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Operations Management

Toyota Production System (TPS),


Just-in-Time (JIT),
and Lean Manufacturing
Handout
Dr. Ahmad Syamil, CFPIM, CIRM, CSCP
http://www.clt.astate.edu/asyamil/
asyamil AT yahoo DOT com

APICS
www.apics.org
Old Name: The American Production and Inventory Control Society
New Name: The Association for Operations Management - Advancing
Productivity, Innovation, and Competitive Success.
APICS offers four internationally recognized professional certification
programs:
1. CPIM: Certified in Production and Inventory Management
2. CFPIM: Certified Fellow in Production and Inventory Management = CPIM +
extensive knowledge sharing with others through presenting, teaching,
publishing, and other APICS educational activities.
3. CIRM: Certified in Integrated Resource Management
4. Beginning 2006: Certified Supply Chain Professional (CSCP) designation is
designed for professionals interested in increasing their knowledge of supply
chain management, those currently working in the field of supply chain
management (SCM), and for those individuals working with enterprise
resources planning (ERP) systems.

Why Toyota?

Toyota is now the world's largest


carmaker
Toyota sold 2.348 million vehicles in the
first three months of 2007.
General Motors (GM) is estimated to have
sold 2.26 million cars and small trucks
during the same period.

Why Toyota?

Why Toyota?

Why not Toyota?


GM lost $10.6 billion in 2005.
GM's pension obligations under funded by about $31 billion
GM will eliminate 30,000 jobs and close 12 North American
factories by 2008
Ford earned $2 billion worldwide, but lost $1.6 billion in its
North American operations.
Ford is shutting 10 plants and laying off 25,000 hourly workers.
Daimler paid $36 billion for Chrysler in 1998.
Chrysler reported a $1.5 billion loss for the third quarter of
2006 and a $2 billion loss for the first quarter of 2007.
DaimlerChysler finally sold 80.1% of Chrysler to Cerberus
Capital for $7.4 billion in May of 2007.

Why Toyota?

History of Manufacturing Management

History

Sakichi Toyoda, the founder of the Toyota group of


companies, started Toyota as a textile machine company.
Kiichiro Toyoda, son of Sakichi and founder of the Toyota
automobile business, developed the concept of Just-in-Time
in the 1930s. He decreed that Toyota operations would
contain no excess inventory and that Toyota would strive to
work in partnership with suppliers to level production.
Taiichi Ohno, Toyota's chief of production in the post-WWII
period. He was THE main developer of Toyota Production
System (TPS).
Dr. Shigeo Shingo: A consultant to Toyota.
PS: Shingo Prize is the highest manufacturing excellence award
in the U.S. The prize is given both to companies and
individuals who contribute to the development of
manufacturing excellence.

History (cont.)

Toyota Production System (TPS) drew wide attention from the industrial
community because Toyota was a profitable car company in Japan during
and after the oil embargo in 1970s.

Outside Japan, dissemination began in earnest with the creation of the


Toyota-General Motors joint venture-NUMMI (New United Motor
Manufacturing Inc.) in California in 1984.

Widespread recognition of TPS as the model production system grew rapidly


with the publication in 1990 of The Machine That Changed the World: The
Story of Lean Production, the result of five years of research led by the
Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

The MIT researchers found that TPS was so much more effective and
efficient than traditional, mass production that it represented a completely
new paradigm and coined the term lean production to indicate this radically
different approach to production.

The term was coined by John Krafcik, a research assistant at MIT with the
International Motor Vehicle Program in the late 1980s. He then worked for
General Motors and now is a Vice President of Hyundai, U.S.

Toyota Production System (TPS)


Definition: The production system developed by Toyota
Motor Corporation to provide best quality, lowest cost, and
shortest lead time through the elimination of waste.
TPS is comprised of two pillars, Just-in-Time and Jidoka
(autonomation) , and is often illustrated with the "house"
shown on the next slide.
TPS is maintained and improved through iterations of
standardized work and kaizen (continuous improvement),
following PlanDo-Check-Act (PDCA Cycle from Dr.
Deming), or the scientific method.

House of Toyota

Toyota Production System (TPS):


Related Terms
Ohno System
MAN (Material as Needed) - Harley Davidson
MIPS (Minimum Inventory Production
Systems) - Westinghouse
Stockless production - Hewlett Packard
Zero inventory production system
Lean Manufacturing/Production - MIT

How to make money?


