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As Cultural Products
Group 1

Maria Glady H. Abogadie

Noel V. Gomez
Mai Nashino


Practice : patterns of social interactions, behaviors (Gawi)

Perspectives: the philosophical perspectives, meanings,
attitudes, values, beliefs, ideas that underlie the cultural
practices and products of a society. They represent a
cultures view of the world (worldview) (Pananaw,
Values: : Important and lasting beliefs or ideals shared by
the members of a culture about what is good or bad and
desirable or undesirable. (pagpapahalaga)
Ethics: a system of moral principles, a systematizing,
defending and recommending concepts of right and wrong
within a particular race, or culture. (etika o tuntunin ng

Social values

1. Filipinos love to connect, especially to other people.
This is derived from the Filipino context of kapwa,
Togetherness is happiness
Proxemics of privacy
Fiesta politics : throwing lavish parties for social
acceptance and political favors
FILIPINOS ARE HIGHLY PARTICIPATORY. Decisionmaking is a collective activity. In Filipino society,
everybody is a participant/performer
Ex.Social revolutions (EDSA), Katipunan, Barangay

Cultural Attractions: Historical

Ancestral Houses

Spanish ancestral houses

serve as venue for social
functions during the Spanish

Rows of ancestral homes

from the Spanish Colonial
period in the historic city of
Vigan, Ilocos Sur

Cultural attractions: Philippine social and cultural

festivities, dances
Filipino gastronomy: Lechon (a food for the barangay);
feast table open to all


Strength: Social self-images are self-fulfilling
Weakness: Root cause of Philippine
underdevelopment. A Filipinos tendency towards selfbashing, especially among the westernized elite
> An exceptionalist thinking different from our Asian
neighbors. The only Catholic nation in Asia We are
The Filipino people are the most pro-American people, maybe
even more pro-American than the Americans themselves.
(Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo)

Rizals Social Critique

A Cultural Attraction: Filipinos

assimilation of the West

Western Capitalism :shopping centers, and

giant malls, tiangges; Filipino assimilation of
western marketing styles and products:
Jollibee vs. Macdonalds; Democratic
institutions and democratic freedom
English proficiency: ESL Education in the
Philippines is the cheapest and the best
quality in the world

Cultural Attractions:
Commercial Districts

Ayala Triangle Park

and Bonifacio High Street

Cultural Attraction:
Multi-lingualism and English Proficiency
The Philippines was named the
worlds best country in
business English proficiency,
even beating the United
States, according to a recent
study on Business English
Index (BEI) the only index that
measures business English
proficiency in the workplace
by GlobalEnglish Corporation.


In many Western cultures, guests
are allowed to move around only
within the confines of the living
In Filipino culture, guests may
roam anywhere inside or outside
the house, even in the bedrooms
Ex. : Bahay Kubo, FILIPINO
JEEPNEY; MRT overcrowding; extra
friends invited in parties


Why are Filipinos natural adopters of Social
Media, i.e., Facebook, Twitter, texting;
Selfie/Group Selfie/Tagging/Comment threads?
Philippines named social networking capital of
the world based on a research from blog, 24/7
Wall Street. The Philippines tops the list with
93.9 percent of the nation reportedly signed up
to Facebook; followed by Israel (91%) and
Turkey (90.9%)


Filipinos call their spouses with the highest

frequency(66% are daily callers) followed by
indonesians and Malaysians. (Most romantic
in southeast Asia.
Filipinos most remember their spouses
birthday. (95% always remember, 3%
remember most of the time)
Filipinos most perceive themselves as
fashionable in dressing, followed by south

MAKUHA KA SA TINGIN (Social Gestures)

88 ways of looking in tagalog
Tingin- to look
Dilat, pandilatan- stare squarely at
Masid, masdan- observe or look at searchingly
Malas- observe looking
Matyag- close observation
Liyaw- to spy, watch, observe
Aninag- see thru a transparent or translucent medium
Aninaw- see thru a haze
Tanghod- to look fascinatedly
Tanga, tumanga- to look at something absentmindedly
Mata, matahin- to look at something with critical eyes,

Are highly nurturing, caring, sharing people, with a

strong maternal orientation
Are deeply devotional and spiritual yet with a
vigorous zest for living
MULTI-SIGNIFICANCE: bringing people together
TRANSPARENCY: openness and trust
LIGHT ON LIGHT: instant connectivity


Filipinos do not like a partial, fragmented view of life
We do not like to belong to only one side of a
A filipino is not happy just knowing another persons
Filipinos have greater energy for work or activity that
involves all the levels of being
A filipino relates to others NOT ONLY functionally BUT
We love multiplicity
Are extremely open

Philippine Gastronomy:
Foods that define the Philippines

Adobo -- common, but not ordinary Filipino food.

