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Research

Design
Widya Rahmawati

Jenis Penelitian
Tujuan Penelitian

Keterlibatan
Peneliti

Proses
Pengkajian
(waktu)

Penggunaan
statistika

Jenis data & cara


pengkajian

Deskriptif

Observasional

Sesaat (cross
sectional)

Deskriptif

Quantitative

Eksploratif

Eksperimental

Longitudinal:
Prospektif

Komparatif

Qualitative

Longitudinal:
Retrospektif

Asosiatif/
korelasional

Gabungan
antara quanti
& qualitative

Analitik

Eksperimental

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Jenis Penelitian
(menurut tujuan penelitian)
DESKRIPTIF

Polling/survey opini
Studi kasus
EKSPLORATIF (penjelasan mendetail & mendalam)
Uji instrumen
Nutrition anthropology

ANALITIK

OBSERVASIONAL

Perbedaan

antara 2 kelompok/lebih
Hubungan antara 2 variabel atau lebih
EKSPERIMENTAL

Jenis Penelitian
(menurut keterlibatan peneliti)
OBSERVASIONAL
Peneliti

hanya mengamati, tidak


memberikan intervensi apapun

EKSPERIMENTAL
Peneliti

memberikan intervensi

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Jenis Penelitian
(menurut proses pengkajian)
CROSS

SECTIONAL/SESAAT

Mengetahui gambaran/karakteristik/keadaan
suatu peristiwa/subyek saat penelitian
dilaksanakan

LONGITUDINAL:

Mengkaji proses perkembangan suatu peristiwa


sejak sebelum terjadi sampai selesai

LONGITUDINAL:

PROSPEKTIF
RETROSPEKTIF

Mengkaji perkembangan suatu peristiwa setelah


peristiwa tersebut terjadi, kemudian ditelusuri
kembali ke belakang

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Jenis Penelitian
(menurut penggunaan statistika)
DESKRIPTIF

Mengetahui gambaran karakteristik subyek


pada suatu daerah/pada suatu waktu tertentu

KOMPARATIF

Membandingkan karakteristik atau distribusi


(mean, proporsi, rasio) antara 2 populasi
(kelompok subyek)/lebih

ASOSIATIF/KORELASIONAL

Mengukur/membuktikan adanya hubungan


antara 2 variabel atau lebih

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Jenis Penelitian
(menurut jenis data & cara penyajian)
QUANTITATIVE
QUALITATIVE
Gabungan

antara QUALITATIVE &


QUANTITATIVE

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1. Observationall Study:
Cross Sectional Study (Survey)
With outcomes
Subjects
selected for
the study
Without
outcomes
Onset of study

Question: What is
happening?

Time

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2. Observationall Study: Case Control Study


Exposed
Cases
Unexpose
d
Exposed
Unexpose
d

Question: What
happened?

Controls
Time

Onset of study

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3. Observationall Study: Cohort Study Prospective


Exposed or
subjects

With outcomes
Without
outcomes

Cohort
selected for
study
Unexposed or
controls

With outcomes

Without
outcomes
Time

Onset of study

Question: What will


happen?

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4. Observationall Study: Cohort Study Retrospective*


Exposed or
subjects

With outcomes
Without
outcomes

Records
selected for
study
Unexposed or
controls

With outcomes

Without
outcomes
Onset of study

*The grouping is not based on case/outcome, but


based on exposure

Time

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5. Experimental Study
Experimental
subjects

With outcomes
Without
outcomes

Subjects
meeting entry
criteria
Controls

With outcomes

Without
outcomes
Onset of study

Intervention

Question: What will


happen?

Time

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5. Experimental Study Trial with


Crossover
Experimental

Experimental
subjects

Subject
s
meetin
g entry
criteria Controls

Onset
of
study

subjects

With outcomes
Without
outcomes

Crossov
er

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With outcomes
Without
outcomes

With outcomes

With outcomes
Controls
Without
outcomes

Without
outcomes

Intervention

Intervention
Washout
period

Time

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Differentiate: Observational and Intervention


Studies

1. OBSERVATION STUDY:
Researcher has no control over condition (only observe):
a. Descriptive: one study group, no control measure
and describe frequency
b. 2 groups for comparison but groups cannot be
assigned
Generate & test hypothesis about possible causes and
determinants of health/nutritional status
Suggest methods of prevention and treatment
2. INTERVENTION STUDY :
Investigator control the intervention: condition can be
specified, study subjects randomly assigned to intervention
& control groups
Evaluate methods of prevention and treatment
Most convincing evidence of causes

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Approach of the Study


1.

DESCRIPTIVE STUDY:
Describes frequency and distribution of health and nutrition
condition in population Who? Where? When?