Profit equation: Sales Cost = Profit
Traditional pricing strategy: Cost + Profit = Selling price
Example:
When the cost goes up, the product selling price is raised to reflect the
higher costs and maintain the desired level of profit.
Some even argues that the profit added should be large enough to cover
potential losses if the product does not sell well.
Toyota accepts neither this formula nor these arguments!

Toyotas philosophy

Selling price Cost = Profit


Customers decide the selling price.
Profit is what remains after subtracting the cost from it.
The main way to increase profit is to reduce cost.
Consequently, cost reduction through waste elimination
should have the highest priority.
Toyotas paradox: Reducing cost (waste), will reduce lead
time while increasing quality and customer satisfaction.
How? We will discuss it soon.

House of Toyota

What Does Just-in-Time Do?

Attacks waste

Anything not adding value to the product


From the customers perspective

Exposes problems and bottlenecks caused by


variability
Deviation from optimum

Achieves streamlined production


By reducing inventory

Introductory Quotation
Waste (muda in Japanese) is
anything other than the minimum
amount of equipment, materials,
parts, space, and workers time,
which are absolutely essential to add
value to the product.
Shoichiro Toyoda
Founder, Toyota
1995 Corel Corp.

Variability Occurs Because


Employees, machines, and suppliers produce
units that do not conform to standards, are
late, or are not the proper quantity
Engineering drawings or specifications are
inaccurate
Production personnel try to produce before
drawings or specifications are complete
Customer demands are unknown

Continuous Flow
Producing and moving one item at a time (or a
small and consistent batch of items) through a
series of processing steps as continuously as
possible, with each step making just what is
requested by the next step.
It is also called the one-piece flow, single-piece
flow, and make one, move one.

Continuous Flow Production


Traditional Flow

Production Process
(stream of water)

Suppliers

Flow with JIT


Suppliers

Customers
Inventory (stagnant
ponds)

Material
(water in
stream)
Customers

Push versus Pull


Push system: material is pushed into
downstream workstations regardless of
whether resources are available
Pull system: material is pulled to a
workstation just as it is needed

Traditional U.S. Manufacturing Firm:


Push (old style MRP / Material
Requirements Planning System)
The production of items at times required
by a given schedule planned in advance

Work
Station 1

WS 2

WS 3

Material
Information (Production Schedule)

Pull (JIT) System


The production of items only as demanded for
use or to replace those taken for use.

Work
Station 1

WS 2

WS 3

Material
Information (via Kanban/Card)

Kanban
Japanese word for card
Pronounced kahn-bahn (not can-ban)

Authorizes production from downstream


operations
Pulls material through plant

May be a card, flag, verbal signal etc.


Used often with fixed-size containers
Add or remove containers to change production rate

Triangular Kanban
Part #

Part Description

Date Triggered

Location

Lot Size

Trigger (Reorder) Point

Tool #

Machine #

Kanban

Figure S12.5

Basic Fixed-Order Quantity Model and


Reorder Point Behavior
4. The cycle then repeats.

1. You receive an order quantity Q.


Number
of units
on hand

2. Your start using


them up over time.

R = Reorder point
Q = Economic order quantity
L = Lead time

Time

L
3. When you reach down to
a level of inventory of R,
you place your next Q
sized order.

Kanban
The function of Kanban
The function of Inventory Reorder Point
(ROP)

Kanban System
Single card
Move only containers
with C (Conveyance)kanban)
e.g.: Kawasaki

Transparency 17.5

Dual card
Move only container
with C- kanban
Produce only when
authorized by P
(Production)- kanban
e.g.: Toyota

Inventory
Traditional: inventory exists in case problems
arise
JIT objective: Eliminate inventory
JIT requires
Small lot sizes
Low setup time
Containers for fixed number of parts

JIT inventory: Minimum inventory to keep


system running

Heijunka = Leveling (Smoothing) Production


Schedule using Mixed Model Sequencing
Reduce ripple effect of small variations in schedules
(e.g., final assembly)
Production quantities evenly distributed over time (e.g.,
7/day)
Build same mix of products every day
Results in many small lots
1 month = 20 working days
Item Monthly Quantity
A
40
B
60

