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Material Development for

English Teaching &


Learning
Dr. Sumardi, M.Hum

arif_sumardi74@yahoo.co.id
081329017845

The objectives of this course


At the end of this course, you will be able to:
1. explain the importance of teaching
materials in the implementation of
learning activities at the school.
2. explain the basic concepts of teaching
materials.
3. express different types of teaching
materials.
4. describe the steps of the preparation of
teaching materials.

Latar Belakang

Kondisi Ideal
Dalam menyajikan materi ajar dalam
proses pembelajaran dan
memudahkan peserta didik untuk
mempelajarinya, guru perlu
mengorganisasikan materi ajar yang
telah dikembangkan ke dalam bahan
ajar.

Latar Belakang (lanjutan....)


Kondisi Riil
Guru lebih banyak mengandalkan buku paket atau bahan ajar yang
disusun oleh guru lain
Guru kurang menyadari akan pentingnya menyusun bahan ajar
yang sesuai dengan kebutuhan, manfaat bahan ajar dalam
penyiapan perangkat pembelajaran dan pelaksanaan pembelajaran,
Guru kurang memahami mekanisme dan teknis menyusun bahan
ajar yang benar
Terbatasnya sarana TIK di sekolah dan terbatasnya kemampuan
guru dalam pemanfaatannya.
Sekolah belum mengetahui tentang adanya sekolah RPSB yang
dapat dijadikan sebagai tempat untuk berkonsultasi dan
berkoordinasi dalam pengembangan bahan ajar.

Learning Source (Sumber


Belajar) & Teaching Material
(Bahan Ajar)

Are they the same?

1. Learning Resources
Learning resources are defined as
information, represented and stored in a
variety of media and formats, that assists
student learning as defined by provincial or
local curricula. This includes but is not
limited to, materials in print, video, and
software formats, as well as combinations
of these formats intended for use by
teachers and students. (http
://www.bced.gov.bc.ca/irp/appskill/ aslear
es.htm January 28
, 1999).

Menurut

Association for Educational


Communications and Technology (AECT,
1977), sumber belajar adalah segala
sesuatu atau daya yang dapat
dimanfaatkan oleh guru, baik secara
terpisah maupun dalam bentuk gabungan,
untuk kepentingan belajar mengajar
dengan tujuan meningkatkan efektivitas
dan efisiensi tujuan pembelajaran.

Sumber

belajar juga diartikan sebagai


segala tempat atau lingkungan sekitar,
benda, dan orang yang mengandung
informasi dapat digunakan sebagai
wahana bagi peserta didik untuk
melakukan proses perubahan tingkah
laku.

Learning resources can be categorized


as follows:
1.

2.

3.

Place or the natural environment,


such as libraries, markets, museums,
rivers, mountains, landfills, ponds, etc.
Objects (things), all objects that allow
for behavioral changes for students. For
example, sites, temples, other relics.
People, everyone who have certain skills
with whom students can learn
something, such as a teacher, geologist,
police, and other experts.

4. Materials, all that are written in the


form of text, print, electronic recordings,
web, etc. that can be used to learn.
5. The books, all sorts of books that can
be read independently by students. For
example, text books, text books,
dictionaries, encyclopedias, fiction and
so forth.
6. The existing events and facts, such
as riots, disasters, and other events that
teachers can use those events and facts
as learning resources.

Learning

sources will be significant or


meaningful for students and teachers when
those learning resources are organized
through a design that allows one to use it
as a learning resource.

If

they are not well organazied, then the


place or the surrounding natural
environment, objects, people, and/or book
will just be a place, object, person or book
that have no meaning at all for
teaching/learning activities.

2. Teaching Material
Teaching

is defined as the process of creating and


sustaining an effective environment for learning
(University of Wollongong, August 1998).

Bahan

ajar merupakan seperangkat materi/substansi


pembelajaran (teaching material) yang disusun secara
sistematis, menampilkan sosok utuh dari kompetensi
yang akan dikuasai siswa dalam kegiatan pembelajaran
(dalam website Dikmenjur).

Dengan

bahan ajar memungkinkan siswa dapat


mempelajari suatu kompetensi atau KD secara runtut
dan sistematis sehingga secara akumulatif mampu
menguasai semua kompetensi secara utuh dan
terpadu.

