Anda di halaman 1dari 23

Susu dan produk

fermentasinya

Pendahuluan

Susu: makanan pertama untuk mamalia


Tinggi protein, vitamin, mineral dan energi
Ternak yang biasa digunakan untuk memproduksi
susu

Kambing, domba, kuda, sapi

Sapi: dairy cows

Fluid Milk

Fluid Milk (Susu cair)


Dispersi protein susu (casein) dan whey protein
80% Casein = milk protein
20% Whey = milk protein

Emulsi lemak dalam air


Kandungan air
87-89%
Padatan terlarut dalam susu: 12-13%
carbs, lactose, fat, protein and minerals
Padatan non lemak
Casein, whey, lactose, proteins, minerals

Produksi

Tidak semua jenis sapi sebagai sapi perah


(penghasil susu)
Usaha peternakan sapi semakin besar
Peternakan besar : >1000 ekor sapi
Susu segar : steril
Post handling sangat di[perlukan: mencegah
kerusakan akibat fisik dan perubahan biologis
Peralatan pengolahan harus terkontrol

Produksi

Pemerahan susu sapi : 2 kali sehari

Some farms milk 3-4 times/day

Segera didinginkan dr suhu temperatur


tubuh ke suhu di bawah 41 degrees F
Penyimpanan suhu pendinginan sampai
tanki-tanki penjemput datang

A sample of the milk is collected at this time


for later lab analysis

Processing
Ketika susu sampai di pabrik: akan dicheck
suhu, total keasaman, flavor, kebersihan
tempat penampungan susu, antibiotik.
Kadar lemak juga dihitung
Setelah lulus terst, susu dipindah ke tanki
yang lebih besar/silo

Pasteurisasi
Memanaskan susu untuk membunuh
patogen
Not sterilization
Setelah pasteurisasi beberapa bakteri
masih ada:
bakteri penyebab keasaman
Refrigerasi adalah cara terbaik
memperlambat pertumbuhan bakteri
pada susu

Pasteurisasi

Low Temperture Longer Time (LTLT)


Heats milk to at least 145 degrees F for at least 30 minutes
Can cause a cooked flavor
Not used by some milk plants for fluid milk products
High Temperture/Short Time (HTST)
Heats milk to at least 161 degrees F for at least 15 seconds
Milk is immediately cooled to below 40 degrees F and
packaged in plastic jugs or plastic coated cartons
Ultrapasteurization
Heating milk to 280 degrees F or higher for 2 seconds
followed by rapid cooling to 45 degrees or less
Ultrahigh Temperture Processing
Sterilizes the milk
Heats it to 280-302 degrees for 2 to 6 seconds
Milk is aseptically packaged and does not require refrigeration
until it is opened

Butterfat

Beberapa tipe produk

Whole milk, 2%, 1%, nonfat, Half & Half

Seperated using separator that separates


the cream and skim portions of the milk

Butterfat: Cream
Hasil pemisahan separator dengan kadar
lemak 35-45%
Penggunaan:ice cream, butter

Milk Products and


By-Products

Milk Products and ByProducts

Include

Butter
Concentrated and dried milk
Cheese
Whey products
Yogurt
Fermented products
Ice Cream

Fermented Milk Beverages

Cultured Buttermilk

Once a by-product of butter production, now


produced from whole or skim milk

Acidophilus Milk

Susu fermentasi diduga memiliki efek


penyembuhan (menyembuhkan penyakit
terkait gastrointestinal)

Sour Cream
Others

Cultured Milk Products

Culture = bakteri kontrol yang ditambahkan ke


dalam susu

The starter bacteria produce acid and flavors that are


characteristic of each fermented milk product.
Commercial producers use lactic-acid bacteria to break down
lactose

Inoculation = adding the starter culture to milk


during the fermentation process that produces
different cultured milk products
Incubation period = time needed for bacteria to
grow and ferment the milk during the process of
culturing milk to make various products finally
its cooled down to stop or slow bacterial growth

Buttermilk/Sour
Cream/Yogurt

Buttermilk used to be the fluid left over


from producing butter, today its a cultured
product prepared from low-fat milk
Sour Cream culture of streptococcus lactis
is added to cream.
Yogurt eastern European food, yogurt
contains lactose, lactic acid, B vitamins and
high concentrations of protein

Yogurt is prepared by adding a bacterial culture to milk


that has been heated
Bacteria used to making yogurt must be incubated
between 41C-45C for around 8 hours

Cultured buttermilk
Cultured Buttermilk
Berasal dari by produk atau dari skim atau susu utuh.
Loctococcus lactis, termasuk subsp. cremoris or
diacetylactis.
Susu dipanaskan sd to 95C and didinginkan sampai
20-25C sebelum penambahan starter (1-2%).
Proses fermentasi 16-20 jam sampai keasaman 0.9 %
asam laktat.

Sour cream
Sour Cream
Cultured cream usually has a fat content between 12-30%,
depending on the required properties. The starter is similar to
that used for cultured buttermilk. The cream after
standardization is usually heated to 75-80C and is
homogenized at >13 MPa to improve the texture. Inoculation
and fermentation conditions are also similar to those for
cultured buttermilk, but the fermentation is stopped at an
acidity of 0.6%.

Cheese

Cheese is made by coagulating the casein


protein in milk.

Once the curds have formed, the whey is drained


away. (heating and cutting the whey helps this drain)
The curd is then treated and allowed to ripen

During ripening, the cheese is hung for at least 60


days, some take months

Four main categories of cheese are based on


moisture content:
1. Very hard cheese parmesan and Romano
2. Hard cheese cheddar, Colby and provolone
3. Semi-Soft cheese Munster, Roquefort, and stilton
4. Soft cheese brie, camembert, and mozzarella
Unripened Cheese cottage cheese and cream cheese

Cheese
Tradisional keju dibuat untuk
mempertahankan nilai gizi susu
Diperoleh setelah pemisahan :coagulation
and pemisahan whey dari susu, cream, or
susu skim, buttermilk or a mixture of these
Ribuan jenis

Tahapan proses
Perlakuan awal
aditive
Innokulasi dan fermentasi
koagulasi
Enzyme
Acid
Heat-acid
Perlakuan thd curd
Penuaan keju

Yogurt
Semisolid susu fermentasi
Originated in Bulgaria
Milk from a variety of animals is used in
yogurt production but most of the
industrialized nations use cows milk
Kultur starter: Streptococcus salivarius
thermophilus (ST) and Lactobacillus
delbruekii bulgaricus (LB)

Making Yogurt
Susu dipisahkan : cream dan skim
Standarisasi kandungan lemak
Pencampuran berbagai ingridient
pasteurisasi
Pendinginan, dan penambahan starter