throughout its life (3-4% of its dry weight). And is
consequently readily mineralisable. It puts on a lot of growth in late
April and the highest levels of mineral nitrogen resulted from the latest
incorporation date in May.
In some cases a priming effect may be seen ie the addition of green
manures can stimulate the mineralisation of organic matter already in
the soil. See Rayns and Lennartsson (1995) for more information.

An example of patterns of soil mineral nitrogen (0-30cm) after incorporation


of an overwintered vetch crop at three different dates in the spring
Rayns, FW & Lennartsson, M (1995) The nitrogen dynamics of winter green manures. In HF Cook and HC
Lee (eds) Soil Management in Sustainable Agriculture, Proceedings 3rd International Conference on
Sustainable Agriculture, Wye College 1993. Wye College Press, Ashford, pp 308-311.Sumber: ..
Diunduh 10/3/2012

PUPUK HIJAU KETERSEDIAAN HARA


The most extensive study was carried out by Jensen et al. (2005)
where the effectiveness of five types of catch crop (Italian
ryegrass, lupin, chicory, rumex and kidney vetch) were compared
on a soil deficient in P and K. In this study, nutrient uptakes of
catch crops were all low with 2-4 kg P / ha and 15-30kg K /ha
taken up annually. This low uptake was attributed to low biomass
production (1-2 t/ha) of the catch crops on the infertile soils.
Moreover, after incorporation, the catch crops had no effect on
the P uptake in the subsequent barley crop.
The conclusions that could be drawn from this study were that
under these conditions of poor soil fertility, catch crops made
very little contribution to making P and K more available to
subsequent crops. However, this work does not answer the
question as to whether they have a role to prevent losses on more
fertile soils.

The root systems of some


varieties of green manure
grow deep in the soil and
bring up nutrient resources
unavailable to shallowerrooted crops.
Jensen, L., Pedersen, A., Magid. J. & Nielsen, N. (2005) Catch crops have little
effect on P and K availability of depleted soils. Newsletter from Danish Research
Centre for Organic Farming June 2005 No. 2.

PUPUK HIJAU KETERSEDIAAN FOSFAT


There is work that has focussed on the ability of some plants, particularly lupins
and buckwheat to increase
phosphate mobility in the soil. Lupins grown in P deficient soil were found to
extrude protons and organic acids such as citric acid, increasing the mobility and
uptake of P (Shen et al., 2005; Neuman et al., 2000).
P deficiency also stimulated the formation of cluster roots which are more active
in P uptake (Sas et al., 2001).
Buckwheat has also been shown to extrude organic acids and under conditions of
low P availability on a calcareous soil, P uptake was ten fold higher than in wheat
(Zhu et al., 2002).
Phosphorus uptake by green manure crops in 2004
http://www.organicagcentre.ca/Docs/OACC_bulletins06/OACC_Bulletin17_phos_avail.
pdf

Sas, L., Rengel, Z. & Tang, C. (2001) Excess cation uptake, and extrusion of protons and organic acid anions
by Lupinus albus under phosphorus deficiency Plant Science 160: 1191-1198
Shen, J. Li, H., Neumann, G. & Zhang, F. (2005) Excess cation uptake, and extrusion of protons and organic
acid anions by Lupinus albus under phosphorus deficiency. Plant Science 168:837-845.
Zhu, Y,G., He, Y,Q, Smith, S.E. & Smith, F.A. (2002) Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) has high
capacity to take up phosphorus (P) from a calcium (Ca)-bound source. Plant and Soil 239: 18.

PUPUK HUJAI UNSUR HARA LAIN


There is also work to suggest that micronutrients such as sulphur may be leached out of
sandy soils and eventually become deficient in low input systems (Eriksen & Askegaard,
2000).
One study (Eriksen & Thorup- Kristensen, 2002) found that cruciferous crops such as winter
rape or fodder radish were particularly effective at preventing sulphur being leached into
lower soil profiles. Moreover this increased availability was realised as an increase in
sulphur content in the subsequent barley crop.
Other green manures such as chicory have also been reported to accumulate large amounts of
micronutrients including sulphur, boron, manganese, molybdenum, and zinc (Rumball,
1986).
Sulfur mineralization in two soils amended with organic manures, crop residues, and green
manures
Kotha Sammi Reddy, Muneshwar Singh, Anand Swarup, Annangi Subba Rao, Kamlesh Narain
Singh. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science. Vol 165, Issue 2, p. 167171, April 2002.
The mineralization of sulfur (S) was investigated in a Vertisol and an Inceptisol amended with
organic manures, green manures, and crop residues. Field-moist soils amended with 10 g kg1 of
organic materials were mixed with glass beads, placed in pyrex leaching tubes, leached with 0.01
M CaCl2 to remove the mineral S and incubated at 30C. The leachates were collected every
fortnight for 16 weeks and analyzed for SO4-S. The amount of S mineralized in control and in
manure-amended soils was highest in the first week and decreased steadily thereafter. The total S
mineralized in amended soils varied considerably depending on the type of organic materials
incorporated and soil used. The cumulative amounts of S mineralized in amended soils ranged
from 6.98 mg S (kg soil)1 in Inceptisol amended with wheat straw to 34.38 mg S (kg soil)1 in
Vertisol amended with farmyard manure (FYM). Expressed as a percentage of the S added to
soils, the S mineralized was higher in FYM treated soils (63.5 to 67.3%) as compared to poultry
manure amended soils (60.5 to 62.3%). Similarly the percentage of S mineralization from
subabul (Leucaena leucocephala) loppings was higher (53.6 to 55.5%) than that from gliricidia
(Gliricidia sepium) loppings (50.3 to 51.1%). Regression analysis clearly indicated the
dependence of S mineralization on the C : S ratio of the organic materials added to soil. The
addition of organic amendments resulted in net immobilization of S when the C : S ratio was
above 290:1 in Vertisol and 349:1 in Inceptisol. The mineralizable S pool (So) and first-order rate
constant (k) varied considerably among the different types of organic materials added and soil.
The So values of FYM treated soils were higher than in subabul, gliricidia, and poultry manure
treated soils.

Eriksen, J & Askegaard, M (2000) Sulphate leaching in an organic crop rotation on sandy soil in Denmark.
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 78:107-114.
Rumball, W. (1986) Grasslands Puna chicory (Cicorium intybusL.) New Zealand Journal of Experimental
Agriculture 14:105-107

PUPUK HIJAU AGREGASI TANAH


Green manures can improve soil structure in a number of ways.
The extensive fine roots of some, such as rye,
enmesh the soil, helping to stabilise aggregates and increasing
pore size thus improving seedbed structure (Breland, 1995).
Some species also produce deep tap roots which help break up
compacted soil. A series of pot experiments (Lofkvist et al.,
2005) identified lucerne roots as being particularly effective at
penetrating hard layers, with chicory, lupin, red clover as having
intermediate ability and barley the poorest. A key function of
green manures is the addition of organic matter to the soil.
They do this whilst still growing, producing root exudates which
provide food for micro organisms, which in turn produce
polysaccharide gums, which glue soil aggregates together
(Reid & Goss, 1981).
They may also provide a bridge between mycorrhizal crops in
order to maintain a high population of soil mycorrhiza, which
help maintain soil structure, again by enmeshing soil aggregates.
Brassicas and lupins, however, are non mycorrhizal and will
break that bridge.
Breland, T. (1995) Green manuring with clover and ryegrass catch crops undersown in
spring wheat : effects on soil structure Soil Use and Management 11:163-167.
Lfkist, J., Whalley, W.R. & Clark, L.J. (2005) A rapid screening method for good rootpenetration ability: Comparison of species with very different root morphology Acta
Agriculturae Scandinavica 55:120-124.
Reid, J.B. & Goss, M.J. (1981) Effect of living roots of different plant species on the
aggregate stability of two arable soils European Journal of Soil Science 32:521.

PUPUK HIJAU - BOT


Once incorporated, the green manure provides a pool of fresh organic
matter and there are numerous examples where using green manures
increases soil organic matter in comparison to treatments where
inorganic fertilisers alone are applied (e.g. Shepherd et al., 2002).
This organic matter provides food to soil micro organisms, encouraging
an increase in numbers and activity (NDayegamuye & Tran, 2001).
Managing Crop Residue with Green Manure, Urea, and Tillage in a RiceWheat
Rotation
Milkha S. Aulakh, T. S. Khera, John W. Doran, and Kevin F. Bronson. Soil Sci. Soc.
Am. J. 65:820827 (2001).

Shepherd, M.A., Harrison, R. & Webb, J.(2002) Managing soil organic matter implications for soil
structure on organic farms. Soil Use and Management 18:284
NDayegamiye, A & Tran, T.S. (2001) Effects of green manures on soil organic matter and wheat yields and
N nutrition Canadian Journal of Soil Science. 81: 371382

PUPUK HIJAU - EROSI TANAH


The more succulent a green manure is the more rapidly it will
decay once incorporated and the less effect it will have on long
term soil organic matter. Older woody green manures with a
higher C:N ratio break down more slowly and breakdown is
reported to decrease to a very slow rate at C:N ratios above 16:1
(Enwezor, 1975).
Legumes which have a low C:N ratio, break down rapidly so
have little effect on long term soil organic matter but give a
larger short term boost to soil structure as they have a large short
term effect on soil micro organisms.

Green manures can also play a part in reducing soil


erosion both by wind and rain (Cransberg &
McFarlane, 1994). Wind erosion is reduced as the
green manure increases surface roughness reducing
the wind speed close to the soil. The root system also
has a binding effect on the soil. The green manure also
reduces run off substantially, at ground covers of
greater than 75%, reducing erosion by rain.

Enwezor, W.O. (1976) The mineralization of nitrogen and phosphorus in organic materials of
varying C:N and C:P ratios Plant and Soil 44:237-240
Cransberg, L. & McFarlane, D.J. (1994) Can perennial pastures provide the basis for a
sustainable farming system in southern Australia? New Zealand Journal of Agricultural
Research 37: 287-294

PUPUK HIJAU - PENGENDALIAN GULMA


One of the major benefits of green manures is the ability to suppress
weeds. This can occur by a number of different mechanisms that were
reviewed by Liebman & Davis (2000). The various mechanisms are
considered here. Firstly green manures can reduce weed infestation by
disrupting cycles. Weeds often become adapted to a particular niche
cycle of planting and cultivations if similar types of crops are grown
continuously (Blackshaw, 1994).
Growing a green manure adds diversity to the rotation and reduces the
opportunities for weeds to become adapted to a niche cropping cycle.
Competition for light, water and nutrients is another important way in
which green manures reduce weed infestation. Rapidly growing crops
with large ground cover, such as mustard, are the most effective at doing
this and McLenaghen et al (1996) found that weed suppression was
directly correlated with the ground cover of the green manure.
Management practices associated with growing a green manure can also
suppress weeds.
The lack of soil disturbance during the long growing period of a ley can
also reduce seed germination (Roberts & Feast, 1973).

Blackshaw, R.E. (1994) Rotation affects downy brome (Bromus tectorum) in winter wheat (Triticum
aestivum). Weed Technology 8:728-732
Mclenaghen, R.D., Cameron, K.C., Lampkin, N.H., Daly, M.L. & Deo, B. (1996) Nitrate leaching from
ploughed pasture and the effectiveness of winter catch crops in reducing leaching losses. New Zealand
Journal of Agricultural Research 39:413-420.
Roberts, H.A. & Feast P.M.(1973) Emergence and longevity of seeds of annual weeds in cultivated and
undisturbed soil. Journal of Applied Ecology 10:133-143.

GREEN MANURE = PUPUK HIJAU.


In agriculture, a green manure is a type of cover crop grown
primarily to add nutrients and organic matter to the soil.
Typically, a green manure crop is grown for a specific period of
time , and then ploughed under and incorporated into the soil
while green or shortly after flowering. Green manure crops are
commonly associated with organic agriculture, and are
considered essential for annual cropping systems that wish to be
sustainable. Traditionally, the practice of green manuring can be
traced back to the fallow cycle of crop rotation, which was used
to allow soils to recover.
Sumber: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Green_manure ....
Diunduh 4/3/2012

Pupuk hijau adalah pupuk organik


yang berasal dari tanaman atau
berupa sisa panen. Bahan tanaman
ini dapat dibenamkan pada waktu
masih hijau atau setelah
dikomposkan.

Sumber:
http://www.lestarimandiri.org/id/pupuk-organik/pupuk-hijau/273-tanaman-pupuk-hijau.html
.... Diunduh 4/3/2012

FUNGSI PUPUK HIJAU

Green manure crops may include legumes such as cowpeas,


soybeans, annual sweet clover, vetch, sesbania, and velvet beans,
as well as non-leguminous crops such as sudangrass, millet,
sorghum, and buckwheat (Sullivan, Preston. 2003. Overview of Cover
Crops and Green Manures: Fundamentals of Sustainable Agriculture.
www.attrat.ncat.org.).