2. ANALYTICAL STUDY:
Study determinants, analyze/elucidate causes, test of
hypothesis, analyze relationship between health/nutritional
status and variables
3. INTERVENTION STUDY:
Deliberate attempt to change a disease or health/nutritional
status determinant
Evaluative, experiment, clinical and community trials

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1. Descriptive/Case Study

A description of interesting, new and unique cases which


include in-depth description of individuals condition or
response to treatment.
A descriptive study should include:
When, where, who
Data collection method
Findings (analysis plan)
Conclusions

ADVANTAGES
Easy to write
Maybe useful to
investigators designing a
study to evaluate causes
or explanation of the
observation

DISADVANTAGES
Biases related to selection
and characteristics
observed
Should be viewed as
hypothesis generating and
not as conclusive,
especially if only 1 sample

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2. Cohort Study
Cohort study is defined as a group of individuals who
are followed together over time, to see if they develop
the disorders. It may include two or more groups who
do not have outcomes but differ according to
characteristics of exposure that are considered
potential determinants of the outcomes.
Cohort study can be either prospective or retrospective
depending on the time sequencing of development of
disorders with respect of the study.
Prospective: the investigators contact the subjects after
the exposure, but before the disorders has developed
Retrospective: when the investigators studies
individuals who have already been exposed to risk
factors and have already developed the disease

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2. Cohort Study Prospective

ADVANTAGES
Provide strong
evidence for possible
causes and effects
Biases can be
controlled

DISADVANTAGES
Extended time make
studies costly
Possible involvement
of external factors
Problem associated
with subjects followup, subjects attrition
and subjects
migration
Difficulty to find the
best control
matching age and sex

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2. Cohort Study Retrospective

ADVANTAGE
Required shorter time

DISADVANTAGES
Bias: rely on memory,
accuracy of records
The loses of cases will
be excluded, e.g. died
before study

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3. Case Control Study


A

method of epidemiologic investigation in which


group of individuals are selected on the basis of
whether they have disorders under study. Cases
are those classified as having the disorders and
controls are chosen as a comparison group
without disorder in the given population.
The investigator look backward in time to
determine if the groups differ with respect to the
exposure histories or presence of specific
characteristics that may put a person at risk for
developing condition of interest.

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3. Case Control Study

ADVANTAGES
The quickest and
least expensive
studies to undertake
Ideal for investigators
who need to obtain
some preliminary
data prior to writing a
proposal for more
complete, expensive
and time-consuming
study

DISADVANTAGES
Have the largest
number of possible
biases and errors
Depend completely
on high-quality
existing records
Difficulties in
selection of control
groups

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4. Cross Sectional Study (Survey)


One

of the most popular study for collecting descriptive


data. Data may intended for generalization to larger
population or may be intended as a description of a
particular group.
A survey is composed of a series of questions that are posed
to a group of subjects.

ADVANTAGES
Best for determining the
status quo of a condition
Quick to complete and
relatively inexpensive

DISADVANTAGES
Provide only a snap-shot
in time of the condition
of process may be
underestimate/overestima
te
Causal factors may only
been yesterday/long time
They already died

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5. Experimental Study

FEATURES OF INTERVENTION STUDY


Intervention may be new preventive or treatment
Also to evaluate exposure to a causal agent (usually in
animal)
Random allocation to test and control groups
Compare outcome in test and control groups
Ethical issue

ADVANTAGES
Provide strong evidence
for possible causes and
effects
Biases can be controlled

DISADVANTAGES
Expensive
Long time period is
required

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Characteristics of
Experiments
Manipulation

of variables

Active and attribute variables

Random

assignment
Control groups
Blinding
Control for inter-subject differences
Homogeneity of subjects
Blocking
Matching
Subjects as their own control
Analysis of variance

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5. Experimental Study
Characteristics
Manipulation

of variables
Randomization
Control groups
Blinding
Repetition
Control for inter-subject differences

Homogeneity of subjects strict inclusion


Blocking
Matching age, sex, socio-economic
Subject as their own control
Analysis of variances (ANOVA)

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DESAIN EKSPERIMEN
POPULASI

SAMP
EL

PARA PIHAK:
1. SUBYEK
2. PENELITI
3. PELAKSANA
4. OBSERVER

CONTROL
GROUP

RAND
OMISA
SI

?
TREAMEN
T
GROUP

1. NO-BLIND
2. SINGLE BLIND
3. DOUBLE - BLIND

END
CONDITI
ON

?
END
CONDITI
ON

Tatong Harijanto,
2010

RANCANGAN PENELITIAN
EKSPERIMENTAL
I. PRE-EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN
1. The one - shot - case study
XO
2. The one - group pretest - posttest D.
O1 X O2
3. The static group comparison
X O1
- O2
Siswanto, 2007

II. TRUE EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN


1. Prestest - post-test with control
group
PopulasiR

O 1 X O2

(Subyek)
O1
O2
2. The posttest - only control group
R
X O1
Populasi

Siswanto, 2007

3. Randomized Solomon Four


Group
O1 X O2
R

O1 O2
X

O2

O2

Siswanto, 2007

III. QUASI EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN


1. Time Series Design
O1 O2 O3

X O 4 O5 O6

2. Control Time Series Design


Kel Eks

O1 O2 O3

X O4

O5
Kel Kontrol
O5

O1 O2 O3

O4

Siswanto, 2007

3. Non Randomized Control


Group Pretest-Post Test
Design
Kel Eks
Kel Kontrol

O1 X O 2
O 1 O2

Siswanto, 2007

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5. Experimental Study Trial with


Crossover

ADVANTAGES
Reduce bio-diversity
effects of each groups

DISADVANTAGES
In the second phase:
return effects of first
phase
Need longer period
suitable only for shorter
period of study, or only if
U have difficulty to find
sample

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Guiding Questions for Selecting the


Design of Experimental Study
How

many independent variables are being tested?


