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Fakultas Ekonomi

Magister Management UNIB

Manajemen Operasi
Inroduction
(Kuliah Matrikulasi)
Oleh: TRISNA MURNI

Silabi Matrikulasi MOP


Kuliah

Materi

Referensi

I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII

Introduction
Perencanaan Produk
Strategi Operasi
Perencanaan Pabrik
Pengawasan Persediaan
Manajemen TK
Pengawasan kualitas
Produktivitas

1,2,3
1,2
2
4,2
2,4
2,4
2,4
2

Keterangan:
1. Barry Render, dan Jay Heizer, 2006, Operation Management
2. Schroeder, 1997, Manajemen Operasi
3. Shaver, 1998, Operation Management
4. Sofjan Assauri,2004, Managemen Produksi dan Operasi

Introduction
Dalam dunia bisnis kita dihadapkan:
Meningkatnya persaingan dan pelanggan yang pintar.
Banyaknya permintaan.
Berkurangnya kesetiaan terhadap produk
Ketiga hal tersebut mendorong perusahaan untuk
melakukan:
Reevaluasi Produk
Menciptakan dan penggunaan teknologi
Memperbaiki dasar-dasar operasi
Ketiga hal tersebut dapat menciptakan:

Daya saing & kepuasan pelanggan terhadap barang & jasa

Diperlukan Proses Operasi

Definisi

Operations is concerned
with transforming inputs
into useful outputs and
thereby adding value to
some entity; this
constitutes the primary
activity of virtually every
organization. (Shafer and
Maredith, 1998)
Operation management is
the systematic direction
and control of the
processes that transform
inputs into finished goods
and services.
(Krajewsky / Ritzman,
1987)

Kandungan makna MOP:


Keputusan: Bahan baku,
tenaga kerja, proses,
kapasitas dan kualitas

Fungsi: mengghasilkan
barang dan
jasa.

Sistem
Inputs

Process
Feedback

Environment

Outputs

Ten Critical Decisions

Service, product design..


Quality management
Process, capacity design..
Location .
Layout design ..
Human resources, job design..
Supply-chain management
Inventory management .
Scheduling
Maintenance .
1-5

Transformation system
Alter

: Sesuatu yang dapat dirubah strukturnya

Physical
Value:

Sensual (kenikmatan)
Psycological (kejiwaan)

Transport : sesuatu akan bernilai jika dipindahkan


Store
: sesuatu akan bernilai jika disimpan dalam
suatu periode tertentu
Inspect
: Sesuatu akan lebih bernilai, karena
diketahui sifat dan kasiatnya

Number of important characteristics of the


transformations process

Efficiency

Effectiveness
Capacity

: - diukur nilai output per unit dari biaya


input
- doing the thing right

: doing the right thing


: - produksi maksimum
- peralatan dan perlengkapan
Quality
: penentuan ukuran kualitas
Response time : kecepatan dalam menghasilkan produk
Flexibility
: dapat merubah sistem transformasi
yang digunakan untuk memproduksi
produk lain, dengan mudah dan cepat

The Range from services to products


Product

100%

75%

Services

50%

75%

100%

Flour
Magazine

Tai llor

Restaurant
Medical examinations

Characteristics of Product and


Services
Products

Tangible
Minimal contact with
customer
Minimal participation
by customer in the
delivery
Delayed consumption
Equipment intense
production
Quality easily
measured

Services

Intangible
Extensive contact with
customer
Extensive participation
by customer in the
delivery
Immediate
consumption
Labor intense
production
Quality difficult to
measure

MOP dan Tema Operasi Baru


Mengapa MOP dipelajari:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Merupakan fungsi
organisasi
Untuk mengetahui cara
memproduksi
Manajemen operasi
fungsi terpenting
Agar mengerti apa yang
dilakukan manajer
operasi

New Operations Themes:

Services and
Manufacturing
(differences and
implication)
Customer Directed
Operations
Continuous Improvement
Time Reduction
Integration of Operation
and Other Functions
Environmental Concern
Globalization of
Operations

Organizing to Produce Goods


and Services
Essential functions:
Marketing generates demand
Operations creates the product
Finance/accounting tracks
organizational performance, pays
bills, collects money

1-11

Organizational
Functions
Marketing
Gets customers

Operations

creates product or service

Finance/Acco
unting
Obtains funds
Tracks money

1995 Corel Corp.

1-12

Changing Challenges for


the Operations Manager

Past

Causes

Local or
national
focus
Batch (large)
shipments

Low-cost, reliable worldwide


communication and
transportation networks
Cost of capital puts pressure on
reducing investment in
inventory
Quality emphasis requires that
suppliers be engaged in product
improvement
Shorter life cycles, rapid
international communication,
computer-aided design, and
international collaboration

Low-bid
purchasing
Lengthy
product
development
Transparency
Masters to

2004 by Prentice Hall,


Inc., Upper Saddle River,

Future

Global Focus
Just-in-time
shipments
Supply-chain
partners
Rapid product
development,
alliances,
collaborative
designs
1-13

Changing Challenges for


the Operations Manager

Past

Standardized
products
Job
specialization
Low cost
focus

Transparency
Masters to

Causes

Affluence and worldwide markets;


increasingly flexible production
processes
Changing sociocultural milieu.
Increasingly a knowledge and
information society.
Environmental issues, ISO 14000,
increasing disposal costs

2004 by Prentice Hall,


Inc., Upper Saddle River,

Future

Mass
customization
Empowered
employees,
teams, and lean
production
Environmentally
sensitive
production,
Green
manufacturing,
recycled
materials,
remanufacturing
1-14

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