Daily Quantity
2
3

Small versus Large


Lots
JIT produces same amount
in same time if setup times
are lowered

JIT Small Lots


A

Time
Small lots also increase flexibility to meet
customer demands

Large-Lot Approach
A

Time

Photo S12.4

Heijunka = Leveling (Smoothing) Production Schedule using


Mixed Model Sequencing = Uniform Plant Loading

Determining Production Sequence


Monthly
Demand

Product
A

Daily
Requirements

800 20 40
800 20 40

200 20 10
C
Largest integer that divides into all daily requirements evenly is 10
Product
Daily Requirements Divided by 10
A
4010 4
B
C
Mixed-model sequence
A-B-A-B-A-B-A-B-C
Transparency 17.7

4010 4
1010 1
Repeat 10 times per day

Cycle Times
Working time per day = 480 minutes
Daily requirements: A = 40 units; B = 40 units; C = 10 units
The system cycle time = 480/(40+40+10) = 5.33 min/unit
Product

Requirements

40

40

10

Transparency 17.8

Cycle Time

480 4012
480 4012
48010 48

Lowering Inventory
Reduces Waste

Work in process inventory level


(hides problems)
Unreliable Vendors

Scrap

Capacity Imbalances

Lowering Inventory
Reduces Waste
Reducing inventory reveals
problems so they can be solved.

Unreliable Vendors

Scrap

WIP
Capacity Imbalances

Lowering Inventory
Reduces Waste
Reducing inventory reveals
problems so they can be solved.

Unreliable Vendors

Scrap

WIP Capacity Imbalances

Reducing Lot Sizes Increases the


Number of Lots

Customer
orders 10

Lot size = 5
Lot 2
Lot 1

Lot size = 2
Lot 1 Lot 2 Lot 3 Lot 4 Lot 5

Cost

Which Increases
Inventory Costs
st
o
C
l
Tota

n
i
d
l
Ho

t
s
o
C

Setup Cost
Smaller Optimal
Lot Size Lot Size

Lot Size

Unless Setup Costs are Reduced


Cost
st
o
C
l
t
s
Tota
o
C
g
n
di
l
o
H

Setup Cost
optimal
New optimal lotOriginal
size
lot size

Lot Size

Quick setup = Quick changeover


Reducing setup cost reducing setup time
Setup reduction time is a prerequisite to lot size
reduction
SMED (Single Minute Exchange of Dies) method
The method has been developed by Toyota and
then expanded by Dr. Shigeo Shingo (a
consultant to Toyota), and has proven its
effectiveness in many companies by reducing
changeover times (non-value added times) from
hours to a less than 10 minutes

Setup Components
Internal Setup: consists of setup activities that must
be performed while the machine is stopped.
External Setup: consists of setup activities that can
be carried out while the machine is still
operating.
It is desirable to:
1. Convert as much internal setup to external setup
2. Improve the setup procedure

Systematic Setup Reduction

Setup Reduction

Setup Reduction:
Standardizing die holder heights reduces the need to
exchange fastening bolts

Setup Reduction Techniques

Quality At The Source

Doing it right at the first time.


Jidoka allows workers to stop production line
Andon lights signal quality problems
Under capacity scheduling allows for
planning, problem solving & maintenance
Visual control makes problems visible
Poka-yoke prevents defects

House of Toyota

Jidoka
Toyota Production System (TPS) is supported by two pillars: Just-in-Time and Jidoka
Jidoka = Autonomation = Automation with human intelligence.
Sakichi Toyoda, founder of the Toyota group of companies, invented the concept of
Jidoka in the early 20th Century by incorporating a device on his automatic looms that
would stop the loom from operating whenever a thread broke. Dr. Shigeo Shingo then
developed his idea further.
This enabled great improvements in quality and freed people up to do more value
creating work than simply monitoring machines for quality (separating peoples work
and machines work).
Eventually, this simple concept found its way into every machine, every production
line, and every Toyota operation.

Jidoka Techniques

Poka-yoke (mistake or error proofing)


A form of device for building-in quality at each production process.
This device may take many shapes and designs.
Typical types of Pokayoke are sensors, proximity switches, stencils, light
guards and alignment pins. Simple circuitry is usually used to operate these
electrical error proof devices as they should be of low cost and simple
design.
Goal: Finding defects before they occur = Zero Defects
Statistical Quality Control (SQC): Finding defects after they occur

Visual management including using Andon Lamp

Exhibit 7.10

Poka-Yoke Example

Visual Management
Andon Lamp
Red - line stoppage
Yellow - call for help
Green - normal
operation

Kaizen
Change for better = continuous
improvement
Kaizen workshop or Kaizen event:
A group of Kaizen activity, commonly lasting
five days, in which a team identifies and
implements a significant improvement in a
process, e.g., creating a manufacturing cell.