Legumes are often used as green manure crops for their nitrogen
fixing abilities, while non-leguminous crops are used primarily for
weed suppression and addition of biomass to the soil.
Pupuk hijau biasanya mempunyai multi-fungsi, termasuk perbaikan
kualitas tanah dan perlindungan tanah:
1.Leguminous green manures such as clover and vetch contain
nitrogen-fixing symbiotic bacteria in root nodules that fix
atmospheric nitrogen in a form that plants can use.
2.Green manures increase the percentage of organic matter
(biomass) in the soil, thereby improving water retention, aeration,
and other soil characteristics.
3.The root systems of some varieties of green manure grow deep in
the soil and bring up nutrient resources unavailable to shallowerrooted crops.
4.Common cover crop functions of weed suppression and
prevention of soil erosion and compaction are often also taken into
account when selecting and using green manures.
5.Some green manure crops, when allowed to flower, provide
forage for pollinating insects.
Sumber: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Green_manure .. Diunduh 4/3/2012

MANFAAT PUPUK HIJAU

Green manure crops are also useful for weed control,


erosion prevention, and reduction of insect pests and
diseases. The deep rooting properties of many green manure
crops make them efficient at suppressing weeds
(Vasilakoglou, Ioannis, Dhima, Kico, Anastassopoulos, Elias, Lithourgidis,
Anastasios, Gougoulias, Nikolaos, and Chouliaras, Nikolaos. 2011. Oregano
green manure for weed suppression in sustainable cotton and corn fields.
Weed Biology and Management 11:38-48.).

Green manure crops often provide habitat for many native


pollinators as well as predatory beneficial insects, which allow for
a reduction in the input of insecticides where cover crops are
planted. Some green manures are also successful at suppressing
plant diseases, especially Verticillium wilt in potato
Larkin, Robert P., Honeycutt, Wayne, and Olanya Modesto, O. 2011. Management of
Verticillium Wilt of Potato with Disease-Suppressive Green Manures and as Affected
by Previous Cropping History. Plant Dis. 95:568-576).

Incorporation of green manures into a farming system can


drastically reduce, if not eliminate, the need for additional products
such as supplemental fertilizers and pesticides.

Sumber: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Green_manure .. Diunduh 4/3/2012

COVER CROP =
TANAMAN PENUTUP TANAH
Cover crops are crops planted primarily to manage soil fertility,
soil quality, water, weeds, pests, diseases, biodiversity and wildlife
in agroecosystems (Lu et al. 2000), ecological systems managed
and largely shaped by humans across a range of intensities to
produce food, feed, or fiber.
Cover crops are of interest in sustainable agriculture as many of
them improve the sustainability of agroecosystem attributes and
may also indirectly improve qualities of neighboring natural
ecosystems. Farmers choose to grow and manage specific cover
crop types based on their own needs and goals, influenced by the
biological, environmental, social, cultural, and economic factors of
the food system within which farmers operate (Snapp et al. 2005).

1.Lu, Y. C., K. B. Watkins, J. R. Teasdale, and A. A. Abdul-Baki. 2000. Cover crops in


sustainable food production. Food Reviews International 16:121-157.
2.Snapp, S. S., S. M. Swinton, R. Labarta, D. Mutch, J. R. Black, R. Leep, J.
Nyiraneza, and K. O'Neil. 2005. Evaluating cover crops for benefits, costs and
performance within cropping system niches. Agron. J. 97:1-11.

Sumber: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cover_crops .. Diunduh 4/3/2012

TANAMAN PENUTUP TANAH


PENGELOLAAN KUALITAS TANAH
Cover crops can also improve soil quality by increasing soil organic matter levels
through the input of cover crop biomass over time. Increased soil organic matter
enhances soil structure, as well as the water and nutrient holding and buffering
capacity of soil (Patrick et al. 1957). It can also lead to increased soil carbon
sequestration, which has been promoted as a strategy to help offset the rise in
atmospheric carbon dioxide levels (Kuo et al. 1997, Sainju et al. 2002, Lal 2003).
Although cover crops can perform multiple functions in an agroecosystem
simultaneously, they are often grown for the sole purpose of preventing soil erosion.
Soil erosion is a process that can irreparably reduce the productive capacity of an
agroecosystem. Dense cover crop stands physically slow down the velocity of rainfall
before it contacts the soil surface, preventing soil splashing and erosive surface runoff
(Romkens et al. 1990). Additionally, vast cover crop root networks help anchor the
soil in place and increase soil porosity, creating suitable habitat networks for soil
macrofauna (Tomlin et al. 1995).
Soil quality is managed to produce optimum circumstances for crops to flourish. The
principal factors of soil quality are soil salination, pH, microorganism balance and the
prevention of soil contamination.
1.Kuo, S., U. M. Sainju, and E. J. Jellum. 1997. Winter cover crop effects on soil organic carbon and
carbohydrate in soil. Soil Science Society of America Journal 61:145-152.
2.Lal, R. 2003. Offsetting global CO2 emissions by restoration of degraded soils and intensification
of world agriculture and forestry. Land Degradation & Development 14:309-322.
3.Patrick, W. H., C. B. Haddon, and J. A. Hendrix. 1957. The effects of longtime use of winter cover
crops on certain physical properties of commerce loam. Soil Science Society of America 21:366-368.
4.Romkens, M. J. M., S. N. Prasad, and F. D. Whisler. 1990. Surface sealing and infiltration. Pages
127-172 in M. G. Anderson and T. P. Butt, editors. Process studies in hillslope hydrology. John Wiley
and Sons, Ltd. Sainju, U. M., B. P. Singh, and W. F.
5.Sainju, U. M., B. P. Singh, and W. F. Whitehead. 2002. Long-term effects of tillage, cover crops,
and nitrogen fertilization on organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations in sandy loam soils in
Georgia, USA. Soil & Tillage Research 63:167-179.
6.Tomlin, A. D., M. J. Shipitalo, W. M. Edwards, and R. Protz. 1995. Earthworms and their influence
on soil structure and infiltration. Pages 159-183 in P. F. Hendrix, editor. Earthworm Ecology and
Biogeography in North America. Lewis Pub., Boca Raton, FL.

Sumber: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cover_crops .. Diunduh 4/3/2012

TANAMAN PENUTUP TANAH


PENGELOLAAN KESUBURAN TANAH

One of the primary uses of cover crops is to increase soil fertility. These
types of cover crops are referred to as "green manure." They are used to
manage a range of soil macronutrients and micronutrients. Of the various
nutrients, the impact that cover crops have on nitrogen management has
received the most attention from researchers and farmers, because nitrogen
is often the most limiting nutrient in crop production.
Often, green manure crops are grown for a specific period, and then plowed
under before reaching full maturity in order to improve soil fertility and
quality.
Green manure crops are commonly leguminous, meaning they are part of
the Fabaceae (pea) family. This family is unique in that all of the species in
it set pods, such as bean, lentil, lupins and alfalfa. Leguminous cover crops
are typically high in nitrogen and can often provide the required quantity of
nitrogen for crop production. In conventional farming, this nitrogen is
typically applied in chemical fertilizer form. This quality of cover crops is
called fertilizer replacement value (Thiessen-Martens et al. 2005).

1.Thiessen-Martens, J. R., M. H. Entz, and J. W. Hoeppner. 2005. Legume cover crops


with winter cereals in southern Manitoba: Fertilizer replacement values for oat.
Canadian Journal of Plant Science 85:645-648.

Sumber: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cover_crops .. Diunduh 4/3/2012

TANAMAN PENUTUP TANAH


PENGELOLAAN LENGAS TANAH
By reducing soil erosion, cover crops often also reduce both the rate and
quantity of water that drains off the field, which would normally pose
environmental risks to waterways and ecosystems downstream (Dabney et
al. 2001). Cover crop biomass acts as a physical barrier between rainfall and
the soil surface, allowing raindrops to steadily trickle down through the soil
profile. Also, as stated above, cover crop root growth results in the
formation of soil pores, which in addition to enhancing soil macrofauna
habitat provides pathways for water to filter through the soil profile rather
than draining off the field as surface flow. With increased water infiltration,
the potential for soil water storage and the recharging of aquifers can be
improved (Joyce et al. 2002).
Just before cover crops are killed (by such practices including mowing,
tilling, discing, rolling, or herbicide application) they contain a large amount
of moisture. When the cover crop is incorporated into the soil, or left on the
soil surface, it often increases soil moisture. In agroecosystems where water
for crop production is in short supply, cover crops can be used as a mulch to
conserve water by shading and cooling the soil surface. This reduces
evaporation of soil moisture. In other situations farmers try to dry the soil
out as quickly as possible going into the planting season. Here prolonged
soil moisture conservation can be problematic.
1.Dabney, S. M., J. A. Delgado, and D. W. Reeves. 2001. Using winter cover crops to
improve soil quality and water quality. Communications in Soil Science and Plant
Analysis 32:1221-1250.
2.Joyce, B. A., W. W. Wallender, J. P. Mitchell, L. M. Huyck, S. R. Temple, P. N.
Brostrom, and T. C. Hsiao. 2002. Infiltration and soil water storage under winter cover
cropping in California's Sacramento Valley. Transactions of the Asae 45:315-326.

Sumber: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cover_crops .. Diunduh 4/3/2012

TANAMAN PENUTUP TANAH


PENGELOLAAN GULMA
Thick cover crop stands often compete well with weeds during the cover crop
growth period, and can prevent most germinated weed seeds from completing
their life cycle and reproducing. If the cover crop is left on the soil surface
rather than incorporated into the soil as a green manure after its growth is
terminated, it can form a nearly impenetrable mat. This drastically reduces
light transmittance to weed seeds, which in many cases reduces weed seed
germination rates (Teasdale 1993). Furthermore, even when weed seeds
germinate, they often run out of stored energy for growth before building the
necessary structural capacity to break through the cover crop mulch layer. This
is often termed the cover crop smother effect (Kobayashi et al. 2003).
Some cover crops suppress weeds both during growth and after death
(Blackshaw et al. 2001). During growth these cover crops compete vigorously
with weeds for available space, light, and nutrients, and after death they
smother the next flush of weeds by forming a mulch layer on the soil surface.
For example, Blackshaw et al. (2001) found that when using
Melilotus officinalis (yellow sweetclover) as a cover crop in an improved
fallow system (where a fallow period is intentionally improved by any number
of different management practices, including the planting of cover crops),
weed biomass only constituted between 1-12% of total standing biomass at the
end of the cover crop growing season. Furthermore, after cover crop
termination, the yellow sweetclover residues suppressed weeds to levels 7597% lower than in fallow (no yellow sweetclover) systems .
1.Blackshaw, R. E., J. R. Moyer, R. C. Doram, and A. L. Boswell. 2001. Yellow sweetclover, green
manure, and its residues effectively suppress weeds during fallow. Weed Science 49:406-413.
2.Kobayashi, Y., M. Ito, and K. Suwanarak. 2003. Evaluation of smothering effect of four legume covers
on Pennisetum polystachion ssp. setosum (Swartz) Brunken. Weed Biology and Management 3:222-227.
3.Teasdale, J. R. 1993. Interaction of light, soil moisture, and temperature with weed suppression by hairy
vetch residue. Weed sci 41:46-51.

Sumber: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cover_crops .. Diunduh 4/3/2012

TANAMAN PENUTUP TANAH


PENGELOLAAN PENYAKIT

In the same way that allelopathic properties of cover crops can suppress
weeds, they can also break disease cycles and reduce populations of
bacterial and fungal diseases (Everts 2002), and parasitic nematodes (Potter
et al. 1998, Vargas-Ayala et al. 2000).
Species in the brassicaceae family, such as mustards, have been widely
shown to suppress fungal disease populations through the release of
naturally occurring toxic chemicals during the degradation of glucosinolade
compounds in their plant cell tissues (Lazzeri and Manici 2001).

1.Everts, K. L. 2002. Reduced fungicide applications and host resistance for managing three diseases
in pumpkin grown on a no-till cover crop. Plant dis 86:1134-1141.
2.Lazzeri, L., and L. M. Manici. 2001. Allelopathic effect of glucosinolate-containing plant green
manure on Pythium sp and total fungal population in soil. Hortscience 36:1283-1289.
3.Potter, M. J., K. Davies, and A. J. Rathjen. 1998. Suppressive impact of glucosinolates in Brassica
vegetative tissues on root lesion nematode Pratylenchus neglectus. Journal of Chemical Ecology
24:67-80.
4.Vargas-Ayala, R., R. Rodriguez-Kabana, G. Morgan-Jones, J. A. McInroy, and J. W. Kloepper. 2000.
Shifts in soil microflora induced by velvetbean (Mucuna deeringiana) in cropping systems to control
root-knot nematodes. Biological Control 17:11-22.

Sumber: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cover_crops.. Diunduh 4/3/2012

TANAMAN PENUTUP TANAH


PENGELOLAAN HAMA
Some cover crops are used as so-called "trap crops", to attract pests away from the
crop of value and toward what the pest sees as a more favorable habitat (Shelton and
Badenes-Perez 2006).
Trap crop areas can be established within crops, within farms, or within landscapes. In
many cases the trap crop is grown during the same season as the food crop being
produced. The limited area occupied by these trap crops can be treated with a pesticide
once pests are drawn to the trap in large enough numbers to reduce the pest
populations. In some organic systems, farmers drive over the trap crop with a large
vacuum-based implement to physically pull the pests off the plants and out of the field
(Kuepper and Thomas 2002). This system has been recommended for use to help
control the lygus bugs in organic strawberry production (Zalom et al. 2001).
Other cover crops are used to attract natural predators of pests by providing elements
of their habitat. This is a form of biological control known as habitat augmentation,
but achieved with the use of cover crops (Bugg and Waddington 1994). Findings on
the relationship between cover crop presence and predator/pest population dynamics
have been mixed, pointing toward the need for detailed information on specific cover
crop types and management practices to best complement a given integrated pest
management strategy. For example, the predator mite Euseius tularensis (Congdon) is
known to help control the pest citrus thrips in Central California citrus orchards.

