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Present continuous

We can also use present continuous when


we talk about things that will happen in the
near future

Im baking cookies this afternoon.


Grandma and Grandpa are visiting tomorrow.

We use present continuous to refer to things


that are not exactly happening now but
around now. It also means that the action is
in progress.

Im working on my project.

(+) subject + to be + main verb


in present participle or the ing
form
(-) Subject + to be + not + verb
in present partiple or the ing
form
(?) To be + subject + verb in
present participle.

Her mom is teaching in the University.

We use present continuous to talk about


something that is happening now.

I am reading a book.
We are having a party.

Examples:
(+) I am reading a book.
(-) Im not reading a book
(?) Am I reading a book?

Future

Will:

decided at the moment;

expresses promises and prediction


E.g.: I will answer your question.
I wont (will not) answer your question.

To be + going to + verb:
Planned actions based in facts

E.g.: Is he going to call you tonight?

More examples:

Affirmative: I am going to print it out for you.


Negative: I am not going to print it out for you.
Interrogative: Am I going to print it out for you?
Affirmative: He will help you.
Negative: He wont help you.
Interrogative: Will he help you?

Affirmative: They are going to go out tonight.


Negative: They arent going to go out tonight.
Interrogative: Are they going to go out tonight?
Affirmative: We are going to have pizza for dinner.
Negative: We are not going to have pizza for dinner.
Interrogative: Are we going to have pizza for dinner?

Used when:

Future Continuous

There are two patterns in making a Future Progressive Tense


statement:

1- Actions that will be happening at a


certain time in the future.

I will be sleeping at ten pm.


Claire will be studying by this time
tomorrow.

Positive form:

I am going to be sleeping at ten pm.

Subject + will + be + verb in present participle


Subject + am/is/are going to + be + verb in present participle

Claire is going to be studying by this


time tomorrow.

Negative form:

Subject + will not + be + verb in present participle

Refer to actions which will be


interrupted by another action in the
future.

Subject + am/is/are not + going to + be + verb in present


participle

Mom will be resting when I arrive later..

Interrogative form:

It will be raining when we leave.

Will + subject + be + verb in present participle

Mom is going to be resting when I arrive


later.

Am/is/are + subject + going to + be + verb in present participle

It is going to be raining when we leave.

Actions that will be happening at the same time in the future.

I will be doing my homework while my brother will be practicing piano.


While we are going to be eating heartily, Billy is going to be playing with his food.

Predicting

Its certain that (100%)

Its likely that (85%)

Its probable that (60%)

Its possible that (50%)

Maybe / Perhaps (35%)

Its unlikely that (20%)

Its impossible (0%)

Examples:

1- Its unlikely that it will rain today. There are no clouds in the sky.
2- Its certain that hell win the election. Hes ahead in all the polls.
3- Its impossible for him to win. He was disqualified yesterday.
4- Maybe Ill go there tomorrow. Im not sure.

The possessive case


Singular subject not ending in s

Add + s

Johns bike

Singular subject ending in s

Add only an

Lucas homework

Two or more subjects who own the same


thing

Add + s only to the 2


name

John and Marys house

Two or more subjects who own two


different things

Add + s to both names

Johns and Marys phone


numbers

Obs.: Whose is a question word to know the owner.


Example:
Whose picture?
Its Annas picture.

Possessive Pronouns
Subjec Adjective (before
t
nouns)

Object (after
nouns)

my

mine

You

your

yours

He

his

his

She

her

hers

It

its

its

We

our

ours

They

their

theirs

Examples:
my or mine:
Those shoes are mine.
Those are my shoes.
her or hers:
This is her skirt.
This skirt is hers.

Agree and disagree


I dont like Brad Pit.
Me
neither.

Neither do
I.

I love Angelina Jolie.


Me too. So do
I.

I also love
her.

Which magazine do you like better: Claudia or Marie


Claire?
Neither one. Theyre both terrible. Neither Claudia nor
Marie.
Either one. Theyre the same to me. Either Claudia or Marie.

Past

Simple past
Finished/specific actions (fast)
was/were
No connections with present

Present Perfect

You

No details

You

We

Connection to the present

We

They

ed / 2nd list (+)

He

did (-/?)

