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Kunci Identifikasi Nyamuk

Sitti Rahmah Umniyati

ARTHROPODA
HEWAN MULTISELULAR
AVERTEBRATA
DENGAN EKSOSKELETON
diperkuat chitin
SIRKULASI DARAH TERBUKA
SISTEM SARAF VENTRAL
SISTEM DIGESTI SENTRAL
SISTEM SIKULASI DORSAL
DENGAN ATAU TANPA
METAMORFOSIS
BERNAFAS DENGAN TRAKHEA,
INSANG, PARU BUKU, ATAU
KUTIKULA
DENGAN ATAU TANPA MATA
TERESTRIAL DAN ATAU
AKUATIK

Klas INSECTA
ARTHROPODA DENGAN 3 PASANG
KAKI + 1 PASANG ANTENA
> 700.000 SPESIES
TERESTRIAL / AKUATIK
BERNAFAS DENGAN TRAKHEA
TANPA METAMORFOSIS
(AMETABOLA)
DENGAN METAMORFOSIS
(METABOLA)

ORDO YANG PENTING DI


KEDOKTERAN:
DIPTERA
HYMENOPTERA
SIPHONAPTERA
ANOPLURA
HEMIPTERA
LEPIDOPTERA
COLEOPTERA
ORTHOPTERA

INSECTA:
METAMORFOSIS
ARTI: ALIHBENTUK SETELAH EKDISIS
TERJADI PADA PRADEWASA
TANPA METAMORFOSIS (AMETABOLA)
DENGAN METAMORFOSIS (METABOLA):
TAKLENGKAP:
PAUROMETABOLA: Telur ->nimfa -> imago
HEMITEBOLA: Telur -> naiad -> imago
LENGKAP (HOLOMETABOLA): Telur -> larva -> pupa ->
imago
LENGKAP BERLEBIHAN (HIPERMETABOLA):
Telur -> larva I -> larva II -> larva III -> pupa ->
imago

METAMORFOSIS
Proses fisiologis, pergantian eksokutikula lama
dengan yang baru disertai alih bentuk
Terjadi pada masa pradewasa
Terpacu oleh kerja hormonal: h. ekdison yang
dihasilkan oleh kel. torasis memacu ekdisis,
serta h. juvenil yang dihasilkan kel. korpora
alata ---menghambat ekdisis memperlama
masa pradewasa
Metamorfosis juga dipengaruhi jenis, kualitas
dan kuantitas makanan stadium pradewasa
(larva)

NYAMUK (Diptera: Culicidae)

Badan terdiri dari tiga bagian: caput, thorax dan abdomen.


Caput dengan sepasang antena, mata majemuksepasang dengan
mata tunggal (ocellus).
Pada thorax terdapat 3 pasang kaki, dan epasang sayap melekat pada
mesonotum thorax

NYAMUK
Struktur bagian-bagian tubuh (1)

NAYMUK:
Struktur bagian-bagian tubuh (2)

NYAMUK

(DIPTERA: CULICIDAE)
TERDIRI DARI 38 GENERA DAN
3450 SPESIES DAN SUBSPESIES
Termasuk Destructive Mosquitoes:
1. SUBFAM. ANOPHELINAE: 3 GENERA ( ANOPHELES),
430 SPESIES
2. SUBFAM CULICINAE: 34 GENERA (AEDES. CULEX,
MANSONIA, HAEMAGOGUS, SABETHES,
PSOROPHORA), 2930 SPESIES
Termasuk Beneficial Mosquitoes:
SUBFAM. TOXORHYNCHITINAE:
1 GENERA (TOXORHYNCHITES), 76 SPESIES

Anopheles Eggs
Boat shaped with
lateral floats
eggs are laid
singly and float
on the water

Aedes eggs
elliptical polygonally
sculptured without lateral
floats
Laid singly just above
the water line on damp
substrates, or on the
inside walls of tree-holes
and water-storage
containers

Culex eggs
Laid in rafts tapering
with cup-shaped
corona
directly on the water
surface

Telur Mansonia
are drawn out into a
terminal filament.
laid in a sticky mass
that is glued to the
underside of floating
plants.

Larva
Consists of head (caput) , thorax, and abdomen
The head is quadrato-ovoidal in shape, and is
somewhat dorso-ventrally flattened, it has a pair of
short, shaft-like antennae
The thorax is quadrate, compressed dorso-ventral,
and broader than long
The abdomen is more or less cylindrical but taper
somewhat caudally. The last 2 segment are bent
ventrally and bear 4 anal (or tracheal) gills. In the
culicine mosquitoes there is a siphon tube arising
from the eight segment. In anopheline however this
siphon is not present.

