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Topography

and Slope
Prepared By:
Wilma C. Sy
BS AR 3-3

Topography
A

detailed
description or
representation on
a map of the
natural and
artificial features
of an area.

Topos

Place

Graphia

- Writing

Topography

describes the
surface of land.
A topographic
map shows the
slope and
contour of the
as well as the
other natural
and artificial
features

It is developed
from a topographic
survey by a land
surveyor and
includes:

Property boundaries
Existing building
Utility poles
Roads
Manufactured features
Trees natural features: rock
outcropping and heavy
vegetation

Objectives
The

objective of topography is to
determine the position of any feature or
more generally any point in terms of
both a horizontal coordinate system
such as latitude, longitude, and altitude.
Identifying features, and recognizing
typical landform patterns are also part
of the field.

Objectives
A

topographic study may be made for a


variety of reasons: military planning and
geological exploration have been
primary motivators to start survey
programs.
Detailed information about terrain and
surface features is essential for the
planning and construction of any major
civil engineering, public works, or
reclamation projects.

Contour lines
Contour

lines on a map are a graphic way


to show the elevations of the land in a
plan view and are used to determine the
suitability of the land for various uses.
Contour intervals is the vertical distance
between contour lines
A contour line is the imaginary horizontal
line that connects all points in a field
which have the same elevation. A contour
line is imaginary but can be visualized by
taking the example of a lake.

The water level of a


lake may move up and
down, but the water
surface always
remains horizontal.
The level of the water
on the shore line of
the lake makes a
contour line because it
reaches points which
are all at the same
elevation

Slope
A

slope is the rise


or fall of the land
surface. It is
important for the
farmer or irrigator
to identify the
slopes on the
land.

A steep slope

A flat slope

Slope Analysis
Categories
Slope 0% - 4% - Usable for all types of
intense activities and are easy to build on.
Slope 4% - 10% - Suitable for informal
movement and outdoor activity and can
also be but without much difficulty
Slope 10% - 25% - Difficult to climb or use
for outdoor activity and more difficult and
expensive to build on.
Slope over 25% - Depending on the
conditions of the soil, are subject to
erosion and become more expensive to
build on.

Respecting

the
natural contours
and slope of the
land is important
from an ecological,
aesthetic and
ecological
standpoint. Ideally,
the amount of the
earth cut away in
grading operations
should equal the
amount required to
fill in the other
portions of the site.

Slope Analysis

Represents

threedimensional
view of a field
with its hills,
valleys and
depressions; the
contour lines
have also been
indicated.

Map

A two-dimensional view or
map
The

arrangement
of the contour
lines on a map
gives a direct
indication of the
changes in the
field's topography

WRONG; crossing
contour lines

WRONG; an isolated
piece of contour line

Variety of approaches to
studying topography
Direct survey

Surveying helps
determine accurately
the terrestrial or threedimensional space
position of points and
the distances and
angles between them
using leveling
instruments such as
theodolites, dumpy
levels and clinometers.

Remote sensing
Remote

sensing is
a general term for
geodata collection
at a distance from
the subject area.

Aerial and satellite


imagery

aerial and satellite imagery can be used to identify and


delineate terrain features and more general land-cover
features.
False-color and non-visible spectra imaging can also
help determine the lie of the land by delineating
vegetation and other land-use information more
clearly. Images can be in visible colours and in other
spectrum

Photogrammetry

Photogrammetry is a measurement technique for which


the co-ordinates of the points in 3D of an object are
determined by the measurements made in two
photographic images (or more) taken starting from
different positions, usually from different passes of an
aerial photography flight.

Raw

survey data
Remote sensing
data
Topographic
mapping
Digital elevation
modeling
Topological
modeling

Forms of
topographic
data