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Azumith and Bearings

Determination of angles and


directions

Bearing
The purpose of a bearing is to give an accurate
indication of direction from one point to
another.
Based on the magnetic properties. Free floating
magnet indicates NORTH
Simply, a bearing is a horizontal angle
measured clockwise from a fixed reference line.

Locate the objects with Bearing and Distance


Principle of Surveying
O
A

F
B
C

D
E

Bearing and Distance

Latitude and Longitude


Longitude
Prime Meridian

Latitude

Equator

The spherical Earth is divided into a grid pattern


using north-south lines (longitude) and east-west
lines (latitude).
The basic east west line is the Equator This is
the zero line of latitude. Parallel lines above
and below the equator are then drawn in. The
poles are 90o north and south of the equator.
The basic north-south line is called the Prime
Meridian, it is the zero line of longitude. It is
drawn from the geographic north pole to the
geographic south pole through Greenwich,
England.
Other north south lines are drawn in east and
west of the prime meridian.

Using this Latitude-Longitude grid, any point on the Earths surface


can be defined by a location.

Reference
References Lines

Or True North

Reference Meridians
True North
The astronomical North
The axis about which the Earth rotates
Associated with latitude and longitude

Magnetic North
Very unstable, handy for navigation

Assumed Reference
- For rough mapping work

Meridians
A line on the mean surface
of the earth joining north
and south poles is called
meridian.
Geographic meridians are
fixed, magnetic meridians
vary with time and location.
Relationship between true
meridian and grid meridians

Reference Meridians
Are also associated with coordinate
systems
Use a grid system
Can be treated as planar Cartesian
system (x,y)

Common Types of Bearing


True Bearing
This type of bearing is used for mapping used
Military and Army.
Bearings are measured w.r.t. true north using
a compass.

Magnetic Bearing
This type of bearing is used for engineering
surveying and mapping.
Bearings are measured w.r.t. magnetic north
using a compass.

SYSTEMS OF BEARING
- Whole Circle Bearing (WCB) or Azimuthal Bearing
- Quadrental or Reduced Bearing (RB)

WCB is the angle which a line makes with


reference meridian, always measured from
North in clockwise direction.
Reduced Bearing is the smallest angle which a
line makes with reference meridian, measured
either clockwise or anticlockwise.

Reduced Bearings
The Reduced Bearing is always
accompanied by letters that locate the
quadrant in which the line falls (NE, NW,
SE, or SW).

Reduced

RB

Computation of Reduced Bearings


Thus, the whole circle bearings (WCB) of the lines
must be converted into reduced bearings (RB), as RB
is used in most computational work.

W.C.B. (Between)

Quadrant

R.B.

0 to 90

NE

W.C.B.

90 to 180

SE

180-W.C.B.

180 to 270

SW

W.C.B.-180

270 to 360

NW

360-W.C.B.

Conversion of WCB into RB and vice-versa


.
W.C.B. into R.B.

R.B. into W.C.B

W.C.B
Between

Rule for R.B. Quadt

0 & 90 =
1

= WCB

90 & 180
= 2

= 180-WCB SE

S 180-2 E

180 & 270


= 3

WCB-180

SW

S 3-180 W = 180+R.B.

180 & 270


3

270 & 360


= 4

= 360-WCB NW

N 360-4 W = 360-R.B.

= 270 & 360


4

NE

R.B.
N 1 E

Rule for
W.C.B.

W.C.B.
Between

= R.B.

= 0 & 90
1

= 180 -R.B.

= 90 & 180
2

Compass
Many types & shapes.
Prismatic, Surveyor,
Reflective & Silva

Consist of
Magnetised needle
A non-ferrous or plastic box
A graduated 3600 circle and
An aiming point

Parts of a Compass
Silva Compass

Types of Compasses generally used

1. PRISMATIC COMPASS
2. SURVEYORS COMPASS

Prismatic Compass

It is a pocket size
instrument used for
measuring magnetic
bearings.
58

Prismatic Compass

Parts of a Prismatic Compass

Description of Parts
1- Prism Guard
2- Window with Guards
3- Luminous Patch
4- Index Ring Clamp
5- Index Glass
6- Graduated Compass Ring
7- Index Ring with graduations
8- Prism
9- Thumb Ring
10- Viewing Aperture & Slit
11- Luminous Night Lubber Line
12- Day Lubber Line
13- Sighting Line

Graduation in Compass
Degree system - (3600 circle)
North = 0/360
South = 180
East = 90
West = 270
0

Graduated Compass Ring


Synthetic, Translucent Material
Inverted graduations

Graduated Compass Ring

The graduated ring 80 to 110 mm in diameter is


made up of Aluminum.
It is divided into 360 equal parts.
The graduations are marked to half a degree.
The scale is inverted and can only be correctly
viewed through the prism.

