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THE SEPTIC TANK AND

SEWERAGE SYSTEMS

PRIVATE SEWERAGE
DISPOSAL SYSTEMS
DISPOSAL PHASE
- The final stage of the plumbing process;
where used water and water carried
waste are brought to various disposal
outlets.

PRIVATE SEWERAGE
DISPOSAL SYSTEMS
DISPOSAL PHASE
- In houses connected to city sewer
systems, disposal of household sewage
is simple; the waste water simply flows
out of the houses, and down into the city
sewer pipe.
- However, not all houses are not
connected to a city or municipal sewer,
and waste from these homes must be
disposed in other ways, and the most
common way is with the use of Septic
Tanks.

PRIVATE SEWERAGE
DISPOSAL SYSTEMS

SEPTIC TANKS
Definition:
- A watertight covered receptacle
designed and constructed to receive the
discharge of sewage from a building
sewer, separate solids from the liquid,
digest organic matter and store
digested solids through a period of
detention, and allow the clarified liquids
to discharge for final disposal.

PRIVATE SEWERAGE
DISPOSAL SYSTEMS

nic Matters Contained in a Septic T


1. SLUDGE:
- Solid organic matter that are denser
than water and settle at the bottom of
the septic tank.
2. SCUM:
- Lighter organic matter that rise at the
surface of the water
3. EFFLUENT:
- The liquid content of the sewage.

PRIVATE SEWERAGE
DISPOSAL SYSTEMS

nic Matters Contained in a Septic T

PRIVATE SEWERAGE
DISPOSAL SYSTEMS

in Septic Tank to encourage Decom


Aerobic bacteria (aerobes)
- These are bacteria that relies on oxygen
to survive which are found on Scums
inside the septic tank
Anaerobic bacteria (anaerobes)
- These are bacteria that can survive in
places without oxygen and are found
inside the sludge at the bottom of the
septic tank floor.

PRIVATE SEWERAGE
DISPOSAL SYSTEMS

in Septic Tank to encourage Decom


Facultative bacteria
- These are bacteria that functions with or
without the presence of oxygen.
These three types of bacteria have no
relation to disease. They thrive naturally
and will function when conditions are
favorable in terms of:
1. Food Supply
2. Temperature
3. Moisture

PRIVATE SEWERAGE
DISPOSAL SYSTEMS

in Septic Tank to encourage Decom

PRIVATE SEWERAGE
DISPOSAL SYSTEMS

in Septic Tank to encourage Decom


Stabilization
- The process of decomposition
occurring inside the Septic Tank
- Decomposition is caused by anaerobic
bacteria referred to as putrefaction,
often accompanied by bad odors.
- Aerobic decomposition on the other is
not accompanied by unpleasant odor.

PRIVATE SEWERAGE
DISPOSAL SYSTEMS

in Septic Tank to encourage Decom


Septic
- A sewage that turns dark and smell
unpleasantly due to anaerobic
decomposition.
Aerobic Decomposition
- Accomplished with no definite time and
could be with no definite time and could
be within a matter or hours.

TYPICAL DESIGN OF
SEPTIC TANKS

PRIVATE SEWERAGE
DISPOSAL SYSTEMS

cal Septic Tank Designs and L

SINGLE
CHAMBER
SEPTIC TANK

PRIVATE SEWERAGE
DISPOSAL SYSTEMS

ical Septic Tank Designs and La

DOUBLE CHAMBER
SEPTIC TANK

PRIVATE SEWERAGE
DISPOSAL SYSTEMS

ical Septic Tank Designs and La


DESIGN CRITERIA:
Plans
- Should show all dimensions, reinforcement,
structural calculations, and other pertinent
data needed.
Quality of Design
- Shall be such as to produce a clarified
effluent of acceptable standards and shall
provide adequate space for sludge and
scum accumulations.

PRIVATE SEWERAGE
DISPOSAL SYSTEMS

ical Septic Tank Designs and La


DESIGN CRITERIA:
Materials
- Constructed of durable materials, not
subject to excessive corrosion or decay,
shall be watertight.
- Material: cement (usually) or pre-fabricated
cast iron

PRIVATE SEWERAGE
DISPOSAL SYSTEMS

ical Septic Tank Designs and La


COMPARTMENTS:
Conventional Septic Tanks have a minimum of
two (2) compartments
a. The Digestive Chamber not less then 2/3
of the total capacity of tank and not less
than 2 cum of liquid capacity
b. The Leeching Chamber should have a
maximum capacity of 1/3 of the total
capacity of the tank, with a minimum of 1
cum liquid capacity

PRIVATE SEWERAGE
DISPOSAL SYSTEMS

ical Septic Tank Designs and La

PRIVATE SEWERAGE
DISPOSAL SYSTEMS

ical Septic Tank Designs and La


COMPARTMENTS:
The bottom of the digestive chamber should
maintain a slope of 1:10 to collect the sludge
and make it easily accessible from the
manhole.
MANHOLES:
With at least two (2) manholes, 508 mm in min
dimension; one over inlet, other over outlet.
Wherever first compartment exceeds 3.7 m in
length, an additional manhole required over the
baffle wall.