GEMBA
GEMBA" is a Japanese word meaning "real place", where
the real action takes place. In business, GEMBA is where
the value-adding activities to satisfy the client are carried
out.
Manufacturing companies have three main activities in
relation to creating money: developing (designing),
producing and selling products. In a broad sense, GEMBA
means the sites of these three major activities.
In a narrower context, however, GEMBA means the place
where the products are made.
The term is often used to stress the that real improvement
can only take place when there is a shop-floor focus on
direct observation of current conditions where work is
done, e.g., not only in the engineering office.

Five Golden Rules of Gemba

Masaaki Imai promoted Kaizen to people outside Japan through his two highly acclaimed books:
1. Kaizen: The Key To Japan's Competitive Success.
2. Gemba Kaizen: A Commonsense, Low-Cost Approach to Management

He preaches the Five Golden Rules of Gemba, the first of which is 'When a problem
(abnormality) arises, go to gemba first'. So what's gemba? It's the shop floor, or equivalent. Once
there, you apply
Golden Rule Two: check with gembutsu (relevant objects).
Three: take temporary counter-measures on the spot.
Four: find the root cause.
Five: standardize to prevent recurrence.
Standardization is the managing part of getting good gemba. You also need good housekeeping
(Imai is very keen on cleaning machines) and muda, the elimination of waste. But all hinges on
getting away from your desk. Obey the master Imai. GO TO GEMBA!

5Whys: Finding the root cause of a


problem.

5 Whys analysis as an effective problem-solving technique. It is also used in Six Sigma.


Example:

Why is our client, Hinson Corp., unhappy? Because we did not deliver our services when
we said we would.

Why were we unable to meet the agreed-upon timeline or schedule for delivery? The job
took much longer than we thought it would.

Why did it take so much longer? Because we underestimated the complexity of the job.

Why did we underestimate the complexity of the job? Because we made a quick estimate
of the time needed to complete it, and did not list the individual stages needed to complete
the project.

Why didn't we do this? Because we were running behind on other projects. We clearly
need to review our time estimation and specification procedures.

Plan-Do-Check-Act
(PDCA/Shewart /Deming Cycle)
Plan: Go to the real place/factory flow (gemba), obverse the
real thing/product (gembutsu), get the real fact (genjitsu).
Focus on reducing response time, lead times, exposing
wastes in your process
Do: Conduct Kaizen. Create models of excellence so others
can aspire to. Flow everything: product, information material
replenishment, services.
Check for direction by aligning activities with long-term
business direction
Act: Take actions to sustain and accelerate improvement
activities
Source: www.leanbreakthru.com

Similarity between 3 Gs and MBWA


The 3 G's (Gemba, Gembutsu, and Genjitsu, which
translate into actual place, actual thing, and actual
situation).
In the early days of Hewlett-Packard (H-P), Dave Packard
and Bill Hewlett devised an active management style that
they called Management By Walking Around (MBWA).
Senior H-P managers were seldom at their desks. They
spent most of their days visiting employees, customers,
and suppliers. This direct contact with key people provided
them with a solid grounding from which viable strategies
could be crafted.

5S: Workplace organization/Housekeeping

5s: Important part of Kaizen/Lean Manufacturing


The S's stand for:
Seiri - keep only what is absolutely necessary, get rid of things that
you don't need, i.e. simplify or sort.
Seiton - create a location for everything, i.e. organize
or straighten.
Seiso - clean everything and keep it clean, i.e. cleanliness or
sweep.
Seiketsu - implement Seiri, Seiton and Seiso plant wide, i.e.
standardize.
Shitsuke - assure that everyone continues to follow the rules of 5S,
i.e. stick to it or self discipline.

5S in the US: Sort, Straighten, Sweep, Standardize, Self Disciple

5S + 1S (Safety) = 6S (Hytrol, etc)


5S + 2S (Safety and Security) = 7 S (Agilent Technology that was part
of Hewlett Packard)

5S
5S is simple to begin and gives good benefits.
Each individual in an organization is asked to get
rid of overburdening items.
Red tag attack: A red tag attack is the strategy of
a group of people going through the plant and
putting red tags on everything that has not been
used within the last 30 days. The items that
people feel are necessary to "hold on to" must be
justified to their superior, or the item is taken out
of the plant!