The Prism
The prism assembly is hinged. When the
compass is opened, the prism is swung into
the reading position over the index glass.
The prism is also fitted to slides which
enables it to be raised slightly for focussing.
The graduations of the compass ring is seen
though the viewing aperture of the prism.
Within the compass, directly below the prism
and beneath the compass card, is a luminous
source against which the compass card can
be read at night.

Prismatic Compass
The main difference between Prismatic and
Surveyor Compass is that the Surveyor's
compass is usually the larger and more accurate
instrument, and is generally used on a stand or
tripod.
The prismatic compass is a small instrument
which is generally hold in the hand for observing,
and is therefore employed on the rougher classes
of work.
The graduations on this prismatic compass are
situated on a light aluminum ring fastened to the
needle. The graduations therefore remain
stationary with the needle, and the index turns
with the sighting vanes.

Prismatic Compass
The prismatic attachment consists of a 45
reflecting prism with the eye vane so as to view
the magnify image of the graduations on ring
situated perpendicular to eye.
The prism can be moved up and down to provide
an adjustment for focusing.
The image of the graduations is seen through a
small circular aperture in the prism mounting,
and immediately above this aperture is a small V
cut on top of the mounting, over which the
vertical wire in the object vane may be viewed.

Prismatic Compass
When the V cut, the vertical wire and the
Ground point whose bearing is required
are viewed in one line, the bearing is
directly read off the graduated circle
immediately underneath the vertical wire.
The two circular coloured discs in front of
the back vane are dark glasses which can
be brought in front of the vane when solar
observations are being taken.

Prismatic Compass
Zero of the graduations coincides with
the south point of the needle.
Since the circle is read at the
observer's (rather than the target's)
end, the graduations run clockwise
from the south end of the needle (0
to 360), whereas in the surveyor's
compass, the graduations run anticlockwise from north.

Point compass in the direction


you want to go
Set the compass, and read
the value that is touching the
index arrow

Working with Compass


-

Centering
Levelling
Focussing
Aiming at ground object
Taking observations

Read a magnetic bearing


Open the compass and swing the prism to
the reading position.
Hold compass steady so that graduated ring
rotates freely.
Look through sighting slit and align sighting
line on the object to which a bearing is
required.
When graduated ring has come to rest, read
the bearing through the viewing aperture on
the prism.

Brunton Compass

Uses Mirror
instead of Prism

BRUNTEN (LENSATIC) COMPASS


PARTS and Features of a Lensatic compass
Bezel
Floating Dial
Fixed Index Line
Luminous Magnetic Arrow

Luminous Sighting Dots


Sighting Wire

3. LENS
REAR
SITE
Sighting Slot

Luminous Bezel Line


Luminous Heading

Lens

Lanyard Ring
Thumb Loop
Graduated Straight Edge

1. COVER

2. BASE

LENSATIC COMPASS
Cover

- Protects the floating dial and other parts of the compass when closed.

Sighting Wire - front sight used with rear sight, for sighting landmarks for azimuth
headings.
Luminous Sighting Dots used in low-light condition and night navigation. Also a
visual queue on aligning your body with the compass during night navigation.
Graduated Straight Edge - upper half of a standard 1:50,000 scale map ruler, for
measuring distances on a map.

LENSATIC COMPASS
Base - The main body of the compass.

If, for any reason, the lensatic compass


were to malfunction, the base would be the piece that you would want to still work.