PRIVATE SEWERAGE
DISPOSAL SYSTEMS

ical Septic Tank Designs and La

PRIVATE SEWERAGE
DISPOSAL SYSTEMS

ical Septic Tank Designs and La


AIR SPACE:
Side walls should at least extend 228.6 mm
above the liquid surface in order to maintain
the air needed by aerobic bacteria digesting
the scum.
PARTITION (between compartments):
An inverted fitting shall be installed in the inlet
compartment side of the baffle with the
bottom of the fitting placed midway in the
depth of the liquid. Wooden baffles are
prohibited.

PRIVATE SEWERAGE
DISPOSAL SYSTEMS

ical Septic Tank Designs and La

PRIVATE SEWERAGE
DISPOSAL SYSTEMS

ical Septic Tank Designs and La


LENGTH AND LOCATION OF INLET &
OUTLET:
Inlet shall extend 101.6 mm above and at
least 304.8 mm below the water surface.
The invert of the inlet pipes shall be at level
not less than 50.8 mm above the invert of the
outlet pipe.

VENT DIAMETER:
Equal to the cross sectional area of the house
sewer.

PRIVATE SEWERAGE
DISPOSAL SYSTEMS

ical Septic Tank Designs and La


SIZES OF PIPE INLET & OUTLETS &
THEIR VERTICAL LEGS:
Inlet and Outlet pipes diameter size not less
than the sewer pipe.
Vertical legs of inlet and outlet pipes
diameter size not less than the sewer pipe nor
less than 104.6 mm.
LOCATION:
Should not be located underneath the house.
At least 15 meters from the water distribution
system.

PRIVATE SEWERAGE
DISPOSAL SYSTEMS

ical Septic Tank Designs and La

PRIVATE SEWERAGE
DISPOSAL SYSTEMS

Classification of Sewers

COMBINATION PUBLIC SEWERS:


The oldest variety of Sewer System.
Carries both storm and sanitary wastes.
STORM SEWERS:
Carries only rainwater collected from the drain
or from the streets.
Terminates at natural drainage areas (i.e.
lakes, rivers, and water reservoirs)
Require manholes to serve as clean-outs and
to make sewers accessible for inspection and
repair.

PRIVATE SEWERAGE
DISPOSAL SYSTEMS

cal Septic Tank Designs and L

PRIVATE SEWERAGE
DISPOSAL SYSTEMS

Classification of Sewers
SANITARY SEWERS:
Carries regular sanitary wastes only.
Terminates in a modern sewage disposal plant
for treatment.
Built at a depth of 3 meters.

PRIVATE SEWERAGE
DISPOSAL SYSTEMS

2 Types of Sanitary Sewers


TRIBUTARY SEWERS:
Termination points of individual units or
structures.
Usually round shaped, with diameters between
0.60 to 1.2 meters
Made of vitrified clay or cement pipes; often
installed by the curb line, before the street.

PRIVATE SEWERAGE
DISPOSAL SYSTEMS

2 Types of Sanitary Sewers


INTERCEPTING SEWERS:
a.k.a. collecting sewers.
Termination points of tributary sewers.
Placed much lower in the ground, from 4 to
30 meters in depth.
Varies in shape but have a diameter or
effective opening ranging from 0.60 to 3
meters.
Sloped at an angle of 1:50 or 2%.

PRIVATE SEWERAGE
DISPOSAL SYSTEMS

2 Types of Sanitary Sewers


INTERCEPTING SEWERS:
Lifting stations are placed at certain intervals
and pumps or sewage ejectors are used to lift
the waste; sewers terminate at the disposal
plant

PRIVATE SEWERAGE
DISPOSAL SYSTEMS

DRAINFIELDS
The function of Drainfield:
The absorption field is frequently a network of
drain lines (pipes with holes in them) that
carry wastewater from the septic tank and
apply it to the soil.
The size of the absorption field varies from
site to site, but most are small enough to fit in
a backyard and cover and area between 400
and 800 ft2.

PRIVATE SEWERAGE
DISPOSAL SYSTEMS

DRAIN FIELDS

END OF PRESENTATIONS