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Learning Objectives

The definitions of the following terms: input,


output, feedback, error, open loop, and closed
loop.
Requirements of good control system
Advantages and disadvantages of open-loop
control systems with an example
Advantages and disadvantages of close-loop
control systems with an example
Feedforward and feedback system

Control theory and control systems engineering


are concerned with the understanding and
control of forces of nature to benefit humans.
Control is relevant to a wide variety of
engineering systems, both in terms of system
design and analysis. Control engineering spans
the disciplines of mechanical, electrical,
chemical, civil and environmental engineering. It
is also relevant to computer science, especially
AI.
Examples of systems for which control
engineering is applicable include manufacturing,
energy, transportation, fluids, communications,
robots, and complex dynamical systems.

Requirements Of A Good Control


System
Accuracy
Sensitivity
Repeatability
Hysteresis
Disturbance
Stability
Speed
Bandwidth
Oscillation

Control System Terminology


Input - Excitation applied to a control
system from an external source.
Output - The response obtained from a
system
Feedback - The output of a system that is
returned to modify the input.
Error - The difference between the input
and the output.

Control System Terminology


Manipulated variable The output of the
controller is the manipulated variable that
controls the output of the plant.
Disturbance It is the undesired input.
e. g. noise
Feedback element It produces feedback
signal proportional to controlled output.

Types of Control Systems


Open-Loop
A system in which the control action is
totally independent of the output of the
system
Simple control system which performs its
function without concerns for initial
conditions or external inputs.

Types of Control Systems


Closed-Loop (feedback)
Uses the output of the process to modify
the process to produce the desired result.
Continually adjusts the process.

Viscosity control system


(open loop)
BACK PRESSURE
VALVE
STEAM
OIL
TANK

MAIN
ENGINE

MANUAL CONTROL

HEATER

TRANSDUCER

FILTER

Open Loop System

REFERENCE
INPUT

CONTROLLER

PLANT
CONTROLLED
OUTPUT

Viscosity control system


(close feedback loop)
BACK PRESSURE
VALVE
STEAM
MAIN
ENGINE

OIL
TANK

HEATER

MANIPULATED
VARIABLE
CONTROLLER

TRANSDUCER

FILTER

MEASURED VALUE
AND FEEDBACK

-+

SET POINT
12-14 CST

Negative Feedback (closed loop)


Control System
REFERENCE
INPUT

OUTPUT
CONTROLLER

FEEDBACK
ELEMENT

CONTROLLING
DEVICE

PROCESS

Viscosity control system


(close feedforward loop)
BACK PRESSURE
VALVE
STEAM
MAIN
ENGINE

OIL
TANK

HEATER

TRANSDUCER

CONTROLLER

SUMMATION
RELAY

FILTER

MEASURED VALUE
AND FEEDBACK

-+

SET POINT
12-14 CST

Feedforward (closed loop)


Control System
FEEDFORWARD
ELEMENT

DISTURBANCE

REFERENCE
INPUT

+
CONTROLLER
CONTROLLER

FEEDBACK
ELEMENT

CONTROLLING
DEVICE

PROCESS
PROCESS

Advantages of a Open-Loop
System
Simple in construction and Design
Economic
Easy for maintenance

Dis-advantages of a Open Loop


System
Inaccurate and unreliable
Accuracy depends on calibration.
Sensitive to parameters variations
Output of the system changes due to
environmental conditions, internal
disturbances.

Advantages of a Closed-Loop
System
Increased Accuracy
Increased ability to reproduce output with
varied input.
Reduced Sensitivity to Disturbance
Self-correcting minimizes effects of system
changes.
Smoothing and Filtering
System induced noise and distortion are
reduced.

Dis-advantages of a Closed-Loop
System
Complicated in design
Maintenance is costlier.
System may become unstable

Open Vs. Closed Loop Systems

Open Loop
Highly sensitive to
environment
Simple Design
Accuracy dependant
on calibration
Unlikely to become
unstable
Small bandwidth

Closed Loop
Less sensitive to
changes in
environment
Complex in design
More accurate
Smooth response
Can become
unstable
Large bandwidth

Questions?