1.Bugg, R. L., and C. Waddington. 1994. Using Cover Crops to Manage Arthropod Pests of Orchards
- a Review. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment 50:11-28.
2.Kuepper, G., and R. Thomas. 2002. "Bug vacuums" for organic crop protection. ATTRA,
Fayetteville, AR.
3.Shelton, A. M., and E. Badenes-Perez. 2006. Concepts and applications of trap cropping in pest
management. Annual Review of Entomology 51:285-308.
4.Zalom, F. G., P. A. Phillips, N. C. Toscano, and S. Udayagiri. 2001. UC Pest Management
Guidelines: Strawberry: Lygus Bug. University of California Department of Agriculture and Natural
Resources, Berkeley, CA.

Sumber: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cover_crops .. Diunduh 4/3/2012

PUPUK HIJAU

Green manures, often known as cover crops, are plants which are
grown to improve the structure and nutrient content of the soil.
They are a cheap alternative to artificial fertilisers and can be used
to complement animal manures.
Growing a green manure is not the same as simply growing a
legume crop, such as beans, in a rotation. Green manures are
usually dug into the soil when the plants are still young, before
they produce any crop and often before they flower. They are
grown for their green leafy material which is high in nutrients and
protects the soil.
If food is in very short supply it may be better to grow a legume
from which a bean crop can be harvested and then dig the plant
remains into the soil.
These plant remains will not break down into the soil so quickly
and will not be as good for the soil as younger plants but they will
still add some nutrients to the soil for the next crop.

Sumber: http://www.gardenorganic.org.uk/pdfs/international_programme/GreenMan.pdf
.. Diunduh 4/3/2012

ROTASI PUPUK HIJAU


An example of a rotation where a legume is used
as a green manure

Sumber: http://www.gardenorganic.org.uk/pdfs/international_programme/GreenMan.pdf
.. Diunduh 4/3/2012

GREEN MANURES :
UNDERSOWING

Undersowing involves growing a green manure at the


same time as a crop, among the crop plants. Sometimes
they are sown with the crop or slighlty later when the
crops are already growing. This reduces competition
between the green manure and the crop.
For example, undersowing is sometimes used with
maize crops where a green manure is sown under the
young maize plants.
The green manure seeds are broadcast sown when the
second weeding of the maize is carried out. In this way
when the maize is harvested the green manure is
already established and ready to grow quickly. This
method means that no extra time is spent preparing the
land and sowing the green manure.

Sumber: http://www.gardenorganic.org.uk/pdfs/international_programme/GreenMan.pdf
.. Diunduh 4/3/2012

PUPUK HIJAU BERSAMA TANAMAN POKOK

A green manure (for example a bean)


sown beneath maize

Tanaman pokok

Pupuk hijau

Sumber: http://www.gardenorganic.org.uk/pdfs/international_programme/GreenMan.pdf
.. Diunduh 4/3/2012

PUPUK HIJAU JANGKA PANJANG

Green manures can be grown for more than one season and used
in the following ways:
Long term green manures restore poor soil. Using them over a
long time has a greater benefit on soil fertility and structure of
poor soil.
Long term green manures can be used when new land is being
prepared for use, especially to help control difficult perennial
weeds.
Long term green manures are used where land is to have a long
fallow period. They can be sown at the beginning of the fallow
of bush-fallow systems. They help to quickly build up the
fertility of the soil and reduce the length of time before the land
can be used to grow crops again.
Long term green manures provide green material which can be
cut and carried to other fields. Green material can be harvested
from perennial species such as alfalfa (Medicago sativa), for
digging in, mulching, composting or feeding to livestock.

Sumber: http://www.gardenorganic.org.uk/pdfs/international_programme/GreenMan.pdf
.. Diunduh 4/3/2012

PUPUK HIJAU UNTUK MULSA

Green manure plants can be cut and left


on the soil surface as a mulch.
Mulching releases nutrients slowly but
has some advantages:
Mulching helps to prevent weed growth
Mulching protects the soil from erosion
Mulching keeps the soil moist by
reducing evaporation.

Sumber: http://www.gardenorganic.org.uk/pdfs/international_programme/GreenMan.pdf
.. Diunduh 4/3/2012

PUPUK HIJAU DALAM AGROFORESTRY

Green manures in agroforestry


Agroforestry is the practice of growing trees and/or shrubs together, with
crops and/or animals. The trees/shrubs act as long term green manures and
the leaves can be used for digging in or as a mulch.
The regular pruning of agroforestry trees such as Leucaena (Leucaena
leucocephala), Mother of cocoa (Gliricidia sepium) and Calliandra
(Calliandra calothyrsus) during the crop growing period provides large
amounts of green material for digging into the soil and reduces competition
with the main crop.

The material can also be used as a


mulch.
It is spread on the top soil, usually
between crop rows or before a crop
has been planted.
As well as improving the soil in the
ways described above, trees and
shrubs also provide food, fodder,
fuelwood, erosion control and other
benefits.
Sumber: http://www.gardenorganic.org.uk/pdfs/international_programme/GreenMan.pdf
.. Diunduh 4/3/2012

SISTEM AGROFORESTRY
The benefits of nutrient cycling and erosion
control in agroforestry

Sumber: .. Diunduh 4/3/2012

PEMBENAMAN PUPUK HIJAU


Digging in green manures
Before a crop is sown the green manure is dug back into the soil.
Here it decomposes and the nutrients held inside green manure
plants are released.
The plants take a short time, usually about two weeks, to rot
down into the soil before the next crop is sown.
Green manures should not be ploughed in as this buries the plants
and the nutrients too deep. They should be turned in just under the
soil surface.
Digging is easier if the plants have been chopped into small
pieces before digging. This also helps prevent the problem of
regrowth if this should occur.
If digging-in is difficult the plants can be dug in roughly, left for a
few days and dug over again.

Sumber: .. Diunduh 4/3/2012

PEMILIHAN PUPUK HJIJAU


When choosing which green manure plant to use, you should consider
the
following points:
1.A green manure must suit the local climate, and the soil that it is to
be sown in. This will help to keep the green manure healthy and to
keep pests and diseases to a minimum.
2.Fast growing and leafy green manures are often preferred as they
provide more nutrients when dug in.
3.Green manures should not be closely related to the following crop as
they could attract pests and diseases which may affect the following
crop.
4.It is important to know whether seed is easily available and
affordable.
5.The length of time that land is free and how long the green manure
will take to grow.
6.Plants which can be grown as a green manure include legumes and
non-legumes. Legumes have nodules on their roots which contain
bacteria. These bacteria take nitrogen from the air. This is known as
nitrogen-fixation. Plants use this to grow, but this extra nitrogen is
also made available to future crops when the legumes are dug into the
soil.
7.The ability of legumes to fix nitrogen makes them very good green
manures. However they do have limitations and non-legumes can
sometimes be more suitable.

Sumber: http://www.gardenorganic.org.uk/pdfs/international_programme/GreenMan.pdf
.. Diunduh 4/3/2012

PUPUK HIJAU LEGUME

There are many types of plants that can be


used as green manures.
Legumes are particularly beneficial
because they increase the amount of
nitrogen in the soil.
In the tropics they are also more common
than non-legumes.
Here are some examples of legumes for
which detailed information can be
obtained from HDRA.

Sumber: http://www.gardenorganic.org.uk/pdfs/international_programme/GreenMan.pdf
.. Diunduh 4/3/2012

PUPUK HIJAU PADA TANAMAN TEBU


Trash composting: when trash is kept on the fields as mulch,
evaporation of moisture is greatly reduced. The soil is protected
from the direct impact of the elements and hence soil life develops
extremely well. Soil quality and structure improve. Finally as the
trash decomposes, nutrients are taken up by the roots again to make
new growth.

Sumber: http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/y4137e/y4137e07.htm .. Diunduh 10/3/2012

PUPUK HIJAU PADA TANAMAN TEBU


Green manuring: green manure is, according to Suresh, a
source of nitrogen and other elements compensating for the
high carbon content of the trash.
He uses a combination of many plants for his green manure
mix. He also believes that with this combination the ill
effects of the monocropping pattern without rotation, as is
the case in his sugar cane fields, can be overcome.
Furthermore, his green manure mix consists of plants and
crops that were grown before when dry farming was
practised, it re-establishes equilibrium in the soil, which
these plants help to maintain.
The green manure mix is generally made up of cowpea,
mustard, amaranth, coriander, horse gram sesame, sunnhemp
and chickpea, amongst others. Initially Suresh used to
prepare a green manure mix which was inter-sown between
the lines of cane using a bullock drawn implement.
Nowadays the green manure seeds are mixed with clay and
manure and formed into balls (large pellets). These balls are
then just dropped in the trash at regular intervals between
the canes. The green manure plants are cut once or twice at
30 to 40 day intervals.

Sumber: http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/y4137e/y4137e07.htm .. Diunduh 10/3/2012

PUPUK HIJAU PADA TANAMAN TEBU


Soil conditioning:
to enhance the decomposition of the sugar cane trash, Suresh
applies a conditioner on the fields at the time of irrigation in the
form of slurry. Consisting of 250 grams of wet yeast and 500 grams
of jaggery, mixed with 10 kg of cow dung and a little water, this
enhances the proliferation of fungi, hastening the breakdown of the
fibres of the trash.
In fact after application of this slurry an enormous development of
fungi, sometimes forming a white cake, can clearly be seen. This
has, according to Suresh, a great influence on the water-retention
capacity of the soil and makes it possible for him to reduce
irrigation to only once in 25 days.

With the application of trash, green manure


and the conditioner, the soil has become
very fertile, healthy and sweet.
The proof of this is his canes which grow
fast, are vigorous and sturdy and problemfree.

Sumber: http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/y4137e/y4137e07.htm .. Diunduh 10/3/2012

PUPUK HIJAU PADA TANAMAN TEBU


DAMPAK LAINNYA
Suresh's canes mature in 8 sometimes 8.5 months compared to 11
or 12 months in the conventional system.
Sugar recovery is much better in his canes than in chemically
grown ones. Though he sells his canes together with the other
farmers (making it difficult to give exact figures), Suresh has been
told that the recovery of his canes is 11.5 percent whereas for the
other farmers it is a maximum 11 percent.
His canes are very healthy and no problems of smut or grassy
shoot, the main problems of the area, have occurred in his fields for
the last five years. Neither chemical nor botanical sprays are
needed.
Suresh obtains an average yield of 100 tonnes per hectare. His
neighbours who follow the conventional methods obtain on an
average 110 ton per hectare, but his costs are far less.
Suresh claims that with his method, the amount of irrigation water
needed is even less than that consumed by sprinkler irrigation.
As minimum tillage is practised and there is no fallow or replanting
of sugar cane, labour requirements have been reduced.
Suresh's focus on natural biological cycles as the main input to the
farm has caused an impressive increase in soil biodiversity. This
biodiversity is now working for him, maintaining yields.
The use of traditional dry farming crops in his green manure mix
functions as a gene pool for rapidly disappearing species.

Sumber: http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/y4137e/y4137e07.htm .. Diunduh 10/3/2012

AGRONOMY OF GREEN MANURE CROPS

Sumber:
http://agritech.tnau.ac.in/agriculture/agri_greenmanuring_agronomygreenmanures.html..

