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SPONTANEOUS POTENTIAL

LOG

Presented by :
Satrio Aris Setiawan
Ivana Debora
Yuri Nadia Candikia

Outline :
Introduction

Whats SP Log ?
Principles of SP Log
Uses of the SP Log
Log Presentation
Calculation of Shale Volume
Calculation of Rw
Factors Affecting the SP

Introduction
The Spontaneous Potential or Self
Pontential measure and record of
direct current (DC) voltage differences
between the naturally occurring
potential of a moveable electrode in
the well bore and the potential of a
fixed electrode located at the surface
It is a very simple log that requires
only an electrode in the borehole and

Formation Requirement for the


Existence of the SP Current
Drilling

mud must be conductive


(boreholes must be filled with
conductive mud)
Reference potential on the surface
must be constant
There should be a layer of permeable
and impermeable in the well
There is a difference in salinity
between the fluid in formation with

Principles of SP Log
The

origin of the spontaneous


potential has four different
components.

The spontaneous potential is composed of


contributions that are:
Electrochemical (arise from electrical interactions
between the various chemical constituents of the
rocks and fluids),
Electrokinetic (arise from the movement of
electrically charged ions in the fluid relative to the
fixed rock).
The potential effect of electrokinetic components is
very small, then the total Spontaneous Potential is
considered to the potential from the effect of
electrochemical components.

Electrochemical
Components Effect

Liquid-Junction Potential
(Ed)
The liquid junction
potential sometimes
called the diffusion
potential.
This potential exists at
the junction between
the invaded and the
non-invaded zone, and
is the direct result of
the difference in salinity
between the mud
filtrate and the
formation fluid.

For NaCl solutions at 25C, the


diffusion potential, Ed, is given by:
Ed = -11.81 x log(R1/R2)
where
R1 is the resistivity of the diluter
solution, and R2 is the resistivity of the
more saline solution.

Membrane Potential
(Esh)
The membrane potential sometimes
called the shale potential.
This potential exists at the junction
between the non-invaded zone and
the shale (or other impermeable rock)
sandwiching the permeable bed.
These beds are usually shale, and the
argument that follows applies mainly
to

For NaCl solutions at 25C, the


membrane potential, Esh, is given by:
Esh = 59.15 x log(R1/R2),
where
R1 is the resistivity of the diluter
solution, and R2 is the resistivity of the
more saline solution.

Total Electrochemical
Components of the SP

The

total electrochemical component


of the SP at 25oC for NaCl solutions is
therefore :
Ec = Ed + Esh
Ec = -11.81 log() + (-) 59.15 log ()
Ec = - 71 log ()
Ec = - 71 log ()

Electrokinetic
Components Effects

Electrokinetic Components
Effects
MUDCAKE POTENTIAL

This potential is
produced by the
movement of charged
ions through the
mudcake and invaded
zone in a permeable
formation.

SHALE WALL
POTENTIAL
This potential is the same in
origin to the mudcake
potential, but applies to the
flow of fluids from the
borehole into shale
formations.
It is usually very small
because the flow into
impermeable shales is small.
It also acts to set up a current
flow into the formation.

Total Electrokinetic Components


of the SP
The total electrokinetic potential is
Ek = Emc + Esw
Emc and Esw have the same polarity, so
the value of Ek is the difference
between their absolute values
Ek = |Emc| + |Esw|

Uses of the SP Log


The main uses of this log are:
The
The
The

detection of permeable beds


determination of Rw
indication of the shaliness of a
formation
Correlation

Log Presentation

SP Log Presentation
SP currents
measured in
millivolts (mV).
With negative
deflections to the
left and positive
ones to the right.

Shale Base Line

This is the typical


SP level for shales

Permeable zones
indicated where
there is a
deflection from
the shale baseline

Shale Base Line and SSP

SSP
(Static Spontaneous Potensial)
Represents the maximum SP that a thick,
shale free, porous and permeable
formation can have for a given ratio
between Rmf / Rw
The SSP is the value in millivolts of the
difference between the SP log at the shale
base line and that in the centre of the
thick clean formation

saltier than the mud


filtrate.

How
to
Read
In sand B : indicating a
fresher formation
water.

In sand C : indicating
formation water that is
fresher than the mud
filtrate (Rw > Rmf).

We may guess that at


about 7000 ft Rw = Rmf

Calculation of Shale
Volume

Water Resistivity
Determination
The
static SP (SSP) value in a clean formation is
related to the chemical activities ( and ) of the
formation water through the formula:
(1)
where K = Constant and varies in direct
proportion with temperature especially in NaCl
solutions
K = 61 + 0.133T in F
K = 65 + 0.24T in C
= Chemical activity of water
= Chemical activities of mud filtrate.

Water Resistivity
Determination
pure NaCl solutions that are not too
For
concentrated, resistivities are inversely
proportional to activities.
Therefore,
(2)
where is the equivalent formation
water resistivity; and is the equivalent
mud filtrate resistivity.

Water Resistivity
Determination
procedure for using this equation is as
The
follows:
1. Determine formation temperature.
2. Find at formation temperature.
3. Convert at formation temperature to an
value.
4. Compute the / ration from the SSP.
5. Compute
6. Convert at formation temperature to an
value.

Factors Effecting the SP

Oil

Base Muds & Air-Filled Boreholes


Due to a complete lack of an electrical path in the
borehole, no SP will be generated in wells where the
hole is filled with oil-based muds or air.
Shaly Formations
Shale will reduce the measured SP. This effect permits
the shaliness to be estimated if a clean sand of the
same water salinity is available for comparison.
Hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbon saturation may reduce SP measurement,
so only water-bearing sands should be used for
determinig from the SP.

Factors Effecting the SP


Unbalance

Muds
Unbalanced mud columnns can cause streaming
potentials that increase the SP deflection, especially in
depleted reservoirs. This effect is called the
electrokinetic SP.
High Resistivity Formations
In hard formations, the resistivities can be very high.
These high resistivities affect the distribution of the SP
currents, and hence the shape of the SP curve.
Bed Thickness
Bed thickness can affect the SP measurement quite
dramatically. In thin beds, the SP does develop to its full
deflection.

Thank You for Your


Attention