Anopheles Larva

No siphon, spiracles almost flush with surface of eight


segment
No comb
has palmate hair tufts on the dorsum of abdominal segment
The resting anopheline larvae are suspended horizontally
at the surface of the water
Obtain their food below the surface

Aedes Larva

Short, tubular siphon on eight abdominal segmennt with


spiracles at tip. It has a series of teeth, collectively called the pecten
and hair tufts (only one)
It has a patch of spines as the comb on the eight abdominal segment

Sewaktu istirahat sifon membentuk sudut di permukaan air jernih


Sifon dengan satu berkas rambut di seberang distal pekten

Aedes aegypti Larva


each scale of the comb has lateral spines

combs

Anal gills
Siphon

Exuviae of Ae. aegypti Larva

anal gills
Combr
Siphon

Larva Aedes albopictus


each scale of the comb has no lateral spines

comb
Anal gills
Siphon

Culex Larva

Long, tubular siphon on the eight abdominal


segmennt with spiracles at tip. It has a series of
teeth, collectively called the pecten and hair
tufts (more than one)
When breathing, usually lie vertically to water
surface

Aedes, Anopheles and Culex Larvae

Larva Mansonia

They have a special cutting apparatus on the


siphon which enables them to piece the tissues of
submerges plants (Pistia, Eichornia, Salvinia) ,
from which they obtain their oxygen

Pupa

Consists of cephalothorax and abdomen


It has a pair of breathing trumpet on the
cephalothorax
It has a pair of paddle at tip of abdomen

Pupa Anopheles
Siphon
Cephalothorax

Paddle

Breathing trumpets are short and broad at


margin

Aedes Pupa
Cephalothorax

Breathing
trumpet

Abdomen
Paddle

Breathing trumpets are short and truncated


Thera are tiny spines on the border of the paddle
(Aedes aegypti)
There are several long hairs on he border of the
paddle (Aedes albopictus)

Selongsong pupa Ae. aegypti


Siphon

Cephalothorax

Abdomen

Paddle

Culex Pupa
Siphon

Abdomen

Cephalothorax

Paddle

Breathing trumpets are long

Mansonia Pupa

They have a special cutting apparatus on the


breathing trumpets which enable them to piece
the tissues of submerges plants (Pistia, Eichornia,
Salvinia) , from which they obtain their oxygen

Consists of head
(caput) , thorax, and
abdomen

Caput
Elongated mouth part of
adapted for piercing and
sucking blood on female
The 15-jointed antenae
plumose in the males and
pilose in the females
Head is almost covered by
a pairs of compound eyes
that nearly meet

Thorax
Covered by a dorsal scutum
Bears 3 pairs of long slender legs

Bears a pair of wings


The wings have venation
characteristic wing and
scales
The coloration and pattern of
the thoracic scales and bristles
are useful in differantiating
genera and species

ANOPHELINE

CULICINE

FEMALE

Pointed Abdomen

Nyamuk Aedes aegypti

Mesonotum has an ornament (lyre shaped)

Ae. albopictus
Jantan
Mesonotum has a
longitudinal ornament
betina

Nyamuk Culex

Skutelum trilobi; palpus pada yang betina lebih pendek daripada


probosis, sewaktu istirahat probosis dan badan dalam dua sumbu
ujung nyamuk betina biasanya tumpul, cerci pendek (retraksi),
tubuh (thorax) tanpa noda-noda putih
Sisik sayap sempit panjang dengan ujung runcing

Nyamuk Mansonia
Skutelum trilobi;
palpus pada yang betina lebih
pendek daripada probosis,
sewaktu istirahat probosis dan
badan dalam dua sumbu
Sayap berbercak-bercak,
sisik-sisik sayap lebar asimetris,
dan sebagian sempit, berwarna
gelap dan terang bergantian,
Abdomen ujung tumpul
terpancung
Kaki belang-belang putih

Mansonia uniformis
Abdomen: ujung
tumpul terpancung
Warna:Coklat
kekuningan dan
belang-belang putih
pada kaki
Mesonotum: dua garis
tebal putih memanjang
pada kedua sisi

Mansonia dives
Abdomen: ujung
tumpul terpancung
Warna: Coklat
kehitaman dan belangbelang putih pada kaki
Mesonotum: gambaran
dua bundaran kecil
berwarna putih pada
kedua sisi

Enceng gondok( Eichornia crassipes)


Daun: ujung
membulat, pangkal
menggelembung
Akar: tipe serabut,
panjang, dan
bercabang banyak

Teratai (Pistia stratioles)


Daun: bundar
bertumpuk seperti
susunan bunga mawar
Akar pendek
bercabang

Salvinia natans
Daun: lonjong seperti
sirip, genap
Akar: pendek
bercabang

Ipomea aquitica
Daun: segitiga dengan
tangkai batang
panjang
Akar: sedikit