SITHAGATHI (Sesbania speciosa)


Season: Can be grown in all seasons,
March April is best for sowing
Soil: Grown in all types of soil conditions
Seed rate:
30 40 kg/ha for green manure
Seed purpose 15 kg/ha
Seed treatment:
Mix seeds with specific rhizobium strain @ 5 pkts /ha
Spacing:
Broadcasted, for seed purpose adopt 45 x 20 cm
Irrigation:
Once in 15 20 days
Harvest:
Incorporate the green mater 45-60 DAS & for seed collect the
seeds 130 DAS
Yield: Green biomass 15-18t/ha,
Seed 400-600 kg/ha

DHAINCHA (Sesbania aculeata)


Season:
Grown in all seasons when sufficient moisture is available
Sowing during March April is best for seed production
Soil:
Grown in all soil conditions
Seed rate:
Green manure: 50 kg/ha
Seed purpose 20 kg/ha
Seed treatment
Mix seeds with specific rhizobium strain @ 5 pkts /ha
Spacing:
Broadcasted,
For seed purpose adopt 45 x 20 cm
Irrigation:
Once in 15 20 days
Harvest:
Incorporate the green matter within 45-60 DAS & collect seeds from 100
DAS
Yield
Green biomass 25 t/ha
Seed 500-600 kg/ha

MANILA AGATHI - Sesbania rostrata


Season
Grown in all seasons
Sowing during February-May yields more biomass.
March May sowing is best for seed production
Soil
Black & red soils are suitable,
Saline alkaline soils are not suitable
Seed rate:
40 kg/ha for green manure,
Seed purpose 7-8 kg/ha
Seed treatment:
Seeds to be scarified with concentrated H2SO4 (100 ml/kg) by soaking for
10 minutes then wash thoroughly (10-15 times). Mix seeds with specific
rhizobium strain @ 5 pkts /ha
Spacing: Broadcasted
For seed purpose adopt 45 x 20 cm
Irrigation: Once in 15 20 days
Nipping:
For seed purpose it should be done 60 DAS to increase branching and seed
yield
Harvest:
Incorporate the green mater within 45-50 DAS & Seeds can be collected
from 100 DAS (3-4 harvest)
Yield:
Green biomass 20 t/ha
Seed 500-600 kg/ha

SUNNHEMP (Crotalaria juncea)


Season:
Grown in all seasons,
Sowing during March April is best for seeds production
Soil:
Loamy soils are suitable
Seed rate:
25-35 kg/ha for green manure
Seed purpose: 20 kg/ha
Seed treatment:
Mix seeds with specific rhizobium strain @ 5 pkts /ha
Spacing:
Broadcasted or 30x10cm
For seed purpose adopt 45 x 20 cm
Irrigation:
Once in 30 days
Harvest:
Incorporate the green mater within 45-60 DAS
For seed purpose: Collect the seeds from 150 DAS
Yield:
Green biomass 13-15 t/ha,
Seed 400 kg/ha

WILD INDIGO (Tephrosia purpurea)


Season:
Grown in all seasons
Sowing during March April is best for seeds production.
Soil:
Can be grown in all soils, sandy soils are suitable.
Seed rate:
15-20 kg/ha for green manure
Seed purpose 10 kg/ha.
Seed treatment:
Soak the seeds in concentrated sulphuric acid (100 ml /kg seed) for
30 minutes and then thoroughly wash the seeds in water for 10-15
times and shade dry.
Spacing:
Broadcasted
For seed purpose: Adopt 30 x 10 cm.
Irrigation:
Once in 30 days
Harvest:
Incorporate within 60 DAS & for seed collect from 150 DAS.
Yield
Green biomass 6-7 t/ha
Seed 400 - 500 kg/ha

PILLIPESARA (Phaseolus trilobus)


Dual purpose crop yielding good fodder and green manure
Herbaceous creeper grows into a short dense cover crop if sown
thick. Does not produce a bulky yield, it is capable of being cut
twice or thrice before being ploughed into the field
Season:
Grown in all seasons
March April month is best for seeds production
Soil:

Rice fallow clay soils are suitable


Seed rate:
10-15 kg/ha for green manure
Seed purpose 10 kg/ha

Spacing: Broadcasted
For seed purpose adopt 30 x 10 cm
Irrigation: Once in 25-30 days
Harvest:
Incorporate the green mater within 60 DAS & for seed collect the
seeds from 150 DAS
Yield: Green biomass 6-7 t/ha
Seed 400 - 500 kg/ha
Source:
www.tropicalforages.info
www.farm4.static.flickr.com

FIKSASI NITROGEN LEGUME


Due to their nitrogen fixation potential, legumes represent an alternative
for supplying nutrients, substituting or complementing mineral
fertilization in cropping systems involving green manuring. The objective
of this study was to evaluate the N balance in a soil-plant system
involving green manures sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) and velvet
bean (Mucuna aterrima Piper & Tracy), both labeled with 15N. They were
incorporated into two soils of contrasting textural classes: a clayey
Eutrudox and a sandy-clayey Paleudalf, both cultivated with corn.
The research was carried out in a greenhouse, using pots containing 6 kg
of air dried soil, to which the equivalent to 13 Mg ha-1 dry matter of
above-ground mass plus 2.7 or 2.2 Mg ha-1 of velvet bean and sunn hemp
roots were incorporated, respectively, with 15N labeling of either shoots or
roots.
One hundred days after emergence of the corn, the velvet bean residues
provided higher accumulation of N in the soil, higher absorption by corn
plants and accumulation in the shoot.
The green manure decomposition was more intense in the mediumtextured Paleudalf. The highest nitrogen losses were also observed in this
soil.

Sci. agric. (Piracicaba, Braz.) vol.66 no.3 Piracicaba May\June 2009


SOILS AND PLANT NUTRITION
Nitrogen supply to corn from sunn hemp and velvet bean green manures
Edmilson Jos Ambrosano; Paulo Cesar Ocheuze Trivelin; Heitor Cantarella; Glucia Maria Bovi Ambrosano;
Eliana Aparecida Schammass; Takashi Muraoka; Nivaldo Guirado; Fabrcio Rossi.
Sumber: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-90162009000300014.. Diunduh
10/3/2012

SERAPAN N TANAMAN
The accumulation of N in corn roots increased with time. These
results indicate that there are also losses due to shedding, root
exudation and root death (Allison, 1966), and that losses of N from
the above ground part are much more expressive, that the above
ground part N can be translocated to the roots reflecting on the
accumulation of N in roots . There was an increase in dry matter
mass of the corn above ground part until 100 DAE. At this stage, the
plants were starting to flower.

PRODUKSI BIOMASA TANAMAN


There was an increase in dry matter mass of the corn above ground part
until 100 DAE. At this stage, the plants were starting to flower. The only
difference observed was at the first date (20 DAE), when the control plants
grew more than those with green manure (Table 6).

SERAPAN N TANAMAN
The occurrence of the nitrogen decline accumulation in the above ground part of the
corn plant, at the end of the cycle (Table 5) was also reported by other authors (Flores,
1986; Villas Bas, 1990), as well as for sugarcane (Ng Kee Kwong & Deville, 1994).
The probable cause of this could be the fact that some N of the above ground part was
redistributed to the root system, as well as lost to the atmosphere by volatilization
through the leaves via transpiratory strem in either immature or senescing leaves.
According to Farquhar et al. (1979), an NH3 gaseous losses occurs through the leaves
due to an increase in proteolysis during senescence.

The soil mineral N (nitrate and ammonium) contents were higher


until 40 DAE in the velvet bean treatment followed by the sunn
hemp and the control (Table 8). Beyond 60 DAE the values were
lower than 1.6 mg kg-1, without differences among treatments (
Table 8). For the sunn hemp there were time differences, with a
decline in the green manure contribution to the soil mineral N.
However, this did not happen with the velvet bean treatment,
indicating that, besides the largest contribution of the green manure
plants to the soil mineral N, there also was a greater mineralization,
since the test-plant continued absorbing the mineral N from the
soil.

Sumber: .. Diunduh 10/3/2012

PUPUK HIJAU SUMBER N


Because of their potential for N2 biological fixation, legumes are an
alternative source of nitrogen to crops, and can even replace or supplement
mineral fertilization.
A greenhouse experiment was carried out to evaluate temporal patterns of
velvet bean (Mucuna aterrima) green manure release of nitrogen to rice
plants, and to study the fate of nitrogen from velvet bean in rice cultivation.
The isotopic dilution methodology was used.
Treatments consisted of a control and 10 incubation periods of soil fertilized
with 15N-labeled velvet bean (0, 20, 40, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, and 240
days). The plant material was previously chopped, sifted (10 mm mesh sieve)
and oven-dried (65C). Incubation of the plant material (2.2 g kg-1 soil) was
initiated by the longest period, in order to synchronize the planting of the test
crop, rice (Oryza sativa), at time zero for all treatments.
Green manure incorporation promoted increases in rice dry matter yield and
nitrogen uptake. These variables showed maximum values at incubation
periods of 38 and 169 days, respectively. Green manure nitrogen utilization by
rice plants was highest at an incubation period corresponding to 151 days.
More than 60% of the green manure nitrogen remained in the soil after rice
cultivation. The highest green manure nitrogen recovery from the soil-plant
system occurred at an incubation period equivalent to 77 days.

Sci. agric. (Piracicaba, Braz.) vol.61 no.2 Piracicaba Mar./Apr. 2004


Fate of nitrogen (15N) from velvet bean in the soil-plant system
Walkyria Bueno Scivittaro; Takashi Muraoka; Antonio Enedi Boaretto; Paulo
Csar Ocheuze Trivelin.
Sumber: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S010390162004000200014 .. Diunduh 10/3/2012

MINERALISASI N PUPUK HIJAU


The nitrogen applied to the soil in the form of green manures may take different
pathways: part is absorbed by the plants, part is lost from the soil-plant system, and
the rest remains in the soil, as non-decomposed residues, or is immobilized by
microorganisms, and gradually converted into stable forms.
The magnitude of these transformations varies depending on environmental conditions
(Azam et al., 1985) and quality of the plant residues (Smith & Sharpley, 1993).
AZAM, F.; MALIK, K.A.; SAJJAD, M.I. Transformations in soil and availability to plants of 15N
applied as inorganic fertilizer and legume residues. Plant and Soil, v.86, p.3-13, 1985.
SMITH, S.J.; SHARPLEY, A.N. Nitrogen availability from surface-applied and soil-incorporated
crop residues. Agronomy Journal, v.85, p.776-778, 1993.

Understanding nitrogen (N) mineralization patterns of green manure legume residues is crucial
in the synchronization of N release from plant residue and uptake by plants. A laboratory
incubation experiment was conducted over a 16-week period to determine N mineralization of
three green manure legumes [(Mucuna (Mucuna pruriens), Lablab (Lablab purpureus cv.
Rongai) and Sunhemp (Crotalaria juncea)] in three soils with varying clay contents (62, 20 and
12% clay) from South Africa. The amount of N mineralized from the residues was determined
at 2, 4, 8 and 16 weeks from the onset of incubation. Nitrogen release pattern of the three
legume residues followed a similar pattern in all the three soils, with sunhemp treated soil
having the highest amount of mineral N after 16 weeks of incubation in all the three soils,
followed by lablab and then mucuna. The amount of mineral N ranged from 121 to170, 96 to
134 and 92 to 108 mg kg-1 in the sunhemp, lablab and mucuna treated soils, respectively. The
cumulative amounts of N from the legume residues mineralized recovered as mineral N in soil
after 16 weeks of incubation ranged from 21-41% (92-121 mg kg-1), 30-68% (108-170 mg kg1) and 26-60% (93-147 mg kg-1) of the initial added N contained in the residues in the soils
with 62, 20 and 12% clay contents, respectively.
Less than 50% of the initial added N was mineralized in the high clay content soil.
Mineralization rate constant, k, was significantly linearly related to the residue N content, net
mineralized N, C/N ratio and Lignin/N ratio. Results from this study indicate that all the three
legumes can contribute significant amounts of N for uptake by plants, with sunhemp tending to
release N at a faster rate, followed by lablab and then mucuna. High clay content in soil slowed
down N mineralization.

Nitrogen mineralization of green manure legume residues in different soil types


Odhiambo, Jude J.O, University of Venda. 2009.
The Proceedings of the International Plant Nutrition Colloquium XVI, Department of Plant.
Sciences, UC Davis, UC Davis
N mineralized from legume residues recovered as mineral N in (a) 12% clay
soil (b) 20% clay soil and (c) 62% clay soil.

RECOVERY N PUPUK HIJAU


Under field conditions, most of the N that comes from plant residues
remains in the soil, mainly in the organic form.
In general, the recovery of N from green manures by the subsequent crop is
low, ranging from 5% to 30% (Mller & Sundman, 1988; Harris et al.,
1994).
MLLER, M.M.; SUNDMAN, V. The fate of nitrogen (15N) released from different plant materials during
decomposition under field conditions. Plant and Soil, v.105, p.133-139, 1988.
HARRIS, G.H.; HESTERMAN, O.B.; PAUL, E.A.; PETERS, S.E.; JANKE, R.R. Fate of legume and
fertilizer nitrogen-15 in a long term cropping systems experiment. Agronomy Journal, v.86, p.910-915,

1994.

Nitrogen mineralization of green manure legume residues in different soil


types
Odhiambo, Jude J.O, University of Venda. 2009.
The Proceedings of the International Plant Nutrition Colloquium XVI, Department of
Plant. Sciences, UC Davis, UC Davis
N mineralized from legume residues recovered as mineral N in (a) 12% clay
soil (b) 20% clay soil and (c) 62% clay soil.

PUPUK HIJAU DAN HASIL PADI


Dry matter yield and nitrogen utilized by rice plants, in the control treatment, and
Dunnett test significance, contrasting the effects of treatments involving velvet
bean incorporation relative to the control

Velvet bean incorporation increased dry matter yield of rice plants relatively
to the control, except for the 240-day incubation period.

Sumber: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S010390162004000200014.. Diunduh 10/3/2012

PUPUK HIJAU DAN HASIL PADI


Dry matter yielded by rice plants, relative to different
soil incubation periods with velvet bean green manure.
An effect of incubation period on dry matter yield of the aerial part
and whole rice plants (aerial part + roots) was observed. However,
no influence on the dry matter yielded by the roots alone was
observed (Figure 1). For both variables, the quadratic model
provided the best fitting of the results. From the equation relative to
the aerial part + roots, the maximum dry matter yield of rice plants
was determined, corresponding to an incubation period of 38 days.

PUPUK HIJAU DAN NITROGEN


Amount of nitrogen from the green manure recovered
(ANR) and lost (ANL) from the soil-plant system, relative to
different soil incubation periods with velvet bean green
manure.

Nitrogen from the green manure recovered and lost from the soil-plant system
The amounts of nitrogen from the green manure recovered and lost from the soil-plant
system were influenced by incubation period, and the results were fitted by quadratic
models. The maximum N recovery from the velvet bean occurred at the 80-day incubation
period, corresponding to 86% of the nitrogen contained in the green manure.
Sumber: .. Diunduh 10/3/2012

DEKOMPOSISI PUPUK HIJAU


DALAM TANAH

The values determined for N recovery from the


green manure are intermediate, relative to the intervals
described in the literature, which vary from 66% to 102%
(Azam et al., 1985; Ladd et al., 1981).
AZAM, F.; MALIK, K.A.; SAJJAD, M.I.
Transformations in soil and availability to plants of 15N
applied as inorganic fertilizer and legume residues.
Plant and Soil, v.86, p.3-13, 1985.
LADD, J.N.; OADES, J.M.; AMATO, M.
Distribution and recovery of nitrogen from legume
residues decomposing in soils sown to wheat in field.
Soil Biology and Biochemistry, v.13, p.251-256, 1981.