How many levels does each independent variables
have, and are these levels experimental or control
condition?
How many groups or subjects being tested?
How will subjects be selected, and how will they be
assigned to groups?
How often will observations of responses be made?
What is temporal sequence of interventions and
measurements?

Populasi dan Sampel


Populasi:

sejumlah besar subyek yang memiliki


karakteristik tertentu
Populasi Target (target population): Populasi
yang merupakan sasaran akhir penerapan
hasil penelitian.
Populasi Terjangkau (acessible population)
atau populasi sumber (source population):
bagian dari populasi target yang dapat
dijangkau oleh peneliti. Dari populasi
terjangkau ini dipilih sampel, yang terdiri dari
subyek yang langsung diteliti.
Sampel: bagian dari populasi ayng dipilih

Populasi

Sejumlah besar subyek yang memiliki karakteristik


tertentu

Subyek dapat berupa manusia, hewan coba, bahan


pangan, data laboratorium

Karakteristik populasi disesuaikan dengan ranah &


tujuan penelitian

Populasi:

Populasi target (target population)

Populasi terjangkau (accessible population) atau


populasi sumber (source population)

Populasi
Populasi Target

Merupakan populasi
yang menjadi
sasaranakhir penerapan
hasil penelitian
Populasi target bersifat
umum, biasanya
dibatasi oleh
karakteristik demografi
Contoh: balita, ibu hamil

Populasi Terjangkau
Merupakan

bagian dari
populasi target yang dapat
dijangkau oleh peneliti
Bagian dari populasi yang
dibatasi tempat dan waktu
Dari populasi target dipilih
sampel yang terdiri dari subyek
yang langsung diteliti
Contoh: Balita di wilayah
Posyandu Melati Kelurahan
Oro-oro Dowo pada Tahun 2011

Sampel

Merupakan bagian (subset) dari populasi yang dipilih


dengan cara tertentu sehingga dapat mewakili
(representatif) populasi

Subyek terpilih (eligible subjects) atau sampel yang


dikehendaki (intended sample): bagian dari populasi
terjangkau yang direncanakan untuk ditelii secara
langsung, memenuhi kirteria inklusi & eksklusi

Subyek yang benar diteliti: subyek yang benar


mengikuti penelitian sampai selesai, merupakan bagian
dari kelompok subyek terpilih dikurangi subyek yang
menolak berpartisipasi, drop out atau loss of follow up.

Level of sampling
Populasi target process
Populasi
Populasi terjangkau
terjangkau

Sampel

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Kriteria sampel
1.

2.

Kriteria inklusi: syarat-syarat yang


menyebabkan anggota populasi dapat
dipilih menjadi sampel
Kriteria eksklusi: syarat yang menyebabkan
calon sampel yang telah memenuhi kriteria
inklusi, terpaksa dikeluarkan dari sampel
Kriteria eksklusi bukan kebalikan dari
kriteria inklusi

Contoh Kriteria Inklusi dan Eksklusi:


Subyek manusia
Kriteria

Inklusi
Wanita hamil dengan uysia kehamilan 12-20
minggu
Umur 15-49 tahun
Tidak sedang menderita penyakit kronis
Penduduk tetap dari wilayah penelitian
Bersedia menjadi responden, dan bersedia
menandatangani inform consent
Kriteria eksklusi
Pindah rumah pada selama penelitian
berlangsung

Contoh Kriteria Inklusi dan Eksklusi:


Subyek hewan coba
Kriteria

Inklusi

Tikus

putih jenis Rattus novergicus strain


wistar
Jenis kelamin jantan
Usia 8-12 minggu
Berat badan 100-200 gram
Warna bulu putih
Sehat, ditandai dengan gerakan aktif, bulu
bersih dan baik, mata jernih
Tidak mengalami pengobatan sebelumnya
Kriteria
Tikus

eksklusi

tidak mau makan selama penelitian


berlangsung

Contoh Kriteria Inklusi dan Eksklusi:


Subyek pangan
Kriteria

Sampel

Buah apel varietas apel Malang (Mallus


sylvestris Mill)
Umur panen 4-5 bulan
Bobot buah sekitar 90-120 gram/buah
Warna segar dan cerah
Apabila ditekan, daging buahnya terasa
empuk
Kondisi buah utuh

TUGAS:
Melanjutkan pembbuatan proposal
penelitian
Desain penelitian
Populasi
Sampel
Kriteria Inklusi
Kriteria Eksklusi

Kriteria Subjek