5S in a Factory

Factory tour: Toyota vs.


others.

5S in Office
Before 5 S

After 5 S

Standard Work
When manpower, equipment, and materials are used in the most efficient
combination, this is called Standard Work.
There are three elements to Standard Work:
1) Takt Time
2) Work Sequence
3) Standard Work-in-Process

Once a Standard Work is set, performance is measured and continuously


improved.

Standard Work Sheet


Scope of

From

Raw m
at er i al

Date Reviewed:

Operations

To

Heat Tr eat m
ent

Janary 7, 2000

FG

RM

Quality
Check

Safety
Precaution

Standard Work
in Process

Standard WIP
Quantity
10

TAKT
Time
12.1 min

Cycle
Time
23.4 min

Crew
Size
2

The Importance of Standardized Work:


Without it, all improvement efforts using Kaizen to eliminate
waste (muda) are not sustainable. You will go back to the
original position before Kaizen.

Manufacturing Cell

Worker Routes Lengthened as Volume


Decreases
Cell 1

Cell 2

Worker
1

Worker
2

Worker
3

Cell 3
Figure 11.4

Cell 4

Cell 5

Workload balancing
Aims at maximizing operator utilization
based on the given takt time.
Is the key to adjust JIT lines to demand
fluctuations
Requires flexible operators

Production Line Balancing

Improving Lead Time:

Value Stream Mapping

SM

What?

A visual tool for identifying all activities of the planning,


and manufacturing process to identify waste.

Why?

Provides a tool to visualize what is otherwise usually


invisible.

Who?

The leaders of each product family need to have a


primary role in developing the maps for their own area.

When?

Develop a current-state map before improvements are


made so that the efforts and benefits can be quantified.

Where?

On the shop floor, not from your office. You need the real
information, not opinion or old data.

How?

Next page

Value Stream Map Symbols


3,000 units

Spot weld

C/T = 30 sec

ABC
plating
Process

C/O = 10 min
3 shifts

Vendor

2% scrap rate

= 1 day

Data box

Inventory

Finished
goods

C/T = Cycle Time


C/O = Change over or setup time

Push

Physical pull
Supermarket:
the location of a
predetermined
standard inventory

Mon
and
Wed

Shipment

Current Value Stream Map

Future Value Stream Map

Attributes of Lean Producers - they


use JIT to eliminate inventory
build systems to help employees product a perfect part every
time
reduce space requirements
develop close relationships with suppliers
educate suppliers
eliminate all but value-added activities
develop the workforce
make jobs more challenging
reduce the number of job classes and build worker flexibility
apply Total Productive Maintenance (TPM)

The Five Steps of Lean


Production/Toyota Production
System Implementation

Step 1: Specify Value


Define value from the perspective of the final customer. Express value in terms of a
specific product, which meets the customer's needs at a specific price and at a specific
time.
Step 2: Value Stream Mapping.
Identify the value stream, the set of all specific actions required to bring a specific
product through the three critical management tasks of any business: the problemsolving task, the information management task, and the physical transformation task.
Create a map of the Current State and the Future State of the value stream. Identify and
categorize waste in the Current State, and eliminate it!
Step 3: Create Continuous Flow
Make the remaining steps in the value stream flow. Eliminate functional barriers and
develop a product-focused organization that dramatically improves lead-time.
Step 4: Create Pull Production
Let the customer pull products as needed.
Step 5: Perfection
There is no end to the process of reducing effort, time, space, cost, and mistakes. Return
to the first step and begin the next lean transformation, offering a product which is ever
more nearly what the customer wants.

Comparison of
MRP (Material Requirements Planning),
JIT, and TOC (Theory of Constraints)
MRP
Loading of operations
Batch sizes
Importance of data
accuracy
Speed of scheduled
development
Flexibility
Cost
Goals
Planning focus
Production basis

JIT

TOC

Checked by capacity
requirements
Planning afterward
One week or more

Controlled by kanban
system

Controlled by
bottleneck operation

Small as possible

Critical

Unnecessary

Variable to exploit
constraint
Critical for bottleneck
and feeder operations

Slow

Very fast

Fast

Lowest
Highest
Meet demand
Have doable plan
Master schedule
Plan

Highest
Lowest
Meet demand
Eliminate waste
Final assembly schedule
Need

Moderate
Moderate
Meet demand
Maximize profits
Bottleneck
Need and plan