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Design Review

Traditional Interpretation
According to IEEE a transformer is
considered to consist of six components:

1.Windings
2.Oil
3. Core
4.Bushings
5.Tap Changer
6.Tank & associated devices
(including conservator, preservation
system,cooling system)

Typical Functional subsystems


Electromagnetic circuit
Current carrying circuit
Dielectric system
Mechanical structure
Cooling system
Bushings
LTC
Oil preservation and expansion system
Protection and Monitoring

Specific subjects of design review


Basic parameters
Magnetic core arrangement
Windings arrangements
Major Insulation
Winding / Core clamping
Oil/materials compatibility
LTC arrangements
Cooling
Bushings: selection and arrangements
Preservation system

Specific subjects of design review

Unit Composition and functional purpose


Losses
Temperature profile
Dielectric safety margin / sensitivity
to deterioration.
Short circuit stability
Sensitive points in the bushings, LTC
Controllability and testability

Basic parameters

Basic parameters (nameplates)


Rated power at all taps
No-load rated voltage
Current values
Winding connections and vector relationship
Tapchanger
Winding impedance
Insulation level
Temperature limits

Volts per turn


Volts _ per _ Turn 4.44 f B S

B flux density
S cross sectional area of magnetic circuit
f Frequency

Parameters of geometrically similar transformers


Volts per turn

Power, MVA

k2

Mass

k3/2

Losses

k3/2

Linear dimensions

Flux density=Const; Current density=Const.

224 MVA, 240 kV


146.568
BN
1.528Ts
4.44 60 0.36

730 MVA, 420kV


Volts _ per turn 4.44 50 1.76 1.09 423 _ V

Leakage Reactance
:

X=

24.8 Ir W RD
4
E H 10

I r rated current
W- number of turns
E-volts per- turn
1 2
H- average height of the windings, =
2
parameter of winding geometry

RD -

Geometrical parameters of the windings arrangement


b1

Core
leg

b2

c
H2

H1

R1
R12

R2

RD = f (R1,R2,b1,b2)

Impedance CapacitanceVolt per turn-Ratio


Basis to advise design
feature (geometry)

Equivalent circuit of a transformer

Magnetizing current
I0

E1 10 8
n1 (1.78 4.44 f S
2

Active component

I 0r

Pno load

10 MVA

Harmonic content of magnetizing current

1st

3d

5th

7th

9th

11th

100%

50%

10%

2%

1%

0.5%

Core losses

W Wh Wcl Wex

The average total iron loss can be decom


into hysteretic, classical (Eddy current) a
excess components.

PB / f f ( Hz ) W( J / kG ) 10 3 _(W / kg )

Loss relationship
W ( f ) W h

(B)

WcL

(B)

f
(B)
( f 0 ) Wex ( f 0 )
f0

P k1 f Bmax k 2 f Bmax t
2

f
f0
2

1,08
1,0
Loss
0,9

0
20

40

100

200

60
300

80
400

100

kW

Stray Losses
2

Pstray PSC I HV R HV I LV R LV

Core form design

Core construction

Steel Laminations
Arrangement
Joint pattern
Insulation
Clamping
Grounding

Core parameters
Flux density at rated voltage and 110%
Flux density- maximum value
No-load current at 100 and 110 % excitation
No-load losses at 100 and 110 % excitation
No-load current harmonics at 100%
rated voltage and 110%

Core configuration

Core grounding

Winding arrangement
Arrangement
Construction
Conductor configuration
Cooling arrangement

Arrangement

LV

HV

HV2

LV

HV1

Insulation Level
Impulse

Space

HVGroun
d

Full
wav
e,

Chop
ped
wave
,

650

715

Induced
short
duration, kV

Swit
chin
g
surg
e,

1
min

540

275

2
min

240

Long
Duratio
n
1 hour

210

Major Insulation

2
3

LV

HV
16
0

Windings arrangement

Major Insulation

Winding Construction
Disc: continious/plain disc; interleaving; innershielded;
Combined continious-interleaving

Helical: multiple conductor strands in a simple helix


Rectangular or CTC conductor

Layer: turns are wound like thread on a spool;


Typically CTC conductors

Shell Form design

Shell form.Main features


Flat pancake coils to make up winding groups,
connected in series
The magnetic circuits goes through opening window
of the winding groups and around of groups
Shells are built with rectangular cross sections
Mechanical support for core and coils:
The phases are installed in the tank bottom
Various type of wedging
Beams through the window

Typical winding arrangement in shell form autotransformer

Critical Insulation Spaces

Dielectric Design
First (line) coil:maximum impulse stresses
Between pairs of Coils:impulse &
power frequency overvoltage
Across Taps: impulse oscillation
Phase to Ground,HV-LV:switching surge;
power frequency
Phase-to phase: between leads

Typical Insulation construstion

Estimation of mechanical margin

Assessment of Short-circuit stability performance


Electrodynamic stability of the windings under
the action of radial electromagnetic forces;
Conductors strength in bending with axial and
radial electromagnetic forces;
Critical tilting forces of windings conductors;
Rigidity factors of windings under axial deformations;
Rigidity factors of pressing structure and reduced masses
of yoke beams;
Electrodynamic stability of windings at axial oscillations,
caused by the action of axial electromagnetic forces