The Manila table reflects

the countrys history, with
Spanish, Chinese,
Japanese and American

From the finest spirit to the densest matter

Union of matter and spirit: the generator of Life
Bridging differences: curves not angles
Perceiving through feeling
- hawak
- kapit
- lapat

II. Filipino Family Values

The family is the basic unit of society. It is

typically composed of a father, mother and
Like most Asian families, Filipinos are highly
communal and have strong family ties. It is
common to have an extended family with
the granparents, aunts, uncles, etc.

A Filipino Extended Family

Traditional Roles

Father-The father takes the role of the family

head and breadwinner. He makes major decisions
in consultation with his wife. He implements
disciplinary measures to correct children. Ang
ama ang haligi ng tahanan.
Mother-The family treasurer and home keeper is
the wife. She is the homemaker. Ang ina ang
ilaw ng tahanan
Children It is expected of children to obey
parental authority at all times. They are expected
to follow the rules and to bring honor and regard
to the elderly, instead of shame and rebellion.

Filipinos are Family Oriented

We celebrate Christmas, New Year, Birthdays, Holy week and Fiestas

together. Most Filipino festivities are celebrated as familial functions.
Togetherness is Happiness
As such, most advertising campaigns and products are aimed towards the
family. Ex. Family trips, family vacations, Family eat-outs.


Filipino Families have strong Faith

in God

A Filipino Family go to Church every

Sunday to celebrate mass together .
A Filipino Family is prayerful
The Father always leads the pray

Filipinos have high respect

to the elderly

Filipinos always say po, opo when talking to elderly

Filipinos do mano po (0beisance) to the elderly
The elder of the clan get the highest regard in major family
They are to be treated with respected and are to be supported even
at old age. Ex. Helping them in errands such as crossing the streets.

A boy pay respect to grand


Filipinos are monogamous

A Filipino can only marry once.

Some Filipino Muslims are allowed to
marry more than one.
Divorce is not allowed in the Philippines

Filipino Families are


Filipinos are very warm in welcoming visitors.

They allow their guests to use the masters
Guests are allowed to roam around the house.
Always prepare the best food for their visitors.

The Philippines No.1 Cultural

Attraction: Hospitality

Why? The comforts, soul, fiesta attitude and,

most of all, the people. When you meet a
Filipino, you instantly become a friend, and theyll
be more than happy to show you around.

Filipinos have strong Family


Filipino Family celebrates together

They help each other. ( solving problem,
relationship, financial and other sort of problem)
The Philippine society has a family-centric
structure. A clanish mindset or perspective in
major familial decisions (marriage, childbearing, business)

Threats to Filipino Family

A Father or a Mother travel overseas in search of job

opportunities. The diaspora of Filipino families lead to a
breakdown of the strong family ethos.
Leads to broken families/homes
A breakdown in traditional and ethical Filipino values and
morals: liberalisation

Japanese Culture

The Location of Japan

Japan is an island nation

surrounded by the sea.
Japan could create peculiar
realm because of its location (it
neither too far to accept the
from the Asian Continent nor
too close to be invaded.).


Many people in contemporary

Japan do not have any specific
Religion in Japan can roughly
be divided into Shinto( )
and Buddhism.
Both Shinto and Buddhism are
becoming more like a deeply
rooted custom practiced in
life rather than object of faith.

What is Shinto ( ) ?

Literally meaning the

way of the gods
A Japanese religion
whose practices include
the worship of ancestors
and a belief in nature
Shinto constitutes the
foundation of the
sensibility of the
Japanese people.

Japanese Disposition
Debt of gratitude

Honest feelings and

official stance

When expressing honest

feelings might hurt or offend
others, official stance is
expressed instead to keep
peace in a community.
Most Japanese value a sense
of harmony and togetherness
more than self-expression.

It is the social and psychological

obligation taken on with favors
received from others.
The word derives from warrior
society when lords granted land
to followers.

Similarities between
Japanese and Filipino

Japanese omotenashi and

Filipino hospitality

omotenashi is a bit of difficult word to translate,

but basically its a term which describes the
spirit of Japanese hospitality.
In Japan, hosts anticipate the wants & needs of
guests in advance, and offer a pleasant service
that the guests dont expect.
Filipinos are ready to invite guests to their house
and treat them to a meal. Guests are entitled to
the best room and bed in the house and are
provided with clothes and other amenities as

Face saving

The value of regarding

face-saving as important
is common to both
of the cultures.
Both of Japanese and
Filipino refrain from
shameful behaviors
and moreover, they
avoid bringing shame
even on others.


