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DURABILITY OF

CONCRETE STRUCTURES
presented by

Arjun Narasannavar
V sem
RURAL POLYTECHNIC TARIHAL

CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
FACTORS GOVERNING DURABILITY
BEHAVIOUR OF CONCRETE
CAUSES FOR DETORIATION
IS CODE
DESIGN FOR DURABILITY OF CONCRETE
STRUCTURES
RECOMMENDATION
CONCLUSION
REFRENCES
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INTRODUCTION
During the recent past , the problem of early
deterioration of concrete structure has posed a serious
problem all over the world. In India also, this problem is
being witnessed in the past few years, especially in
coastal and industrial area as well as in other aggressive
environments.

WHAT IS DURABLE CONCRETE ?


Durable concrete can be defined as one that is
designed, constructed and maintained to perform satisfactorily
in the expected environment for the specified designed life.

FACTORS GOVERNING DURABILITY


Mix design
Structural design
Reinforcement detailing
Concrete cover
Curing
supervision
Quality of material used

Mix design

Curing

Supervision

BEHAVIOUR OF CONCRETE
The behaviour of concrete depends on
several processes.
1. Physical
2. Chemical
3. Biological
1.Physical process
Physical processes lead to gradual deterioration of
concrete, and govern its long-term behaviour.
Cracking
Abrasion
Frost & de-icing salts
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2.CHEMICAL PROCESS
Acid attack
Sulphate Attack
Alkali attack

3. BIOLOGICAL PROCESS
Environmental factors
Temperature & Humidity
Marine atmosphere zone
Splash zone
Tidal zone
Submerged zone

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CAUSES OF DETERIORATION
Concrete normally provides excellent corrosion
protection to embedded reinforcement. The high
alkalinity of concrete, i.e. above pH 12.5, results in
the formation of protective oxide film on steel bars.
causes for deterioration of concrete structures are,
Design and construction defects
Poor quality materials
Inadequate supervision
Environment
Corrosion of reinforcement
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Inadequate understanding of materials

IS CODE
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THE TWO IMPORTANT CRITERIA FOR


THE DURABILITY OF CONCRETE
STRUCTURES ARE
CONTROL OF DEFLECTION
CONTROL OF CRACKING

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CONTROL OF CRACKING
FLEXURAL MEMBERS
COMPRESSION MEMBERS
SPACING REQUIREMENTS
Minimum spacing
Maximum spacing

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DESIGN FOR DURABILITY OF CONCRETE


STRUCTURES
The main concept in the design is to minimize deflection
and cracking.
The procedure for control of deflection is to control span
to effective depth ratio. It assumes that the deflection of beam
and slab will depend on the following factors.
1.The span/effective depth ratio
2.Type of supports as to whether simply supported , fixed or
continuous
3.Percentage of tension steel or the stress level in the steel level
at service loads if more than the necessary steel is provided at
the section.
4.Percentage of compression steel provided.
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Design for limit state of deflection


Excessive deflection of beams and slab is not only an
eyesore in itself but it can also cause cracking of portion.As
given in IS 456(2000) the commonly accepted limits of
allowable deflection are,
1 A final deflection of span/250 for
the deflection of
horizontal bending members like slabs and beam due to all
load so as to be noticed by the eye.
2 A deflection of span/350 or 20mm which is less for these
members after the construction of the partitions and finishes
etc,to prevent damages to finishes and partitions.

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CRACKING
A crack is a complete or incomplete separation of
concrete into two or more parts produced by breaking or
fracturing. The crack in concrete is one, which cannot be
completely prevented but can only be controlled and
minimized.
There are two types of crack
1.Structural cracks
2.Non-structural cracks

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METHOD OF CRACK CONTROL


Method of crack control
To control the crack width the important
factors to be considered are the following
1.Maximum and minimum spacing of
reinforcements
2.Maximum and minimum area of steel in the
member
3.Curtailment of reinforcement bars
4.Anchorage of reinforcement bars
5.Cover to reinforcement.
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RECOMMENDATIONS
Good quality concrete mix with the lowest water cement ratio
compatible with practical placement and finishing techniques
should be used.
Concrete should be properly placed, consolidated and cured.
Over stressing of structures should be avoided.
Application of flexible surface coatings to avoid concrete
surfaces, which can effectively control the ingress of chlorides,
sulphates, carbon dioxide, oxygen and moisture, can be
considered as an effective corrosion control measure.
Exercising adequate care at every stage of planning,
analysis, design and construction for the expected exposure
conditions.
The performance of structures should be monitored
regularly from the stage of commencing.
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CONCLUSION
Durability of concrete structures should be considered as
a significant aspect of structural design. A designer should be
aware of the constructional aspects of structures, as well as, in
order to foresee durability problems due to any peculiarities of
structural loads, layout as well as environment.

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REFERENCES
Concrete technology, Shetty.M.S
Limit state design of reinforced concrete,
Varghese.P.C
IS 456 (2000)

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