Sumber: .. Diunduh 10/3/2012

Agronomy Research 7(1), 125-132, 2009


The effects of green manures on yields and yield quality of
spring wheat
L. Talgre, E. Lauringson, H. Roostalu, A. Astover.
A field experiment was conducted in the period of 20042006 to
investigate the effect of green manure treatments on the yield and
yield quality of spring wheat. In the experiment, different green
manure crops were compared for amounts of N, C and organic
matter applied into soil and their effect on the yield and yield
quality of succeeding cereals.
The amount of organic matter applied into soil was dependent on
the cultivated crop. The highest amount of organic matter was
applied with hybrid lucerne, the lowest, with unfertilised oats. With
sowings of red clover, lucerne and hybrid lucerne, 4.917.70 Mg C
ha-1 and 341.9379.1 kg N ha-1 were added to soil with green
material and roots.
The yield of spring wheat on unfertilised soil was 2.12 Mg ha-1,
but the treatment with hybrid lucerne as a preceding crop gave an
extra yield of 1.45 Mg ha-1. Green manure crops did not have a
unilateral effect on the quality of spring wheat. Grain yield grew
with the increased norm of mineral nitrogen, but there was no
significant improvement in quality indicators.

Sumber: www.eau.ee/~agronomy/vol071/p7113.pdf - .. Diunduh 10/3/2012

PUPUK HIJAU - KETERSEDIAAN HARA


Cultivation of leguminous green manure crops is the main possibility for
soil enrichment with nutrients, especially with nitrogen.
Nitrogen binding by leguminous crops reaches its peak in the period of
blooming, and starts decreasing in the period of seed formation
(Leinonen, 2000).

The productivity of cereals depends


on soil properties, meteorological
factors, fertilisation, and especially
humus content in soil.
Ploughed-in green material enriches
soil with organic matter, which as a
result of microbiological processes
releases nutrients for plants.

Leinonen, P. 2000. Lannoitus luomuviljan viljelyksess. Luomuviljan tuotanto. Tieto


tuottamaan 86. Helsinki: Maaseutukeskusten Liitto, 4050. (in Finlandian)

BIOMASA SISA PANEN


The largest amount of organic matter is left in the soil with the residues
of perennial grasses, less with annual grasses, winter cereals, maize,
spring cereals, grain legumes and others (Maiksteniene & Arlauskiene,
2004).

According to Viil & Vsa (2005),


the amount of nitrogen left in soil
in the sowing year of white sweet
clover and red clover is 247 kg/ha
and 160 kg/ha respectively.

Sumber: Maiksteniene S. and Arlauskiene A. 2004. Effect of preceding crops and green
manure on the fertility of clay loam soil. Agronomy Research 2 (1), 8797.
P. ja Vsa, T. 2005. Liblikielised haljasvetised. EMVI infoleht 148. 16 lk. (in Estonian)

EFEK POSITIF PUPUK HIJAU


The residues and ploughed-in green material of perennial
grasses, as preceding crops, have a positive effect on the
formation of productivity elements of cereal crops not only
in the first year but also in the second year, which
determines the productivity of the cereal link (Skuodien &
Nekroiene, 2007).
The results suggest that red clover is the optimum species
for use as green manure (Stopes et al., 1996).

Skuodiene, R. and Nekroiene, R. 2007. Impact of perennial legumes and timothy as green manure on
productivity of Secale cereale L. and x Triticosecale Wittm and on occurrence of cereal diseases. Agronomy
Research 5 (1), 5971.
Stopes, C., Millington S. and Woodward L. 1996. Dry matter and nitrogen accumulation by three leguminous
green manure species and the yield of a following wheat crop in an organic production system. Agriculture,
Ecosystems & Environment. Vol. 57, Issues 2-3,189196

BIOMASA TANAMAN PUPUK HIJAU


Quantities of dry matter (Mg ha-1) applied into soil in 2005.
Vertical bars denote confidence limits (CL 0.05 level of
statistical significance).

Agronomy Research 7(1), 125-132, 2009


The effects of green manures on yields and yield quality of spring wheat
L. Talgre, E. Lauringson, H. Roostalu, A. Astover.

Nayyar, V.K. and Chhibba, I.M. 2000.

Effect of Green Manuring on Micronutrient Availability in RiceWheat Cropping System of Northwest India.
Page 68.72 in Long-term Soil Fertility Experiments in Rice-Wheat Cropping Systems
(Abrol, I.P., Bronson, K. F., Duxbury, J. M. and Gupta, R. K. eds.). Rice-Wheat Consortium
Paper Series 6. New Delhi, India: Rice-Wheat Consortium for the Indo-Gangetic Plains.

Rice cultivation in highly permeable coarsetextured


soils in recent years has given rise to a
number of micronutrient deficiency problems.
While paddy yields in such soils are poor due to
iron (Fe) deficiency, wheat yields are low
because of manganese (Mn) deficiency.
In view of the observations that Sesbania green manuring can
help improve rice yield, the present investigation was undertaken
to study the effects of regular incorporation of Sesbania green
manure for sustaining yields of rice-wheat system.
Regular incorporation of Sesbania green manure before rice
transplanting resulted in significant improvement in paddy yield
over that in the non-green manured plots.
The increase in micronutrients, particularly Fe and Mn, and of
organic carbon seemed to be responsible for increased rice yields
in these soils. No residual effect of green manuring was observed
in wheat.

PUPUK HIJAU BIOMASA SESBANIA


Preliminary studies carried out by the authors have revealed that
incorporation of Sesbania (Sesbania aculeata Poir.) green
manure (GM) before transplanting rice can ameliorate Fe
deficiency by promoting reduced conditions besides improving
other physicochemical characteristics of the soil (Nayyar and
Takkar 1989).

Nayyar, V.K., and Takkar, P.N. 1989. Combating iron deficiency in rice grown in sandy soils
of Punjab. Pages 379.384 in International Symposium on Managing Sandy Soils. Vol. 1.
Jodhpur, India: Central Arid Zone Research Institute.

PUPUK HIJAU KETERSEDIAAN HARA MIKRO


Regular cultivation of rice on such soils causes manganese (Mn) deficiency in the
following crops of wheat/berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) because of
excessive leaching of soluble Mn resulting from submergence during rice
cultivation and oxidation of limited amount of available Mn in surface soil to its
higher oxides during wheat/berseem cultivation (Takkar and Nayyar 1981).

To overcome that loss, foliar application


of Mn was suggested (Nayyar et al.
1990).
It is, however, expected that regular
incorporation of Sesbania GM before
transplanting rice may improve
availability of not only Fe but also other
micronutrient cations.

Takkar, P.N., and Nayyar, V.K. 1981. Preliminary field observations of manganese deficiency
in wheat and berseem. Fertiliser News 26:22.23.
Nayyar, V.K., Takkar, P.N., Bansal, R.L., Singh, S.P., Kaur, N.P., and Sadana, U.S. 1990.
Micronutrients in soils and crops of Punjab. Research Bulletin. Ludhiana, India: Department
of Soils, Punjab Agricultural University. 146+xiv pp.

PUPUK HIJAU SESBANIA


Effect of Sesbania green manuring on grain yield (t ha-1) of rice
and wheat at Ludhiana, India.

Sumber: .. Diunduh 10/3/2012

PUPUK HIJAU SESBANIA


Changes in content (mg kg-1 soil) of different fractions of iron, manganese, and
zinc with Sesbania green manure in rice-wheat system at Ludhiana, India

MEMPRODUKSI PUPUK HIJAU


As a draft animal farmer, you crop a large farm. You may not always have enough
dung or compost to improve all plots of your farm. To keep all plots fertile, you
need green manure in addition.
Green manure is manure from special manure plants or crop residues.
Many Green Manure Plants do not produce direct food, but they improve the soil.
Plants that are cropped after applying green manure produce a lot of food.
Some popular green manure plants are the following ones:
-Tephrosia
- Sesbania
- Crotalaria
- Leucaena
- Pigeon pea In addition, green manure plants have many other advantages.

Sumber: Permanent Farming Systems Based on Animal Traction: Farmers Handbook (GTZ,
1995, 183 p.). PART V: The permanent farming system
http://www.cd3wd.com/cd3wd_40/lstock/001/dap/antractionhandbook/B1244_7.HTM ..
Diunduh 10/3/2012

Green manure plants have many benefits..


Green manure plants are planted:
-in mixture with food crops;
-on contour bonds, and .
-as a sole crop on fallow areas.
Sumber: Permanent Farming Systems Based on Animal Traction: Farmers Handbook (GTZ,
1995, 183 p.). PART V: The permanent farming system
http://www.cd3wd.com/cd3wd_40/lstock/001/dap/antractionhandbook/B1244_7.HTM ..
Diunduh 10/3/2012

PUPUK HIJAU - TANAMAN PANGAN


If you mix green manure crops with food crops, you produce food and
manure at the same time. You may not have the same yield as with sole
cropping of food crops in the first year, but in the following years, you
will harvest more on the green manure field, because you conserve and
improve your soil by this method.

A mixed crop of maize and sesbania

Sumber: Permanent Farming Systems Based on Animal Traction: Farmers Handbook (GTZ,
1995, 183 p.). PART V: The permanent farming system
http://www.cd3wd.com/cd3wd_40/lstock/001/dap/antractionhandbook/B1244_7.HTM ..
Diunduh 10/3/2012

MENANAM PUPUK HIJAU


The planting of green manure crops on the contour bonds has the following
advantages: you reinforce and enrich your contour bonds through the root system
of the green manure crop (tephrosia, sesbania, etc.) the green manure plant can be
left for seed production after the seed harvest, the green manure plant can be
pruned and used as manure for the field between the contour bonds.

Fresh branches and leaves of the green manure crop can be cut and spread as
mulch m the field.

Sumber: Permanent Farming Systems Based on Animal Traction: Farmers Handbook (GTZ,
1995, 183 p.). PART V: The permanent farming system
http://www.cd3wd.com/cd3wd_40/lstock/001/dap/antractionhandbook/B1244_7.HTM ..
Diunduh 10/3/2012

BERO DENGAN TANAMAN PUPUK HIJAU


If you have a very poor soil, you may have to fallow your farm Under natural
fallow, it will take long time until the soil becomes fertile again

Under a planted fallow with Green Manure Plants, the soil becomes fertile again
within 1 or 2 years.
Green Manure Plants can give 20-80 tons of fresh organic matter per hectare per
year. This will save you a lot of fertilizer.
Sumber: Permanent Farming Systems Based on Animal Traction: Farmers Handbook (GTZ,
1995, 183 p.). PART V: The permanent farming system
http://www.cd3wd.com/cd3wd_40/lstock/001/dap/antractionhandbook/B1244_7.HTM ..
Diunduh 10/3/2012

BAGAIMANA MEMBENAMKAN BAHAN


ORGANIK?
To avoid loss and improve the decomposition of organic matter
from plant drop, we have to mix it with the soil. The oxen farmer
uses the cart, the roller cutter and the ridger for this exercise.
With the cart, he transports the manure to the farm.
With the roller cutter, he can clear plant residues.
With the ridger, he buries the organic matter into the soil.

How to bury organic matter in a ridged field.


The buried organic matter gives humus to the soil. We call this organic farming. It
improves your soil and the following crop will produce a lot of food.
Sumber: Permanent Farming Systems Based on Animal Traction: Farmers Handbook (GTZ,
1995, 183 p.). PART V: The permanent farming system
http://www.cd3wd.com/cd3wd_40/lstock/001/dap/antractionhandbook/B1244_7.HTM ..
Diunduh 10/3/2012

MIXED CROPPING
To conserve and improve our soil, we have to practice mixed cropping. Mixed
cropping is the planting of two or more crops on the same field at the same time.
To keep the soil in balance, we combine (mix) crops which make the soil poor,
with crops which improve the soil.

Beberapa jenis tanaman yang dapat mengakibatkan penurunan kualitas


tanah:
-maize
- rice
- wheat
- yam
- cassava
- cocoyam
- potatoes
Beberapa jenis legume yang dapat memperbaiki kualitas tanah:
- ground nuts
- beans
- soya beans
- peas
- green manure plants

Sumber: Permanent Farming Systems Based on Animal Traction: Farmers Handbook (GTZ,
1995, 183 p.). PART V: The permanent farming system
http://www.cd3wd.com/cd3wd_40/lstock/001/dap/antractionhandbook/B1244_7.HTM ..
Diunduh 10/3/2012

MIXED CROPPING
Apart from soil conservation, mixed cropping has a lot of other
advantages: a mixture of crops with different root systems will use the
different layers of the soil better, that means: they use the available
water and nutrients better.
1.mixed crops with different preferences for nutrients, use the different minerals available in
the soil better.
2.mixed cropping results in a higher plant population per unit area and increases yields.
the higher plant density in mixed cropping reduces soil erosion and suppresses weed growth.
3.mixed cropping reduces the risk of pests and diseases infestation.
4.mixed cropping diversifies the food supply. You have different quality food for your family
diet.
5.mixed cropping reduces the risk of complete crop failure. If one crop fails, the other crops
can still produce enough food for the farmer family.