Definition

of teaching material
They are the information, equipment and text for
instructors that are
required for planning and review
upon training implementation. Text and training
equipment are included in the teaching material.( Anonim
dalam Web-site)

Bahan

ajar merupakan informasi, alat dan teks yang


diperlukan guru/instruktor untuk perencanaan dan
penelaahan implementasi pembelajaran.

Bahan

ajar adalah segala bentuk bahan yang digunakan


untuk membantu guru/instruktor dalam melaksanakan
kegiatan belajar mengajar di kelas. Bahan yang dimaksud
bisa berupa bahan tertulis maupun bahan tidak tertulis.
(National Center for Vocational Education Research
Ltd/National Center for Competency Based Training).

Dari berbagai pendapat di atas dapat


disarikan bahwa bahan ajar adalah
merupakan seperangkat materi yang
disusun secara sistematis sehingga tercipta
lingkungan/suasana yang memungkinkan
siswa untuk belajar.

Functions of teaching materials


The teaching material can be fuctionalized as
follows:
1. A guideline for the teachers who will direct all
activities in the learning process, as well as it
is the substance of competence that should be
taught to the students.
2. A guideline for the students who will direct all
activities in the learning process, as well as it
is the substance of competence that should be
learned / mastered.
3. As an evaluation instrument for the attainment
/ mastery of learning outcomes.

A good teaching material at least includes:


1. Learning instructions (Hint for the student
/ the teacher)
2. Competencies to be achieved
3. Content or contents of learning materials
4. Supporting information
5. Exercises or tasks
6. Work instructions, can be a worksheet,
jobsheet, etc
7. Evaluation
8. Response or feedback of evaluation
results

Why do teachers need to develop


teaching materials?
There are at least three reasons why
teachers need to develop teaching
materials, namely:
1. The availability of materials as
demanded by the curriculum,
2. Characteristics of the target (students),
3. The demands of learning problem
solving.

The

development of teaching materials should


correspond to the demands of the curriculum,
means that learning materials a teacher has to
develop should be in accordance with the
curriculum.

At

the school-based curriculum (KTSP), the


standard competency had been set by the
government, but how to achieve it and what
materials are used, the teacher should develop
by themselves.

In

this case, teachers are required to have the


ability to develop their own teaching materials.

Another

consideration why a teacher


needs to develop the teaching material is
the characteristics of the target.

The

teaching materials which are


developed by others are often not suitable
for our students. There are a number of
reasons for discrepancies, for example,
social, geographical, cultural, etc..

To

that end, the self-developed teaching


materials can be tailored to the
characteristics of students as a target.

Furthermore,

development of teaching materials


should be able to answer or solve a problem or
difficulty in learning.
There are a number of learning materials that are
often difficult to understand by the student or teacher
is difficult to explain.
Difficulties may occur because the material is abstract,
complex, foreign, etc..
To overcome this difficulty it is necessary to develop
the appropriate teaching materials. If the learning
material to be presented are abstract, then the
materials should be able to help students describe an
abstract material, by using drawings, photographs,
charts, schematics, etc.
Similarly, a complicated matter, must be explained in a
simple manner, in accordance with the thinking level of
students, so it becomes easier to understand.

The purposes of developing


teaching materials
The development of teaching materials are intended
to:
1. Provide teaching materials which is suitable to the
demands of the curriculum by taking into account
the students needs, the teaching materials which
are appropriate to the characteristics and the
setting or the social environment of students.
2. Assist the students in obtaining alternative
teaching materials, rather than the text books that
are sometimes difficult to obtain.
3. Make it easy for teachers to implement teaching
and learning process.

The advantages of developing


teaching material for the teachers
There are a number of benefits to be gained when a teacher
develops their own teaching materials, namely:
1. It is obtained the appropriate materials in accordance
with the demands of the curriculum and students
learning needs
2. No longer dependent on text books that are sometimes
difficult to obtain
3. The teaching materials will be richer because it was
developed by using different references
4. Increasing teachers' repertoire of knowledge and
experience in writing instructional materials
5. The teaching materials will be able to build up an effective
learning communication between teachers and students
because the students will feel more confident to his
teacher.

The advantages of developing


teaching material for the sutdents
1.
2.
3.
4.

Learning activities become more


attractive;
Opportunity for independent learning.
Reducing the students dependence on a
teachers attendance;
Getting the ease in studying each
competency need to be mastered.

Thank you ...