She

Expressions: ago, yesterday,


last

Past continuos
Finished long action
was/were + ing
Expressions:
when (interruption)
While (no interruption)

Verb
+ed

I
You
We

was

They

Verb
+ing

He
She
It

were

They

Recent Past

It

Have/Has + participle (ed / 3rd list)

He

Expressions: already, since, before,


never, for, once, yet, just, ever

She

Past Perfect

has

It

Finished actions before


another action in the past

You

I had started in uptime


when I graduated.

They

Had + participle

have

We
He
She
It

had

Verb in
participl
e

Past continuous

Refer to actions continuously happening at a certain moment


in the past.

(+) subject + was/were + verb


in present continuous or the
ing form.

(-) subject + was/were not +


verb in present progressive or
the ing form.

(?) was/were + subject + verb


in present progressive or the
ing form.

It was raining last night.


They were arguing about something.

Used for two actions happening at the same time in the past

She was cooking while her youngers sisters were playing


I was reading while Beth was practicing her speck.

Is used for interruptions while certain actions are happening


in the past

They were walking home when it raided.


I was washing the dishes when the phone rang.
When her friends cam, she was taking a shower.

Present Perfect
Used when:

For actions that started in the past and continues in the present.

I have lived here since last year.


She has given her friends a lot of gifts.

To talk about changes.

She has become more attractive.


My sister has worn her hair short.

We use Present Perfect to talk about experiences.

I have been to Rome once (no details).


She has had several jobs (had is main verb and has the Present Perfect).

Affirmative:
Subject + have/has + main verb in past participle.
They have asked permission from their father.
He has written down his homework.
Negative:
Subject + has not/ have not+ main verb in past participle.
They havent asked permission from their father.
He hasnt written down his homework.
Interrogative:
Have/has + subject + main verb in past participle.
Have they asked permission from their father?
Has he written down his homework?

Comparative and superlative


Adjectives

Comparative
Short adjectives (1 or 2 adjective + er + than
syllables)
Long adjectives (3 or 4 syllables) More +adjective + than

Superlative
The + adjective + est
The most + adjctive

Irregular adjectives
Good

Better

Best

Bad

Worse

Worst

Far

Father

Farthest

Modal Verbs
Modal Verb

Function

Example

Can

Permission; Prohibition; Possibility; Ability in present;


Suggestion

PPPAS

Can I enter in the bedroom?

Could

Possibility; Ability in the past; Suggestion; Polity request

PASP

Could you help me?

May

Permission; Possibility

PP

May I run now?

Might

Remote request; request

RR

I might go to the theater


after work.

Would

Offer; Hypothetical situation

OHs

Would you want water?

Have to

Necessity; Obligation; Certainty

NOC

You have to eat, because


you ate nothing.

Used to

Habit in the past; Habit in the present; Habit in the future

HpHpHf

In last year I used to


walking five km by day.

Supposed to

Expectation

Ex

I suppose to my mother will


give me a gift, why
tomorrow is my birthday.

Must

Certainty; Necessity; Strong recommendation; Prohibition

CNSrPr

I must understand the


modal verbs.

Should

Advice; Expectation; Obligation

AExO

You should go relaxed.

Shall

Future action; Inevitability; Suggestion; Promise (formal)

FaISP

She shall prepare dinner


when we arrive at home.

The Conditional
Rule
Fact (What is/was Always
true)

Present + present
Past + past
Real possibility: present + will
Hypothetical situations: past + would

Possibility

Hypothetical past situations: past perfect + would


have
Imperative: Imperative + present
Example

Fact (What is/was Always


true)

If you heat ice, it melts.


If it rained, we took a cab to work.
If you win the bet, Ill give you twenty bucks.

Possibility

If I married him, I would be the happiest woman


alive.
If I had locked my car, nobody wouldve stolen it.
If you see David, ask him to call me.