A crop of maize mixed with beans


Sumber: Permanent Farming Systems Based on Animal Traction: Farmers Handbook (GTZ, 1995, 183 p.).
PART V: The permanent farming system
http://www.cd3wd.com/cd3wd_40/lstock/001/dap/antractionhandbook/B1244_7.HTM .. Diunduh
10/3/2012

PERGILIRAN TANAMAN
If the same crop is grown in the same field every cropping cycle:
-the soil becomes poor;
-pest and disease infestation increases;
-the harvest gets smaller.
If the crops change on the same field every cropping cycle:
1.the soil does not become poor;
2.pests and diseases do not increase easily;
3.the harvest can stay good. To change crops on the same field every cropping
cycle is called crop rotation.
The advantages of crop rotation are similar to mixed cropping: Crop rotation:
1.conserves the soil fertility: Crops which make the soil poor are followed by
crops which enrich and improve the soil; e.g. Maize followed by beans.
2.controls pests and diseases; Pests and diseases developing on one crop cannot
affect a crop of another family; e.g. Cocoyam followed by Cassava.
3.improves the use of different layers of the soil; Crops with a shallow root
system are followed by crops with a deep root system; e.g. Beans followed by
Cassava.
4.improves the use of different minerals available in the soil; e.g. Cereals need
more nitrogen while tuber crops need more potassium.

Sumber: Permanent Farming Systems Based on Animal Traction: Farmers Handbook (GTZ,
1995, 183 p.). PART V: The permanent farming system
http://www.cd3wd.com/cd3wd_40/lstock/001/dap/antractionhandbook/B1244_7.HTM ..
Diunduh 10/3/2012

POLA TANAM PUPUK HIJAU


To get all possible advantages, combine mixed cropping with crop rotation.
Recommended crop rotations with mixed crops for different areas of altitude are
indicated on the following pages.
[TREATMENTS - CROP ROTATION ON MEDIUM ALTITUDE (lower than
1500m)
INDIVIDUAL PLANTING ARRANGEMENTS
Treatment 1 or Plot 1 (between first and second contour bond)
Maize and Green Manure:
Distance between ridges: 80 cm.
Distance between maize plants on the ridge: 25 cm.

Maize and Green Manure on alternate ridges.


Sumber: Permanent Farming Systems Based on Animal Traction: Farmers Handbook (GTZ,
1995, 183 p.). PART V: The permanent farming system
http://www.cd3wd.com/cd3wd_40/lstock/001/dap/antractionhandbook/B1244_7.HTM ..
Diunduh 10/3/2012

JAGUNG DENGAN PUPUK HIJAU


Maize on ridges, green manure in the furrow.
Distance between ridges: 80 cm.
Distance between maize plants on the ridges: 30 cm.
Green Manure Crops can be Tephrosia, Sesbania, Crotalaria solely or as a
mixture.

Sumber: Permanent Farming Systems Based on Animal Traction: Farmers Handbook (GTZ,
1995, 183 p.). PART V: The permanent farming system
http://www.cd3wd.com/cd3wd_40/lstock/001/dap/antractionhandbook/B1244_7.HTM ..
Diunduh 10/3/2012

TUMPANGSARI LEGUME DENGAN NON-LEGUME


Treatment 2 or Plot 2 (between second and third contour bond)
Maize and Beans and Cocoyam:
Maize and Cocoyam/Beans are planted on alternative ridges.]
Distance between the ridges: 80 cm.
Distance between maize plants on the ridges: 25 cm.
Distance between the cocoyam: 60 cm.
Beans interplanted between cocoyam: 10-15 cm distance
NOTE: - Split maize ridges after harvest and add soil to Cocoyam edge.

JAGUNG + PUPUK HIJAU LEGUME


Treatment 3 or Plot 3 (between third and fourth contour bond)
Maize and Food Legume are planted on alternate ridges.

Legumes and maize mixed - Food legumes and


potatoes mixed.
First Season
Maize and Food Legume: (Beans, Soyabeans, Groundnut)
Distance between the ridges: 80 cm.
Distance between the maize plants on the ridges: 25 cm.
Distance between the food legumes: 10-15 cm. (see Chapter 6.4.)
Second Season:
Food Legume and maize on 80 cm. ridges or
Food Legumes on 50 cm. ridges or
Food Legumes and potatoes on 80 cm. ridges or
Potatoes or Sweet potatoes only or
Green Manure.

PENANAMAN PUPUK HIJAU LEGUME


Treatment 4 or Plot 4 (between fourth and fifth contour bond)
First Season:
Food legumes (Beans, Soyabeans, Groundouts).
Food legumes are cropped solely on ridges.
Distance between the ridges: 50-60 cm.
Distance between the plants on the ridges: 10-15 cm.
Or Potatoes (high altitude areas):
Distance between the ridges: 80 cm.
Distance between the plants on the ridges: 30-40 cm.

Potatoes are cropped solely on ridges or on alternate ridges with food legumes.
Sumber: Permanent Farming Systems Based on Animal Traction: Farmers Handbook (GTZ, 1995, 183 p.).
PART V: The permanent farming system
http://www.cd3wd.com/cd3wd_40/lstock/001/dap/antractionhandbook/B1244_7.HTM .. Diunduh
10/3/2012

Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems . Volume 73, Numbers 2-3, 181189


Effect of Green Manure Addition on Soil Organic Phosphorus
Mineralisation
Parmjit S. Randhawa, Leo M. Condron, Hong J. Di, Sokrat Sinaj and
Roger D. McLenaghen
The mineralization of organic forms of phosphorus (P) in soil
contributes significantly to plant P uptake, although quantification of
organic P mineralisation has been impeded by methodological
difficulties. An isotopic dilution method, based on tracer kinetic theory,
was used to study the organic P flux rates for unamended and green
manure amended soil in an incubation experiment carried out over
35 days. Firstly, the specific activity (SA) between two points of time as
affected by dominant biological processes (under conditions of constant
soil respiration rates) was determined in a series of successive labelling
incubation experiments. Secondly, the instantaneous specific activity
(instSA) between two points of time was also determined by shaking an
unlabelled soil with 33P, i.e. soil samples that were not labelled with 33P,
but kept under conditions identical to the labelled soil samples. This
gives the net size of the exchangeable inorganic P pool in the labelling
experiments at two points of time during incubation. The SA dilution in
the labelling experiments at a constant exchangeable inorganic P pool
between two times was attributed to the release of non-labelled
inorganic P from the organic P pool by mineralisation. The daily gross
organic P mineralisation rates for the 21 days of incubation were 0.06
and 0.27 mg P kg1 day1 for unamended and green manure amended
soils, respectively. The study demonstrated that green manure
amendment contributed to an overall increase in soil P availability
through enhanced organic P mineralisation.
Sumber: http://www.springerlink.com/content/f5l7551677574803/ .. Diunduh 10/3/2012

Agroforestry Systems
Volume 52, Number 3, 199-205, DOI: 10.1023/A:1011896705132

Tithonia diversifolia: variations in leaf nutrient concentration


and implications for biomass transfer
T. S. George, P. J. Gregory, J. S. Robinson, R. J. Buresh and B. A. Jama
Green leaf biomass of Tithonia diversifolia is high in nutrients
and recognised as a potential source of nutrients for crops. We
conducted a field survey in western Kenya to determine the
variation in leaf nutrient concentrations in tithonia grown in
naturalised hedges and agricultural fields, and to examine
whether leaf nutrient concentrations were related to soil
nutrient status.
Leaf P and K concentrations were higher in naturalised hedges
(3.2 g P kg1 and 35 g K kg1) than in unfertilised fields (2.2 g
P kg1 and 23 g K kg1). The critical level of 2.5 g P kg1 for
net P mineralisation was exceeded by > 90% of the leaves
from hedges, but by only 14% from unfertilised fields. Leaf P
and K concentration increased linearly with increasing natural
logarithm of anion resin extractable soil P and exchangeable
soil K, respectively. However, at the same levels of soil
available P and K, field-grown tithonia consistently produced
lower leaf P and K concentrations than that grown in hedges.
This study indicates that biomass from tithonia
planted on nutrient-depleted soils would be a less
effective source of P and K, via biomass transfer,
than tithonia from naturalised hedges.

Sumber: http://www.springerlink.com/content/j16vt14580364434/ .. Diunduh 10/3/2012

Effect of green manuring with dhaincha (Sesbania aculeata) on


growth and yield of direct-sown and transplanted rice under
intermediate deepwater conditions (050 cm)
R. Sharma and K. C. Das
The Journal of Agricultural Science (1994), 122 : pp 359-364
In intermediate deepwater conditions (050 cm) at Cuttack, India during 1990 and
1991, rice and dhaincha (Sesbania aculeata) were either mixed-sown in different
arrangements (parallel lines and mixed broadcasting) in dry soil by the end of May
or rice seedlings were transplanted in plots grown with pure dhaincha after the
accumulation of water in the field by mid-July.
Incorporation of dhaincha in situ after 48 and 54 days of growth added 608652
and 729769 kg N/ha in the mixed stands compared with 813 and 851 kg N/ha
in the pure stand in 1990 and 1991 respectively. Although the growth of rice when
sown simultaneously with dhaincha was affected initially due to the more vigorous
growth and shading by the latter, tillering of rice increased after the incorporation
of green manure following an increase in inter-row spacings.
The performance of the direct-sown and transplanted rice was similar in 1990,
when the water level rose relatively slowly, but in 1991 the transplanted crop
yielded significantly less due to the sudden accumulation of water to higher depths
(48 cm), resulting in greater mortality of seedlings at planting. However, the grain
yield of both directsown and transplanted crops increased with dhaincha green
manuring compared with the control (no application of dhaincha) and was equal to
the application of 40 kg N/ha applied as urea fertilizer.
The highest yield was obtained when rice and dhaincha were grown at a 2:1 ratio in
20 cm wide rows and the clonal tillers uprooted from the adjoining rice rows were
planted in lines vacated by dhaincha. The yield was, however, equal to that from
treatments where rice and dhaincha were grown in alternate rows at 15 cm spacing
or mixed broadcasting. Increase in yield under green manuring was due to greater
panicle weight, which was probably due to a continued supply of N following
decomposition of organic matter added through dhaincha. Therefore, green
manuring of direct-sown rice with dhaincha was beneficial for higher crop
productivity under excess water conditions.
Sumber:
http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract;jsessionid=5F8919AC6DA325A768148235D3B5F62C.
journals?fromPage=online&aid=4783728 .. Diunduh 10/3/2012

Effect of green manure amendment and flooding on methane


emission from paddy fields
Shang-Shyng Yang, , Hsiu-Lan Chang
Chemosphere - Global Change Science
Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2001, Pages 4149

The effect of green manure amendment, flooding treatment and


crop season on methane emission from paddy fields in Taiwan was
investigated from August 1994 to July 1996.
Sesbania amendment stimulated methane emission and the effect
was more significant at the early growth stage of rice. Methane
emission was higher in continuous flooding treatment than that in
intermittent irrigation. Both redox potential and methane emission
showed significant differences between these two irrigation
systems.
Methane concentration increased sharply with the depth of soil in
the intermittent irrigation system due to oxidation; whereas it
increased moderately in the continuous flooding treatment.
The seasonal methane flux in the first crop season with chemical
fertilizer was between 2.73 and 5.23 g m2; while the value was
between 10.54 and 10.56 g m2 in the second crop season. In the
case of Sesbania amendment in the second crop season, the
seasonal methane flux in the first crop season was 6.35 g m2; while
the value was between 14.43 and 30.12 g m2 in the second crop
season.
Total methane emission in the second crop season was about two to
five-fold higher than that in the first crop season.

Sumber: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1465997200000325 .. Diunduh 10/3/2012

Title of Thesis
PRODUCTIVITY AND RESIDUAL EFFECTS OF GREEN MANURE
LEGUMES IN CEREAL-BASED CROPPING SYSTEM IN
POTHOWAR PLATEAU
Muhammad Ibrahim Sultani
University of Arid Agriculture/Range Management and Forestry Session. 2004

Investigations which included two experiments were carried out at the


National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan during
2001-2003. In first experiment effect of different green manuring crops
namely Cyamopsis tetragonaloba (L), Vigna umbelate (Thumb) and Sesbania
aculeata (Linn) and levels of phosphorus fertilizer (0, 30, 60 and 90 kg ha-1)
on biomass of green manure crops, organic matter addition as of incorporation
of biomass, improvement in N soil fertility status, impact on physical
properties and ultimately productivity of wheat was investigated. The second
experiment was carried to investigate the effect of phosphorus sequencing and
green manure crops mentioned in experiment one on various parameters
mentioned above.
Results of the experiment indicated that maximum fresh biomass (22.57 t ha1) and dry biomass (4.33 t ha-1) was produced by Sesbania aculeata followed
by fresh biomass of Cluster bean (19.31 t ha-1) and dry biomass (3.70 t ha-1).
Lowest fresh biomass was produced by Rice bean (16.86 t ha-1) and dry
biomass (3.25 t ha-1). Application of P further enhanced above ground green
biomass production upto 28.59 t ha-1. Incorporation of Sesbania biomass as
green manures on the average increased soil organic matter by 20%, N by 23
%, P by 71 % and K by 29%; these manures further significantly reduced soil
bulk density (5%), enhanced porosity (8%), moisture retention (5%) and
available water (17%).
Green manure increased total biomass of succeeding wheat crop by
16%. There was significantly positive interaction of green manure
legumes and P fertilization by 20%. Furthermore their integrated
residual effect of 3% to 5% was noted on various parameters in the
succeeding crop year.
Sumber: http://eprints.hec.gov.pk/376/1/236.html .. Diunduh 10/3/2012

Mazzoncini, Marco; Migliorini, Paola; Antichi, Daniele and Vazzana, Concetta (2008)

Effects of green-manure and organic fertiliser on organic maize (Zea Mays


L.) in south Tuscany.
Poster at: Cultivating the Future Based on Science: 2nd Conference of the International
Society of Organic Agriculture Research ISOFAR, Modena, Italy, June 18-20, 2008.

