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ALTERNATIVE FUELS

(BIODIESEL,CNG)
BY
2K14/CDN/22

SUSHANT VERMA

M.Tech(CD)

INTRODUCTION
Transportation is the core sector for any developing country. The rising

fuel prices and hunt for more mileage has driven vehicle manufacturers to
a next level . one group of these people are rigoursly modifying the
existing
engines systems to make them more and more efficient while other is
hunting for fuels other than coal and petroleum
From past few decades so many alternative fuels has been found like

biodiesel , compressed natural gas ,liquefied petroleum gas, ethanol etc to


make vehicle more efficient ,less polluting ,cheaper.

EXISTING IC ENGINES
There are two types of IC engines

Compression Ignition engine


Spark Ignition engine
Four basic steps of 4 Stroke Engine

Intake/Suction stroke
Compression stroke
Power/Expansion stroke
Exhaust stroke

Cont.
Engine cycle
Diesel cycle

Cont.
Otto cycle

NEED OF
ALTERNATIVE FUELS
Our present fuel resources are not going to be around

forever.
Consumption of fossil fuels is faster than their natural

production.
Combustion of fossil fuels emits green house gases.

DESCRIPTION OF ALTERNATIVE
FUELS
Compressed Natural Gas(CNG)
It is made by compressing the natural gas (composed of methane) to less than 1% of the volume
at standard atmospheric pressure . It is stored in hard cylindrical containers at a pressure of 200280 bars.
Sources of CNG are fossil natural gas ,town gas, hydrates, biogas and land fill gas

Biodiesel
It is refers to a vegetable oil or animal fat based diesel fuel consisting of long chain alkyl(methyl,
ethyl or propyl esters).
Sources of biodiesel are soybean oil, pongamia, field pennycress, jatropha, animal fat including
tallow,lard,yellow grease,chicken fat.

Cont.
Blends of biodiesel & petrodiesel
100% biodiesel is referred as B100
20% biodiesel & 80% petrodiesel is labeled B20
5% biodiesel & 95% petrodiesel is labeled B5

ETHANOL
Ethanol fuel is an ethyl alcohol (CH3CH2OH),the same type of alcohol found in
alcoholic beverages.It is a renewable fuel.
Ethanol is produced from crops like sugarcane,potato,cassava and corn
Steps for production of ethanol are fermentation, distillation, dehydration and
denaturing

Cont.
Ethanol is blended with gasoline in various amounts for use in
vehicles.
E10 is a low-level blend composed of 10% ethanol and 90% gasoline
E15 is a low-level blend composed of 15% ethanol and 85% gasoline
E25 is a low-level blend composed of 25% ethanol and 75% gasoline
E85 is a high-level gasoline blend containing 51% to 83% ethanol.

COMPARISON AMONG PETROL


DIESEL,LPG AND CNG
Based on general characteristics

Cont.

Cont.
Based on mileage

Based on running cost

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF CI ENGINE


USING DIESEL BLENDED WITH JATHROPHA
BIODIESEL
A stationary single cylinder four-stroke 3.7 kw kirloskar engine

tested with diesel blended with jatropha biodiesel in


0%,5%,20%,50%,80% & 100%.
Performance parameters(brake specific fuel consumption,brake

thermal efficiency,volumetric efficiency) has been evaluated.


Results on emission of green house gases has been analysed.

Cont.

BSFC VS load

Cont.

BTE vs load

Cont.

Volumetric efficiency vs load

Cont.

Carbon dioxide emission vs load

Cont.

Carbon monoxide emission vs load

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF FOUR


STROKE SI ENGINE USING CNG
A single cylinder four stroke air cooled bajaj kawasaki petrol

engine tested in steady state and at full load condition using


CNG
Performance parameters(torque,volumetric efficiency,power

BSFC) has been evaluated


Results on emission characteristics also analysed.

Cont.

Volumetric Efficiency vs Engine Speed

Cont.

Torque vs Engine Speed

Cont.

Brake Power vs Engine Speed

Cont.

BSFC vs Engine Speed

Cont.

Carbon Dioxide Emission vs Engine Speed

CONCLUSION
From the test conducted on CI engine using diesel blended with jatropha

biodiesel .It has been concluded that performance parameters has been
enhanced and emission of green house gases has been reduced
Similarly,from the test conducted on SI

engine using CNG.It has been


concluded that performance parameters as well as green house gases both has
been reduced

The results of test shown that the biodiesel,CNG(renewable fuels) are best

alternative of non renewable fuels(petrol, diesel, coal)


Emission of green house gases from alternative fueled engine are very less

compare to fossil fueled engine which ahead us one step to save the
environment.

THANK YOU