Bezel Ring device clicks when turned; full 360 rotation is 120 clicks; each click
equals 3.
Luminous Bezel Line Used to mark a course direction during day or night
navigation.
Floating Dial black scale (mils), red scale (degrees), set in a deep tub for global use.
Luminous Heading to read azimuth heading in low-light or night conditions.
Luminous Magnetic Arrow always points to magnetic north.
Thumb Loop to hold compass with the thumb.
Fixed Index Line azimuth heading.
Lanyard Ring for string or rope.

FLOATING DIAL SCALE

BLACK RING
Mils - is used mainly in artillery, tank, and
mortar gunnery. AND is also used for very
accurate azimuth land navigation.
6400 Mils to a Circle
Distance Between Small Marks = 20 Mils
Distance Between Big Marks = 100 Mils
Distance Between Numbers = 200 Mils
N = 64 (6400)
E = 16 (1600)
S = 32 (3200)
W = 48 (4800)
8.89 Mils = Degree
17.78 Mils = 1 Degree

LENSATIC
COMPASS

FLOATING DIAL SCALE

BLACK RING
Mils - is used mainly in artillery, tank, and
mortar gunnery. AND is also used for very
accurate azimuth land navigation.
6400 Mils to a Circle
Distance Between Small Marks = 20 Mils
Distance Between Big Marks = 100 Mils
Distance Between Numbers = 200 Mils
N = 64 (6400)
E = 16 (1600)
S = 32 (3200)
W = 48 (4800)
8.89 Mils = Degree
17.78 Mils = 1 Degree
RED RING
Degrees common unit of measure is
the degree ().
360 Degrees to a Circle
Distance Between Red Marks = 5
Distance Between Big Marks = 10
Distance Between Red Numbers = 20
N = 0
E = 90
S = 180
W = 270

Sighting Through a Lensatic Compass

Keep Eye Vane towards you and Object Vane towards Ground Object.
Hold the Compass firmly.

Sighting Through a Lensatic Compass

Sighting Through a
Lensatic Compass

PART 1 Basic Land Navigation

Module 1 Lensatic Compass

SIGHTING
LENSATIC
COMPASS

PART 1 Basic Land Navigation

Module 1 Lensatic Compass

SIGHTING
LENSATIC
COMPASS

SIGHTING THROUGH A LENSATIC COMPASS

Sighting Through a Lensatic Compass

Sighting Through a Lensatic Compass

65 Bearing

Types of Bearing
Fore Bearing
Back Bearing

FB and BB

The line
AB has a bearing of N 62o 30 E (FB)
BA has a bearing of S 62o 30 W (BB)

Line

Reverse Directions

Bearing

AB

N 62o 30 E

BA

S 62o 30 W

Reverse Bearings

Back Bearing
A back bearing is the
bearing immediately
opposite to the
direction of travel.
Add 1800 if bearing is
smaller than 1800
Subtract 1800 if
bearing is larger than
1800

Azimuth Reverse Direction

The line
CD has an azimuths of 128o 20
DC has an azimuths of 308o 20
To reverse azimuths: add 180o
Line

Azimuths

CD

128o 20

DC

308o 20

Reverse Azimuth Bearings

Compass Survey of an Area


Mark corners of the Area to be surveyed
Take Bearing from first corner (A) to second
(B) (Fore Bearing)
Shift at Point B - take a Bearing to Point A
(Back Bearing)
Continue each subsequent points in this way

Other Methods of Finding Direction

By shadow stick
By sun observations
By stars observations
By GPS

Diagonal Eyepiece
for astronomical observations

Diagonal Eyepiece
The diagonal eyepiece is required for sights to
the zenith (for example, in field astronomy),
when the horizontal plate obstructs access to the
telescope and circle-reading eyepieces.
The eyepiece is attached to the telescope. It
deflects the line of sight through 90, so that the
observer views the images from the top or side
of the telescope.
When changing from one telescope position to
the other, they can be reversed. The regular
eyepiece of the telescope is unscrewed and
replaced with these diagonal attachments.

Bearing
1.

Included Angle - the difference between two

2.

Magnetic Declination Horizontal angle between


true and magnetic North.

directions (Bearings)

Geographic (True) North


Magnetic
North

North Points
True north - TN
Earth spins on this axis

Magnetic north - MN
Compass needle points to magnetic north

Magnetic Meridians
Defined at a point by earths magnetic
lines of force

Magnetic declination
It varies with location on earth

Magnetic Variation
Magnetic variation:
Variation between grid and magnetic north.