Green-manure in Mediterranean stockless organic farms is a useful tool to


improve nitrogen availability, reduce production cost and conserve soil
fertility.
A 2-year on farm research was carried out in Tuscany (Italy) to evaluate
the effect of 3 different green manures (Hordeum v. + Avena s. mixture,
Trifolium s. + Avena s. mixture, Vicia faba var. minor) and 2 levels of
organic N fertilization (0 and 120 Kg N ha-1) on maize in 2004 and 2005.
Green manures were ploughed into the soil in April 2004 and organic
fertiliser was applied before sowing; neither green manure nor fertilizers
were applied in 2005 to evaluate the residual effect of the treatments.
The effect of the distribution of organic fertilizer was not efficient in
comparison to green-manure. Field-bean increased maize productivity in
both the years thanks to an increase in N availability as suggested by its
total N uptake that exceeded the uptake of maize after control by 19.5 and
14,3 Kg N ha-1 in the first and second year.
In our experimental conditions, with low organic matter and nitrogen
content in the soil, the use of grasses as green-manure caused temporary
immobilisation of N and maize yield reduction.

Sumber: http://orgprints.org/12010/ .. Diunduh 10/3/2012

Effects of Green Manure, Organic Fertilizers and Urea on Yield and Grain
Quality of Spring Wheat
Maria Wivstad, Lennart Salomonsson & Ann-Christine Salomonsson
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science
Volume 46, Issue 3, 1996 . pages 169-177

Effects of two green manure cropspersian clover and persian


clover/Westerwolth ryegrassand three fertilizersliquid manure, meat
bone meal and urea-on subsequent spring wheat yields and quality
characters were studied in four field experiments.
No significant differences between green manure crops in production or
effects on wheat were found. The yield was up to 2500 kg/ha higher after
the green manure crops than after oats, but the effect on wheat protein
content was less pronounced.

Fertilization did not increase the yield as much as


green manuring, but significantly increased protein
content in two of the experiments. In a partial least
square regression (PLSR) model, the wheat yield
was largely explained by the amount of green
manure herbage ploughed in during the autumn and
the amount of mineral N in the soil in spring.
The prediction model of protein content was weak.

Sumber: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09064719609413130 .. Diunduh


10/3/2012

PLANT DISEASE . April 2007, Volume 91, Number 4


Pages 400-406
http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-91-4-0400

Effects of Green Manure Type and Amendment Rate on Verticillium Wilt


Severity and Yield of Russet Burbank Potato
N. Ochiai, M. L. Powelson, R. P. Dick and F. J. Crowe

Increasing restriction of agrochemicals is motivating development of


ecology-based cropping systems, including green manures, to manage
soilborne diseases.
Green manures have shown promise in suppressing Verticillium
dahliae, but information about effect of different green manures and
optimal application rates remains limited. Therefore, we conducted two
single-year field experiments comparing effects of Austrian winter pea
(Pisum sativum Melrose), broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis
Excelsior), and Sudan grass (Sorghum vulgare var. sudanense
Monarch), amended at 6, 12, or 24 Mg ha-1, on soil populations and
root infection by V. dahliae, wilt severity, and yield of Russet Burbank
potato.
Inoculum density was reduced relative to the nonamended, infested
control by all broccoli treatments, Austrian winter pea applied at 12 and
24 Mg ha-1, and Sudan grass applied at 12 Mg ha-1.
Root infection was not reduced by any green manure treatment. Median
wilt severity was reduced approximately 70% by all green manures
applied at 24 Mg ha-1 and 74% by Austrian winter pea applied at 12 Mg
ha-1.
Tuber yield was reduced approximately 20% in
nonamended, V. dahliae-infested controls relative
to the noninfested controls. No green manure
treatment improved yield relative to the
nonamended, infested control.

Sumber: http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/doi/abs/10.1094/PDIS-91-4-0400.. Diunduh


10/3/2012

TANAMAN PUPUK HIJAU


Legumes fix nitrogen from the air as they grow, thus they can pro-vide
nitrogen to the soil when used as a green manure. Legumes should be
inoculated with the appropriate strain of nitrogen-fixing bacteria
( Rhizobium spp.) when they are sown to ensure efficient fixation.
The total plant nitrogen that is fixed is much less for plants growing in
soils with abundant nitrogen than in soils poor in nitrogen. Before
legumes fix nitrogen from the air, they will use nearly all avail-able
nitrogen in the soil.
The maximum amount of nitrogen uptake occurs in the first 50-75
percent of the legume's growing period (Allison 1973).
The nitrogen content increases steadily during growth of the legume
until the plants reach seed production, then it levels off.

The range of values of nitrogen fixed


varies widely but is estimated to be:
alfalfa 50-350, clovers 50-200, peas 30140, and pastures with legumes 10-550
pounds per acre per year (Allison 1973).

Sumber: www.rngr.net/.../omm/green-manure.../file .. Diunduh 10/3/2012

KANDUNGAN N BIOMASA LEGUME


Nitrogen content of tops and roots of legumes, and
the amount of nitrogen fixed

Sumber: www.rngr.net/.../omm/green-manure.../file .. Diunduh 10/3/2012

EFEK BAIK DAN BURUK PUPUK HIJAU

Green manure is usually beneficial to soil that is well managed.Benefits attributed


to green manuring include addition of nitrogen (when using legumes), addition
of organic matter, increase in the conservation and availability of nutrients,
improved physical condition of the soil erosion control, and weed and disease
control. The root systems of green manure crops also have a big effect in
aggregation of the finer-textured soils, as discussed above. The most effective
root systems forthis purpose are those with finely divided and extensive, but not
necessarily deep roots. Small-grain crops best meet this requirement.
Green manure crops also shade and cool the soil. By providing a dense vegetative
cover, the damage to soil aggregation produced by raindrop splash is eliminated
(Allison 1973). This reduces the tendency toward crust formation, a serious
problem in many nurseries.
Green manuring is often used in rotation in agriculture for disease control. But the
common pathogens of tree seedlings, such as Pythiumspp., Fusarium spp., and
Rhizoctonia spp., have a wide host range and their incidence does not appear
greatly affected by crop rotation (Aldhous1972). The one exception found in the
literature is with western red cedar seedlings.
In England (Aldnous 1972), these seedlings can be infectedby the fungus disease
Didymascella (Kethia) thujina, causing severe losses. Aggravation of losses
occurs from cross-infection of first year seedbeds from older stock.
Crop rotation is an effective control because it en-sures that cedar is not grown in
seedbeds for more than one year.

Sumber: www.rngr.net/.../omm/green-manure.../file .. Diunduh 10/3/2012

EFEK PUPUK HIJAU


There is some disagreement about whether green manure actually provides an
increase in the organic content of the soil. It appears that green manures may have
a negligible effect on total levels of soil organic matter under systems of
continuous cultivation (Allison 1973).
They do add active, rapidly decomposing organic material. The actualpercent
organic matter in soils may be determined primarily by climate.
Higher levels may be obtained by replacing crops with sod or periodicadditions of
organic material such as animal manure.

Green manuring involves soil


disturbance, and accelerated
oxidation would counteract some
of the possible increases that
could be expected. Beneficial
effects of green manuring are
generally evident from other
characteristics associated with
addition of organic material.

Sumber: www.rngr.net/.../omm/green-manure.../file .. Diunduh 10/3/2012

EFEK BURUK PUPUK HIJAU


Most of the harmful effects related to green manure occur onlywhen the
crop that follows is grown too soon after plant material isincorporated.
Seedlings grown too soon after turning under a greenmanure crop are
sometimes injured by damping-off fingi (Allison 1973).
A green manure crop can deplete soil moisture temporarily while
itdecomposes. This problem is more critical with dry-land farming
inareas of low rainfall. With irrigation, it is not a serious concern. Incorporation of non-legumes with high carbon-to-nitrogen ratios may deplete soil nitrogen during decomposition and depress uptake by succeeding crops.

To avoid this, supplemental nitrogen


fertilizer can be added at the time the
nonlegume is incorporated. For a short
period after such material is incorporated,
there can also be an inhibiting and toxic
effect on seedlings from high
concentrations of nitrites and non-ionized
ammonia (Allison 1973). After a few days,
this does not appear to be a problem.
Sumber: www.rngr.net/.../omm/green-manure.../file .. Diunduh 10/3/2012

SUBSTANSI FITOTOKSIK
Toxic organic substances may be formed by some plants grown
as agreen manure crop. Phytotoxic substances are formed by
some higher plants and micro-organisms associated in their
decomposition. Antibiotics produced by soil organisms can also
be toxic to some plants. Harmful products derived from green
manures are usually destroyed within 2 to 3 weeks. Antibiotics
are generally adsorbed by soil colloids (Allison 1973).

Some plants known to have


produced growth inhibitor.
Unfortunately, little information
is available regarding inhibition
of tree seedling growth by other
plants, but some indications of
allelopathic plants important to
forestry.
Sumber: www.rngr.net/.../omm/green-manure.../file .. Diunduh 10/3/2012

BEBERAPA TUMBUHAN ALELOPATI


Some allelopathic plants important in forestry, chemicals
they produce and plants they affect

Sumber: www.rngr.net/.../omm/green-manure.../file .. Diunduh 10/3/2012

PEMILIHAN TANAMAN PUPUK HIJAU


Ideally, a green manure crop should be easilyestablished and grow
rapidly. There are a variety of legumes and nonlegumesthat produce
abundant growth in a short time. Choice of the cropshould include
consideration of the purpose for green manuring andclimatic factors.
Plants reported to produce differential growth inhibitors of known
and unknown composition (Allison , 1973).

Sumber: www.rngr.net/.../omm/green-manure.../file .. Diunduh 10/3/2012

BEBERAPA TANAMAN
PUPUK HIJAU
Commonly used green manure crops and theadaptability
to difference climates

Sumber: www.rngr.net/.../omm/green-manure.../file .. Diunduh 10/3/2012

EFFECT OF GREEN MANURE LEGUME ON THE YIELD OF


MAIZE AND BEANS IN MATUNDA FARM, TRANS NZOIA
DISTRICT, NORTH RIFT KENYA
KAMIDI M.1, 2F. GITAHI, 1P. OSORE, 1D. CHERUIYOT, 2M. OKUMU and
2G. BARASA.
1 Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, National Agricultural Research Centre
Kitale, P.O. Box 450, Kitale
2District Agricultural Officer, Trans Nzoia District, P.O. Box 1781, Kitale.
Maize and bean yields in Matunda farm, Trans Nzoia District are usually low due
to non-use or use of sub-optimal amounts of inorganic fertilisers. Though farmers
make and use compost, the amounts available are not adequate to cover a large
area. A study was carried out to evaluate legume green manure species as a
supplement to the expensive inorganic fertilisers on maize and bean grain yields.
In 1997, five legume treatments: Mucuna (Mucuna pruriens), soybeans (Glycine
max), dolichos (Lablab purpureus), sunhemp (Crotalaria ochroleuca) and
cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) were relay planted in a maize crop after bean
harvest. The legume species were replicated on six farms in a randomized
complete block design.
They were incorporated in the field and maize and beans planted at the on-set of
rains in 1998 using fertiliser rates of 30 kg P2O5 ha-1 and 30 kg N ha-1. In
August 1998, the legumes were relay cropped in the same plots but with purple
vetch replacing cowpeas. This was followed by maize/bean intercrop at the on-set
of rains in 1999 using the same amount fertilisers as in 1998.

The combined use of green manure and 30 kg P2O5 ha-1 and 30


kg N ha-1 significantly (P<0.05) increased maize yield compared
to use of 30 kg P2O5 ha-1 and 30 kg N ha-1 or green manure
alone.
Sumber:
http://www.kari.org/fileadmin/publications/Legume_Project/Legume2Conf_2000/23.pdf ..
Diunduh 11/3/2012

The effect of green manuring on the physical


properties of temperate-area soils.
MacRae, R.J. and G.R. Mehuys
Advances in Soil Science, Volume 3:71-94. 1985
Soil Aggregates.
Organic matter plays more of a role in aggregate stability than in aggregate
formation. It is, in fact, the primary stabilizing agent for aggregates in temperatearea soils. This stabilization process is accomplished mainly through the byproducts of organic matter decomposition (microbial gums and mucilages).

Bulk Density.
"With few exceptions, organic matter decreases the bulk density of soil." This
effect can occur either directly by "diluting" the soil with a less dense material, or
indirectly through greater aggregate stability. Indirect effects seem to be the most
important and are not dependent on soil textural class.

Moisture Content and Availability.