Estimation of electrodynamic stability of windings


under short-circuit stresses
Actual Permissible Critical

Average stress from radial forces, Mpa


Residual (plastic) radial displacement, mm
Bending moment due to axial forces, Nm
Bending moment due to radial forces, Nm
The maximum axial force, kH

Mechanical margin under 3-Phase Short Circuit on


LV (generator) Side
Winding

Margin
Radial

Axial
/Radial

LV inner
layer

2.9 - 5.8

2.26

LV outer
layer

0.9 1.7*

1.26

HV

1.27

417 MVA, 750 kV, GSU

Estimation
of dielectric margin

Insulation level
Impulse full wave (BIL)
Impulse chipped wave
Switching surge
Short duration 1 min test
Short duration 2 min test
Long duration 1 hour
Very Fast Frequency Surge (Resonance)

224 MVA 240/110 kV autotransformer


Oil duct

Margin
%

Determinant Voltage

Over LV

40

Induced 1 min

Over LV

40

Switching impulse

Over LV

69

Full wave

-8

Induced 1 min

-7

Switching impulse

11

Full wave

Under
HV
Under
HV
Under
HV

224 MVA 240/110 kV autotransformer


Oil duct

Margin
%

Determinant Voltage

Over LV

40

Induced 1 min

Over LV

40

Switching impulse

Over LV

69

Full wave

-8

Induced 1 min

-7

Switching impulse

11

Full wave

Under
HV
Under
HV
Under
HV

Dielectric margin off GSU 417 MVA, 750 kV


Components

Minimum Margin
Switchi
ng

Lightni
ng

HV turn-to-turn

4.8

1.75

HV coil-to-coil

3.5

1.41

Interwinding
space

1.6

1.57

HV winding tank

2.2

2.36

HV bushing tank

1.2

1.26

Dielectric margin of Shunt Reactor 400kV

Minimum Margin
Components

Switching Surge Lightning Impulse

Coil-to-Coil

5.8

1.55

Turn-to-Turn

10.8

6.6

Oil-Barrier Space

2.6

1.75

Along the Winding

1.27*

1.17*

Temperature profile

Thermal Model. Natural convection

Typical thermal model

Mean temperature rise of a coil surface is a function of


heat flux density W/m2, width of vertical cooling channels,
oil viscosity and ratio of radial duct between coils h and radial
dimension of the coil
The mean winding temperature rise above air is a sum
of the mean temperature rise of conductor surface above
the oil and temperature drop in insulation

Thermal model suggested by IEC

Temperature profile

IV

III

I effect of bottom yoke


II - effect of winding
III-oil leaving winding
IV mixed oil

II

Forced
convectionlocal conductivity
Thermal model
considering

Temperature profile of winding


70
One working cooler
Rise above ambient air, deg. C

65
60
55
Two working coolers
50
45
40
0

10
Top

20

30

40

50
Bottom

60

70

80

Number of coils

Reason for temperature estimation error

Winding time constant considerations


HV1

HV2

LV1

LV2

Resistance R20
mOhm

113.5

38.8

0,493

0,47

Temperature
rise above oil,
0
C

8,2

8,3

8,15

17,3

Time constant,
min

3.3

1.1

7.4

6.5

Winding

Temperature rise test at the factory


Winding-oil, 3min

Bulk, 109 min

T (t ) Two exp( t

) To bulk exp( t

m)

Design testability

Design factors. diagnostic accessibility

Internally grounded electrostatic shield between


the windings reduces the sensitivity of tests.

A waterproof dielectric in the oil barrier space


prevents estimation of water content in pressboard

A dielectric material with elevated dielectric


losses in the winding support insulation masks
the change in the condition of the main insulation.

Presence of resistors in the circuit of the core


causes distortion of dielectric characteristics

Design factors. diagnostic accessibility


Internal connection of tertiary windings and neutral
ends of star windings prevents the evaluation of
the condition of inter-phase insulation
The sensitivity of detection of hoop buckling by
leakage reactance or capacitive measurements
reduces with increasing voltage rating
(increasing inter-winding gap).

AT monofsico Marelli, serial 40430, 1969


Columna;Cambiador de tomas: Bajo carga, trece posiciones
Capacidad, MVA

AT = 150

MT =150

BT = 35.

Tensin, kV

400/3

230/3

BT = 34,5

Enfriamiento

FOA (OFAF)

5.12%

Impedancia AT/MT

T C mxima,

Ambiente :40 CAceite: 95 Cobre: 105

Tipo de aislamiento
de devanados

No disponible

Nivel bsico de
aislamiento (BIL),

Lnea H1 =
1.425.kV

Lnea X1
= 900kV

Neutro H2X2 =
110kV

AT monofsico Westinghouse, # 7002870; Acorazado ,1981


Capacidad, MVA

AT = 500

MT = 500

BT = 106

Tensin, kV

765/3

400/3

20

Enfriamiento

Sin tensin, cinco posiciones


OFAF Aumento medio 65 C

Impedancia, %

AT/MT = 15,7 %

Tipo de aislamiento
de devanados

Insuldur

Nivel bsico de
aislamiento (BIL), k

1.950.kV

1.425kV

H2X2 =
200