Irregular Verbs
-1

to feel

Felt

PARTICPIO
PASSADO
Felt

to fight

Fought

Fought

Been
Borne
Beaten

to find

Found

Found

to fit

fitted

fitted

to fly

flew

flown

Became
Began
Bet

Become
Begun
Bet

to forbid

forbade

forbidden

to forget

forgot

forgotten

to forgive

forgave

forgiven

to bite
to bleed
to break

Bit
Bled
Broke

Bitten
Bled
Broken

to freeze

froze

frozen

to get

got

got / gotten

to give

gave

given

to bring
to build
to burn

Brought
Built
burnt/burned

Brought
Built
burnt/burned

to go

went

gone

to grow

grew

grown

to buy
to cast
to catch

Bought
Cast
Caught

Bought
Cast
Caught

to hang

hung

hung

to have

had

had

to hear

heard

heard

to choose
to come
to cost

Chose
Came
Cost

Chosen
Come
Cost

to hide

hid

hidden

to hit

hit

hit

to hold

held

held

to cut
to deal
to dig

Cut
Dealt
Dug

Cut
Dealt
Dug

to hurt

hurt

hurt

to keep

kept

kept

to know

knew

known

to do
to draw

Did
Drew
dreamt /
dreamed
Drank
Drove
Ate
Fell

Done
Drawn
dreamt /
dreamed
Drunk
Driven
Eaten
Fallen

to lay

laid

laid

to lead

led

led

to learn

learnt / learned

learnt / learned

to leave

left

left

to lend

lent

lent

to let

let

let

to lie

lay

lain

to lose

lost

lost

Fed

Fed

to light

lit

lit

to arise
to awake

PASSADO
SIMPLES
Arose
Awoke

PARTICPIO
PASSADO
Arisen
Awoken

to be
to bear
to beat

was / were
Bore
Beat

to become
to begin
to bet

INFINITIVO

to dream
to
to
to
to

drink
drive
eat
fall

to feed

PASSADO
SIMPLES

INFINITIVO

Irregular Verbs 2

to make

PASSADO
SIMPLES
made

PARTICPIO
PASSADO
made

to sit

sat

PARTICPIO
PASSADO
sat

to mean

meant

meant

to sleep

slept

slept

to meet
to
misunderstand
to pay

met

met

to slide

slid

slid

misunderstood

misunderstood

to smell

smelt / smelled

smelt / smelled

paid

paid

to sow

sowed

sown / sowed

to speak

spoke

spoken

to partake

partook

partaken

to speed

sped / speeded

sped / speeded

to prove

proved

proved, proven

to spend

spent

spent

to put

put

put

to spoil

spoiled / spoilt

spoiled / spoilt

to quit

quit / quitted

quit / quitted

to spread

spread

spread

to read

read

read

to stand

stood

stood

to ride

rode

ridden

to steal

stole

stolen

to ring

rang

rung

to stick

stuck

stuck

to rise

rose

risen

to strike

struck

struck

to run

ran

run

to swear

swore

sworn

to saw

sawed

sawn

to sweep

swept

swept

to say

said

said

to swim

swam

swum

to see

saw

seen

to swing

swung

swung

to sell

sold

sold

to take

took

taken

to send

sent

sent

to teach

taught

taught

to set

set

set

to tell

told

told

to sew

sewed

sewn, sewed

to think

thought

thought

to shake

shook

shaken

to throw

threw

thrown

to shave

shaved

shaven / shaved

to understand

understood

understood

to wake

woke

woken

to shine

shone

shone

to wear

wore

worn

to shoot

shot

shot

to wet

wet / wetted

wet / wetted

to show

showed

shown

to win

won

won

to sing

sang

sung

to wring

wrung

wrung

to sink

sank

sunk

to write

wrote

written

INFINITIVO

PASSADO
SIMPLES

INFINITIVO

Prefixes and suffixes


Prefixes

Suffixes

Prefix

Meaning

Examples

Suffix

Meaning

Examples

Anti-, ant-

opposite

Anticrime, antacid

-ance, -ence

Quality or
process

Resistance, independence

Auto-

Self, same

Automatic, autobiography

-dom

State of being

Wisdom, kingdom

In-, im-, il-,


ir-

not

Innocent, impossible, illegible,


irrelevant

-er, -or

Person or thing

Player, collector

Pre-

before

Preview, premature

-ion

Condition/action

Abduction, action

Pro-

For, forward Promote, project

-ism

The belief in

Socialism, communism

Re-

again

Rewrite, reself

-ous, -ful

Full of

Dangerous, wonderful

Tele-

distant

Telephone, television

-ship

Status, condition

Relationship, internship