Soil organic matter has a variable effect on available water in soil. It is generally a
positive relationship, but whether or not the effect is significant depends on other
soil properties, notably texture. One experiment, for example, found organic
matter to influence available water only in soils of medium to low clay content
(13 to 20 percent); other
researchers concluded that coarse silt, not organic carbon, was the primary factor
determining available water in mineral soils. It is important to distinguish
between water retention and water availability. Some sources of organic matter
(like peat moss) have high water retention (i.e. they increase soil water holding
capacity), but a portion of this water may be held so tightly that it is not available
to plants. Increased soil aggregation can have a similar effect.

Water Movement.
Organic matter has a strong, positive effect on infiltration of water into soils. This
effect is due mainly to a decrease in bulk density, and improvements in
aggregation and structure.
Sumber: http://www.sarep.ucdavis.edu/NEWSLTR/v2n4/sa-5.htm .. Diunduh 11/3/2012

The effect of green manuring on the physical


properties of temperate-area soils.
MacRae, R.J. and G.R. Mehuys
Advances in Soil Science, Volume 3:71-94. 1985
Effect of Green Manures on Soil Organic Matter
The maintenance or accumulation of organic matter in soils depends on a
number of factors including: characteristics of the added material, soil and
climatic factors as they affect microbial activity, and agricultural practices. All
other factors being equal, it is generally accepted that low-nitrogen green
manures (1.5 percent N or less) can be effective in improving soil organic
matter levels. High-nitrogen materials such as legumes, on the other hand,
cannot maintain organic matter levels because they decompose too rapidly.
Varied reports from the literature suggest that each plant species should be
considered on its own merits and in the context of the farming systems in
which it will be used. Table presents a sample of how diverse the literature is
on this subject. Any interpretation of these varied results should also take into
account soil type, soil nitrogen levels, native soil organic matter levels and
microbial activity.
Length of
study (Years)

Soil Type

Prince (1941)

40

Loam

3.9

0.19

Decrease

Decrease

De Haan (1977)

10

Sand

3.9

0.15

Increase

Increase

Clay

3.0

0.22

Increase

Increase

Study

Initial Soil
OM %
N%

Changes at end of study:


OM . . . . . . . Soil N

Potting Studies

Field Studies
Poyser (1957)

25

Clay

7.8

0.37

Decrease

Decrease

Mann (1959)

18

Sandy loam

1.5

0.09

Increase

Increase

continued from Mann (1959)


Charter et al. (1970)
using Trefoil
using ryegrass

30

Sandy loam

1.48

0.09

Same

Increase

Sandy loam

1.48

0.09

Same

Decrease

Sumber: http://www.sarep.ucdavis.edu/NEWSLTR/v2n4/sa-5.htm .. Diunduh 11/3/2012

The effect of green manuring on the physical


properties of temperate-area soils.
MacRae, R.J. and G.R. Mehuys
Advances in Soil Science, Volume 3:71-94. 1985
Effect of Green Manures on Soil Physical Condition and Crop
Performance
The authors next address two practical questions: Are green manures,
used in a field situation, capable of improving soil physical properties in
the same way that other forms of organic matter do? And the related
question: Can the use of green manures improve crop performance?
Green Manures and Soil Physical Properties.
The same characteristics evaluated in the first section of this paper are
also evaluated here: aggregate distribution and stability, bulk density,
moisture content and availability, and water movement. Though limited,
the literature on green manure effects is generally consistent with that
on the effects of organic matter per se.
Green Manures and Crop Performance.
It is an accepted fact that improvements in soil physical condition create
the potential for increased crop growth. It is, however, difficult to assess
this relationship quantitatively, and to determine the degree of
improvement necessary to effect a significant increase in crop yield.
Researchers who have looked at corn production report that increased
corn yields are associated with improvements in the physical condition
of the soil. Due to limitations in experimental design, they were unable
to differentiate the effect of enhanced soil fertility from the effects of an
improved physical environment. One definitive point can be made: The
benefits of green manuring on crop yield are most apparent during dry
periods, particularly in rainfed production systems.
Sumber: http://www.sarep.ucdavis.edu/NEWSLTR/v2n4/sa-5.htm .. Diunduh 11/3/2012

Effect of green manure legume - maize rotation on


maize grain yield and weed infestation levels
Jude J. O. Odhiambo, John B. O. Ogola and Thendo Madzivhandila.
African Journal of Agricultural Research Vol. 5(8), pp. 618-625, 18 April, 2010

The use of green manure legumes (GLM) as cover crops in rotation


with maize has the potential to enhance maize yields. The objectives of
this study were to determine the effect of GML - maize rotation system
on (i) maize growth and yield and, (ii) weed infestation levels. The two
year (2007/8 and 2008/9 seasons) rotation system consisted of five
GML cover crops, viz. mucuna, lablab, sunhemp, cowpea and butterfly
pea followed by maize.
GML biomass ranged between 0.8 and 13.6 Mg ha-1, while nitrogen
(N) content ranged between 10 and 279 kg N ha-1. Maize grain yield
following GML ranged between 2.6 and 10.59 Mg ha-1. In 2007/8
season cowpea, mucuna, lablab and sunhemp plots had a lower weed
dry matter (5.30, 11.97, 5.83 and 21.03 g m-2, respectively) than the
control (+N) (49.47 g m-2).
In 2008/9 season, at 6 - 8 WAP, control (+N) had a higher weed dry
matter than the other treatments, except of butterfly pea. The
dominant weed species were Mexican ricardia (Ricardia brasiliensis),
Yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus), Guinea-fowl grass (Rottbollia
cochinchinesis), Witch weed (Striga asiatica), Bermuda grass and
Cynodon species. Green manure legume fallows can increase maize
grain yield significantly and suppress the weed population as
compared to natural fallow. However, maximizing biomass production
and N accumulation is critical in order to reap the benefits of green
manure. Hence, integrating GML into the existing cropping system
will require that appropriate timing for planting GML be well
established.
Sumber: http://eprints.icrisat.ac.in/505/1/AfricanJAgriRes5_8_618_625_2010.pdf ..
Diunduh 11/3/2012

Effect of green manure legume - maize rotation on


maize grain yield and weed infestation levels
Jude J. O. Odhiambo, John B. O. Ogola and Thendo Madzivhandila.
African Journal of Agricultural Research Vol. 5(8), pp. 618-625, 18 April, 2010

Hasil biji jagung musim tanam tahun 2007/8 dan 2008/9. [Con (-N)
= Control (-N); Con (+N) = Control (+N); CP = Cowpea; MC =
Mucuna; LL = Lablab; BP = Butterfly pea; SH = Sun hemp].

Sumber: http://eprints.icrisat.ac.in/505/1/AfricanJAgriRes5_8_618_625_2010.pdf ..
Diunduh 11/3/2012

Cuban Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 45, Number 1, 2011.

Effect of green manure from Tithonia (T. diversifolia) on the


establishment and production of forage of P. purpureum cv.
Cuba CT-169 and on some soil properties
G. Crespo, T. E. Ruiz and J. lvarez
In an experimental design of random blocks with four replicates, it
was studied the effect of applying three doses of green manure of
tithonia (0, 12, and 24 t/ha) on the establishment and production of
biomass from P. purpureum cv. Cuba CT-169 forage and on some
indicators of red ferrallitic soil.
In the first establishment cut, there was no effect of the treatments on
the height of the plants. However, the number of tufts/m2 (2.4 2.5),
the number of tillers/plant (10.4 10.6), and the DM yield /ha (16.2
18.6 t) were increased significantly in the treatments with green
manure, without significant differences between the doses applied. In
the second cut (residual effect), conducted three months after the first
(February 2009), there were no differences either between treatments
for the height of the plants, but the indicators tufts/m2, tillers/plant,
and DM yield were increased significantly up to the highest dose of
green manure application.
Aplikasi pupuk hijau hingga dosis tertentu secara nyata menurunkan
bobot isi tanah (1.01, 0.79, dan 0.68 g/cm3 dengan dosis 0, 12, dan
24 t/ha) dan meningkatkan kandungan BOT (4.2%) dan N-total
(0.30%).
Penggunaan T. diversifolia dianjurkan sebagai pupuk hijau untuk
memperbaiki kesuburan tanah dan meningkatkan produksi hijauan
Cuba CT-169 pada tanah feralitik merah.
Sumber: http://www.ica.inf.cu/cuban-journal-of-agricultural-science/articles/V45-N1Y2011-P079-G-Crespo.pdf .. Diunduh 11/3/2012

Cuban Journal of Agricultural Science, Volume 45, Number 1, 2011.

Effect of green manure from Tithonia (T. diversifolia) on the


establishment and production of forage of P. purpureum cv.
Cuba CT-169 and on some soil properties
G. Crespo, T. E. Ruiz and J. lvarez
Effect of the green manure of tithonia on indicators of the Pennisetum
purpureum cv. CT-169 yield on the first cut (November 2008)

Effect of green manure on the density and some chemical indicators of


the soil

Sumber: http://www.ica.inf.cu/cuban-journal-of-agricultural-science/articles/V45-N1Y2011-P079-G-Crespo.pdf .. Diunduh 11/3/2012

Effect of Chinese milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.)


as a green manure on rice productivity and
methane emission in paddy soil
Chang Hoon Lee, Ki Do Park, Ki Yuol Jung, Muhammad Aslam Ali, Dokyoung
Lee, Jessie Gutierrez, Pil Joo Kim.
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment
Volume 138, Issues 34, 15 August 2010, Pages 343347

This field study was undertaken to investigate the optimum recycling


rate of the above ground biomass of Chinese milk vetch (Astragalus
sinicus L. hereafter, vetch) to improve rice productivity and decrease
seasonal methane (CH4) flux in mono-rice cultivation system. The above
ground part of vetch was applied in paddy field at rates 0, 10, 20 and
40 Mg ha1 on fresh weight basis to investigate its effect on rice (Oryza
sativa) productivity and CH4 emission flux and was compared with the
typical standard NPK chemical fertilization (NP2O5K2O = 9045
58 kg ha1).
Rice productivity increased significantly with increasing vetch
application, and more interestingly, similar grain yield was obtained
between vetch application at 10 Mg ha1 as green manure and NPK
fertilization. Methane emission rates, which were measured by closedchamber method, increased significantly (p < 0.05) with increasing
application levels of vetch, and seasonal CH4 fluxes exceeded to that in
NPK fertilization at over 10 Mg ha1 vetch application. Our findings
revealed that 10 Mg ha1 vetch application as green manure amendment
can be an effective application level of sustaining rice productivity
without increasing CH4 emission compared to NPK fertilization in
Korean mono-rice cultivation systems.
Sumber: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167880910001519 .. Diunduh
11/3/2012

PUPUK HIJAU PADA PADI


SAWAH
Changes of rice grain yield and CH4 flux in paddy soil amended with
different rates of Chinese milk vetch as a green manure during rice
cultivation. NPK treatment was fertilized by only chemical fertilizer
(NP2O5K2O = 904558 kg ha1).

Sumber: .. Diunduh 11/3/2012

FUNGSI BOT
Fungsi bahan organik tanah, interaksi terjadi di antara fungsi-fungsi tanah
(Sumber: Baldock and Skjemstad, 1999).

Sumber: http://grdc.com.au/director/events/grdcpublications.cfm?
item_id=2E7B554DF79646147F64C3704857B3EF&article_id=2E82F1FFF67D7F10F2D11
E83F4EEF896 .. Diunduh 11/3/2012

BOT DAN PRODUKTIVITAS TANAH


Relationship between organic C concentration in the surface
0-15cm of soil and soil productivity as determined by total dry
matter yield at dryland sites in Alberta, Canada (redrawn
from Janzen et al., 1992).

Sumber: http://grdc.com.au/director/events/grdcpublications.cfm?
item_id=2E7B554DF79646147F64C3704857B3EF&article_id=2E82F1FFF67D7F10F2D11
E83F4EEF896 .. Diunduh 11/3/2012

PUPUK HIJAU MENINGKATKAN


KANDUNGAN BOT
Effect of amendment carbon input rate and type on soil C
accumulation (0-20cm) in a 30 year old Swedish field experiment
(Paustian et al., 1992).

Sumber: http://grdc.com.au/director/events/grdcpublications.cfm?
item_id=2E7B554DF79646147F64C3704857B3EF&article_id=2E82F1FFF67D7F10F2D11
E83F4EEF896 .. Diunduh 11/3/2012

PUPUK HIJAU MENINGKATKAN


KANDUNGAN BOT
Changes in SOC content on the Hoosefield continuous barley experiment
with no fertiliser applied (control), annual application of NPK fertiliser,
annual application of FYM (35 t ha-1 ) and FYM applied from 1852-1871
(modified from Haynes and Naidu, 1998).

Sumber: http://grdc.com.au/director/events/grdcpublications.cfm?
item_id=2E7B554DF79646147F64C3704857B3EF&article_id=2E82F1FFF67D7F10F2D11
E83F4EEF896 .. Diunduh 11/3/2012

Modelling N mineralization from green manure and farmyard manure from a


laboratory incubation study
M. MohantyA,C,E, M. E. ProbertB, K. Sammi ReddyC, R.C. DalalA,D4, A. Subba RaoC and N. W.
MenziesA

Net N mineralization from gliricidia and FYM under different


rates of application.

2010 19th World Congress of Soil Science, Soil Solutions for a Changing World
1 6 August 2010, Brisbane, Australia. Published on DVD.