Animism: Multi-linear

gods and godesses

Islamic Celebration

Arab missionaries and traders
Tausug of Sulu, Maguindanao and
Maranao of Western Mindanao

IV. Religious Values



Over 90% predominantly

Catholics, Iglesia ni Cristo,
Aglipayans, Protestants; Islam 5%,
Other 1.8%
Unspecified and none 0.7%
Filipinos have deep faith in
God. We perceive life and
events in the context of
Gods will and destiny. No
matter what religious
orientation a Filipino has, he
will always go back to his
spirituality to explain the
affairs of his national or
personal life.

Innate and Indigenous Sense of


Tagalogs believed in a sovereign

being Bathala, Kabunyian (god of
the skies, Kalingas).
The assumption that all of humanity
are rooted in a common core of being
(ubod/kalooban), a creative, living
and divine goodnessthus a belief in
spirits, good or bad; and good or bad
fortune (bipolarism); mabuti/

Filipino Religious Values

Madasalin (Prayerful)
-Being predominantly Catholic, we deposited
Catholic prayers, rituals, and traditions that
show Filipino religiosity and pageantry. This
could be seen in some of our religious customs
and festivals. Filipino religiosity is multi-linear,
and a deposition of centuries of colonization
and differentiation due to American and
Spanish influences. (Catholicism, Protestantism,
and Paganism).
Pasyon : A sung narration of the passion of Christ
during the Lenten season.
Rosary: Repetitive prayers recalling stages of the life
of Christ (glorious, suffering, ascension.)
Islam: Hari Raya Poasa, Ramadan

Spiritual pageantry : a sense of religious grand, outward

festivity exuded from extreme fatalism. (Extravagant Patron
saints feasts, grand cathedrals, Flores de Mayo) Ubos-ubos
biyaya, pagkatapos ay nakatunganga.

Bahala na (Fatalism): gives lakas ng loob to survive

even in the hardest situations like disasters, economic and
political troubles

Indigenous animism: belief in spirits, anitos, in nature as a

holistic setting for spiritual and material existence, good luck
(malas), bad luck (swerte or tsamba); Philippine mythology.

Belief in the after-life: Both Christian and Animistic roots

point to a belief of the afterlife, the other life. One good
example of indigenous afterlife practice is the fire
mummification process.

Spiritual pageantry : a sense of religious grand, outward

festivity exuded from extreme fatalism. (Extravagant Patron
saints feasts, grand cathedrals, Flores de Mayo) Ubos-ubos
biyaya, pagkatapos ay nakatunganga.

Bahala na (Fatalism): gives lakas ng loob to survive

even in the hardest situations like disasters, economic and
political troubles

Indigenous animism: belief in spirits, anitos, in nature as a

holistic setting for spiritual and material existence, good luck
(malas), bad luck (swerte or tsamba); Philippine mythology.

Belief in the after-life: Both Christian and Animistic roots

point to a belief of the afterlife, the other life. One good
example of indigenous afterlife practice is the fire
mummification process.

Declared as National Treasures,

the Kabayan Mummies, Ibaloi or
Benguet mummies remained
unknown to history until their
rediscovery --Among the Ibaloi, the
deceased were placed in a fetal
position into oval-shaped wooden
coffins with etched
anthropomorphic and geometric


Filipino fatalism provides optimism, courage and strength

in difficult times. Could be viewed as defeatist resignation,
but could also be a posit for positive energy and psychic
determinism during hardships.
Faith in God gives a sense of national and spiritual anchor
in all seasons of history, politics, and even daily life filled
with financial, and national troubles. The Filipino has a
prayer, or a spiritual explanation for whatever happens in
Most large-scale and important Filipino social movements
were inspired by a strong belief in God. (Katipunan, EDSA
I, II)
A strong sense of morality despite the rapid degradation
and liberalization in the world setting (homosexuality,
marriage, raising families and children).
Faith in God is in itself the source of the Filipinos pride!
Ex. Bamboos song Pinoy Ako


Anti-modern bias, preferring the supernatural over

the scientific and rational, backwards and regressive
Religious associations are part of the system of vital
kinship ties, patron-client bonds and other
relationships outside the nuclear family. (Political
endorsements; Ninong-inaanak; Sukob, etc).
An over fatalistic attitude towards the urgent and
unexpected. Ex. A lavish and lax attitude towards
money vs. being kuripot (unique to the Ilocanos).
What an irony that Filipinos becoming too resilient to
floods refuse to act nationally on typhoons,
earthquakes and other natural disasters perennially
plaguing the country!