Four types of magnetic variation


Diurnal variation (upto 12 minutes)
Annual variation (0-2 minutes)
Secular variation (150-250 years)
Irregular variation (due to storms, volcanic
eruptions, earthquakes etc)(1-2 degree)

Difference between True Bearing and


Magnetic Bearing
If magnetic bearing is greater than true
bearing - west
If magnetic bearing is less than true
bearing east
Compass is considered calibrated once
variation is determined.

Conversion of bearings
To convert Magnetic north into True north or
vice versa, it is necessary to add or subtract
the Magnetic Declination angle.
When magnetic north is west of True north,
subtract the magnetic declination angle.
When magnetic north is east of True north,
add the magnetic declination angle.
True Bearing = Magnetic Bearing Mag. Dec. (E/W)

Example
Magnetic North

Magnetic
Declination
30 West

True North

Magnetic Bearing
1010

Grid Beading
980

1010
30
West

980

A
B

Reference
Object

Local Attraction
Local Attraction are the local forces which affect a
freely floating magnetic needle.

Local disturbances due to magnetic field


Usually constant at a point

Local Magnetic Attraction


Small Metal Objects
Objects such as buttons, rings or wristwatches can
affect the accuracy of a magnetic compass.
These small objects introduce relatively small error;
their presence tends to be easily overlooked.
To ensure accurate readings, these small metal
objects must be removed from the person.
Radio remote control units may seriously affect
compass readings.

Local Magnetic Attraction


Large Metal Objects:
These cannot be readily removed, the
observer must maintain a safe distance
from them.
Example Magnetic rocks or iron ore,
Steel Structures, rails, Iron Pole,
Electric Line, Pipe Line etc.

Corrections due to Local Attraction


.

Line F.B.

B.B.

AB

66 20

246 20

BC

139 30

318 50

CD

189 40

DA

300 30

Corrections

Corrected FB

Corrected BB

0 at A

66 20

246 20

0 at B

139 30

319 30

11 20

+ 0 40 at C

190 20

10 20

119 30

- 1 at D

299 30

119 30

Stations A and B are free from LA while Stations C and D are


affected from LA

Computation of Bearings in a Traverse

N
N

T
s

R
Q

Anti clockwise traverse

Clockwise traverse

Computation in a Traverse
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.

Measure the bearings (Back and Fore) of


the first traverse line (PT and PQ).
Similarly measure the bearings (Back and
Fore) of remaining traverse lines.
Compute the included angles between the
traverse lines.
Calculation of closing error.
Adjust the error.

Counterclockwise Direction (1)


Start
Given

Counterclockwise Direction (2)

Counterclockwise Direction (3)

Counterclockwise Direction (4)

Counterclockwise Direction (5)


Finish
Check

Start
Given

Finish
Check

Clockwise Direction (1)

Start
Given

Clockwise Direction (2)

Clockwise Direction (3)

Clockwise Direction (4)

Clockwise Direction (5)

Finish
Check

Finish
Check

Start
Given

Azimuths Computation
Counterclockwise direction: add the
interior angle to the back azimuth of the
previous course
Course
BC
CD
DE
EA
AB

Azimuths
270o 28
209o 05
134o 27
62o 55
330o 00

Bearing
N 89o 32 W
S 29o 05 W
S 45o 33 E
N 62o 55 E
N 30o 00 W

Azimuths Computation
Clockwise direction: subtract the interior angle
from the back azimuth of the previous course
Course
AE
ED
DC
CB
BA

Azimuths
242o 55
314o 27
29o 25
90o 28
150o 00

Bearing
S 62o 55 W
N 45o 33 W
N 29o 05 E
S 89o 32 E
S 30o 00 E

Bearing Computation
Computation can proceed in a Clockwise
or counterclockwise

Sketch for Bearings Computations

Comments on Bearing and


Azimuths
Advantage of computing bearings directly
from the given data in a closed traverse, is
that the final computation provides a
check on all the problem, ensuring the
correctness of all the computed bearings

Sketch for each Bearings


Calculation

Comments on Bearing and


Azimuths
Disadvantages associated with computing
bearings directly from the data in a closed
traverse is that there is no systematic
approach to the overall solution. Each
bearing computation is unique, requiring
individual analysis.