Early animistic cultures as tourism


Tnalak: The Dream weavers epitomize

our pantheistic beliefs and a spiritual
world. Dream weavers weave their dreams
from the other world and perceived as a
message from the spirits. Hence, an
image of a crocodile, spider or even the
waves of water would mean either good or
bad fate.

Tnalak: Way of Life

The T'Boli believe that the T'nalak is infused with

spiritual meaning, and as such there are a variety of
traditions surrounding its production and use.
One should not step over a weaving in progress, and
doing so is to risk illness. Cutting the cloth will cause
sickness or death, unless done according to traditions. If
a weaving is sold, a brass ring is often attached to
appease the spirits. And while weaving a T'nalak, T'boli
women practice abstinence in order to maintain the purity
of their art.

T'nalak, a deep brown abaca-based

cloth tie-dyed with intricate designs, is
produced by women of Mindanao's
T'boli Tribe. It is one of the best known
cultural products of the Philippines.

Our deep spirituality is a unique

culture, unrivaled in the world




Our most attractive cultural products

Spanish architecture old Catholic churches and
cathedrals (Manila Cathedral); old universities
(University of Santo Thomas)
Cultura Festivals Showcase of Filipino pageantry in
regional religious feasts for patron saints (Ati-atihan,
Moriones Festival, Dinagyang, -Moriones Festival Marinduque (part of Holy Week; commemorates Saint
Longinus) -Pintados-Kasadyaan - Leyte
Religious Art and Music

Film Festivals
Movie themes feature the deep spiritual,
superstitious and emotional psyche of the
Filipino imagination.
Ex.: Pagpag
Metro Manila Film Festival
CinemaOne Originals

Indigenous Religious Practices:

Psychopathy--Filipino psychomedicine, or
sikomedikal na sikolohiya, the application
of basic psychology to native healing
practices loosely considered as 'medicine'.

Practiced by Katalonans (priests), faith healers,

babaylansa unique Filipino culture attractive to
the Westerners

Hilot: The use of massage to aid a pregnant

mother in the delivery of her child.
Kulam: Hex or bewitchment.
Lihi: An intense craving for something or
someone during pregnancy. Faith healers or
manghihilot testify that if the craving is not
satisfied, abnormality of the child may result.
Pasma: A concept that explains how init
(heat) and lamig (cold) together can result in
illness, especially rheumatism.
Susto: Soul-flight. Derived from Latin
American traditions.

Pagtatawas: A method of diagnosing illness wherein

alum (called tawas) is ritualistically used by the
albularyo or medicine man for diagnosis of a variety of
health conditions. Faith healers/Albularyo

Usog: A concept that explains how a baby who

has been greeted by a stranger acquires a
mysterious illness. Apparently derived from the
Spanish tradition of Mal de Ojo (Evil eye).
Gab or gabaa: The Cebuano concept of negative
Hula: fortune-telling with the use of indigenous
medium talismans and charms

Analysis and Conclusion

Redefine our values. Use positive values to be
progressive, and to be turned as cultural
assets, and not as liabilities. (How?)
Manana Habit vs. Pinoy hardwork (sikap at tiyaga)
Kasi ganito Tayo vs. Kasi Pinoy Tayo!

Preserve and enrich long-lost and forgotten

cultural treasures as a source of the countrys
heritage and pride. (UNESCO World Heritage
Appropriate promotion and tourism
programming for various cultural attractions--preservation instead of destruction.

Analysis of Filipino Cultural

There is a need
for positive self-image:
Ex. pakikisama to pakikipagkapwa
bahala na sa proactiveness, utang na loob as
hiya as concern for others (De Leon)

Strengthening of the Filipino pride through:

-Reorientation of positive Filipino values in the
academe and life spheres
-Promoting a positive view of the Filipino culture in the
mass media
- Legislation of appropriate policies promoting indigent
and positive values through Churches, schools and

Cultural Promotion:
Modern meets Ancient

Social Media, Printed Materials and Internet

marketing create a sense of awareness
cultural preservation and promotion.
Grassroots tourism should be tapped in order to
promote sustainable development and
preservation of local values and tourism
"One key challenge confronting Philippine
tourism is the problem of perception around the
globe More tellingly, its also because of the
worlds lack of awareness about the Philippines.
(Philippines Tourism Secretary Ramon R.
Jimenez )

Tourists generally forgo the highlights of the

Philippine capital, such as the Manila
Cathedral in Intramuros, and head straight
for the beaches.

How to Overcome Challenges and

Negative [Perception]

Almost 30 million Filipinos are on

Facebook. So its the people at the heart
of the travel experience who are promoting
the country via the campaign. (CNN Travel)