Comments on Bearing and


Azimuths
The computation of azimuths involves a
highly systematic routine: add (subtract)
the interior angle from the back azimuths
of the previous course.

Summary of Results from clockwise and counterclockwise approaches

Computation of Bearings in a Traverse


using Deflection Angle
N
N

T
s

R
Q

Anti clockwise traverse

Clockwise traverse

Compute Bearings of Remaining Traverse


Lines from Deflection Angles
W.C.B. of a traverse line = W.C.B. of the preceding line
deflection angle.
Use plus (+) for the right defection angles and minus
(-) for the left deflection angles.
If the computed W.C.B. is more than 360, subtract
360, and if the result is negative add 360 to get the
W.C.B.
Check
W.C.B. of the last traverse line = W.C.B. of the starting
line + (right defection angles) - (left deflection
angles)

Computation

Bearing PQ = 130
Bearing QP = 130+180 = 310
Bearing QR = 310+120 = 430
It is greater than 360 then
Bearing QR = 430-360 =70
Bearing RQ = 70+180 = 250
Bearing RS = 250+50 = 300

N
130

50
120

70
300

Adjustment of a Traverse
Sum of all Interior Angles = (2n-4) 90
For a 5 sided traverse
Sum of all Angles = (10-4)90 = 5400
Permissible closure error = 20n
= 205 45

Compass Error
Instrument Error
misalignment of Vane, Peep-site, Wire
inaccurate tic marks on compass circle

External Error
local influences or local attraction

User Error
compass not flat or moving

Advantage of a Compass
error limited to individual readings
not compounded from previous reading

THE END

Taking a Grid
Bearing

Using a compass & map.

Place edge of compass


along intended bearing.
Direction arrow points the
way you want to travel
Turn housing so meridian
lines are parallel to easting
lines
Read grid bearing where
housing and index intersect

Note: This bearing must be


converted to mag
bearing if intended for
field use.

TIP
Ignore the needle when
using compass as a
protractor

Application
Plus Compass Variation East

Magnetic
Bearing

Grid Bearing

Less Compass Variation West

Magnetic Bearings
Compass back cont
bearings
Face the opposite direction,
turn compass around & walk
with directional arrow
pointing towards you.
Or use white needle as
directional indicator

Compass Error
Individual compasses
Local magnetic attraction due to steel/iron ore

Transmission lines = 80m


Car
= 60m
Wire fence
= 10m
Pick, Axe or shovel = 3m

TIP

The desk youre sitting at


has local magnetic attractio

Bearings - Cont
N

A
A

0b
AB == 75
31 if A is specified
0c = 304

37

0
N

75

304

Magnetic
Bearings

Setting a Magnetic
bearing
Hold compass flat in
palm
Set bearing on
compass by rotating
housing
Turn yourself till red
needle lines up with
north
Now walk in direction
of directional arrow

Taking a Magnetic
bearing
Hold compass with
directional arrow
pointing at intended
object/direction
Rotate housing till
north aligns with red
arrow
Read bearing where
index lines intersects

Magnetic Variation
The difference between grid north &
magnetic north is called magnetic variation.
The magnetic north pole is not fixed, it
moves continually

Easterly & westerly


variation
Check map for
accuracy of
variation

Converting
Bearings
Mag bearings must be converted to Grid bearings
for plotting.
Grid Bearings taken from map must be converted to
Mag for compass work
To convert bearings simply add or subtract
variation
GMS = Grid to Magnetic Subtract (GrandMa Sux)
MGA = Magnetic to Grid Add (My Green Apple)
Grid bearings are always larger than a magnetic
bearing with an easterly variation

Prismatic Compass
When the V cut, the vertical wire and the Ground point
whose bearing is required are viewed in one line, the
bearing is directly read off the graduated circle
immediately underneath the vertical wire.
The oblong mirror located in front of the forward vane
slides up and down the vane, and is hinged to fold flat
over it or to rest inclined at any angle with it. This mirror
is used for solar observations, or for viewing any very
high object, and is not a normal fitting to a compass. The
two circular discs in front of the back vane are dark
glasses which can be swung in front of the vane when
solar observations are being taken.