Anda di halaman 1dari 27

PNEUMATICS SYSTEM

Chapter 7

Properties of Compressed Air

Availability
Easily stored in large volumes
Simplicity in design and control
Provides linear and rotary movement
Low system cost due to low component
cost

Properties of Compressed Air

Components have long working life


resulting in longer system reliability
Environmentally friendly
Safety issues are minimized e.g.. Fire
hazards; unaffected by overloads
(actuators stall or slip)
Pneumatic actuators in a system do not
produce heat (except for friction)

Pneumatic system

A pneumatic system uses compressed air, and this


usually stored in a pressure vessel called an air
receiver.
Air, from atmosphere, is delivered to the air receiver
by a motor-driven compressor. Unlike the hydraulic
pump, the compressor is controlled by a pressure
switch on the air receiver and either starts/stop on
demand or vents to atmosphere when the receiver is
charged.

Pneumatic system

The cylinder movement is again controlled by a


directional control valve, but air returned from the
cylinder vented to atmosphere.
A pneumatic system is an open system, the air
being obtained from and returned to the
atmosphere.
Pneumatic systems also require clean dry air. A
practical pneumatic system has additional air
treatment elements not present in a hydraulic
system.

Pneumatic power supply

Electric motor drives an air compressor.


Air
inlet to the compressor
is supply
likely to be
Pneumatic
power
filtered and via a silencer to reduce the noise
level.
Pressure relief valve provide protection
against the pressure in the system rising
above the safe level.

Since the air compressor increases the


Pneumatic
power
supply
temperature
of the
air there
is likely to
be cooling system and to remove
contamination and water from the air via
a filter and water trap.
An air receiver increases the volume of
air in the system and smoothes out any
short term pressure fluctuations.

Pneumatic Compressor

The compressors compress the air from atmospheric


pressure to the desired working pressure.
The compressor converts air at atmospheric pressure
into high pressure by changing it volume.
Compressed air serves as a source of pneumatic
energy by producing pressurized air.

Two types of pneumatic compressor:

Positive Displacement Compressor


Dynamic Compressor (Blowers)

Positive Displacement Compressor


Confine the air within a closed space and compress it
by decreasing the volume of the space.
Basically producing a low volume high pressure air
supply.
Two types:

Reciprocating piston compressor


Rotary piston compressor

Positive Displacement Compressor

Reciprocating piston compressor

Most widely used.


When higher pressure is required, a multistage compressor
is used.

Reciprocating compressors

Two stage reciprocating compressors

Air Compression
Reciprocating:

Single stage

Double Stage

Positive Displacement Compressor

Rotary piston compressor

Compressor with rotating piston


Advantage over reciprocating compressor: Compact
dimensions, quiet running and smooth, steady air delivery.
Disadvantage: slightly reduced efficiency and lower
operating pressures

Two types:

Vane compressor
Screw compressor

Positive Displacement Compressor

Vane compressor

Same operation as Vane pump.

Screw compressor

Uses two intermeshing counter-rotating screws.


These mesh with a clearance of a few thousandths of an
inch, and are driven by timing gears.
As the screw rotate, pocket of air are carried from the inlet
port to the outlet port.

Positive Displacement Compressor

Vane compressor

Positive Displacement Compressor

Screw compressor

Air Compression Rotary:

Vane

Screw

Dynamic Compressor (Blowers)

Draw air in one side and compress it by mass acceleration.


Dynamic compressor accelerates the air by rapidly turning
the rotor blade.
Basically they are large volume low pressure device.

Two types of blower


Centrifugal type
Axial type

Dynamic Compressor (Blowers)

Axial type
Centrifugal type

A Basic Pneumatic System


Air Production and Distribution System
Refrigerated Air Dryer

Compressor

Pressure Gauge
Check Valve

Motor

Tank

Drain

Pressure
Switch

Line Filter

A Basic Pneumatic System


Air Consumption System

Air Line Take-off


Directional Valve
Conditioning
Actuator
Unit

Drain

Compressor

Air Receiver
A pressure Vessel (Tank) normally made of metal and installed
either horizontally or vertically. This vessel provides a volume of air
to be utilized by the system and reduced the loading and unloading
of the compressor.

Air Receiver (Tank)

Air Treatment
All atmospheric air carries both moisture and dust

Inlet Filter

Used to remove large particle dirt from


entering the system.

Used to prevent excessive


wear of cylinder, piston rings
and other moving parts in the
initial stage of the system

Air Dryer
Compressed air cannot hold the same amount of moisture as non
compressed air. Once the air is compressed, some of the moisture
condenses in the tank and is removed through a drain valve. The remaining
moisture will rust internal components of the system and must be removed.
One way this is done by sending the air through an air conditioned chamber
which will condense more of the moisture which is present.

Regulating and Conditioning


The compressed air to be used in a system needs to be treated
because of contamination inside the system. An example of this
could be the scaling of piped or worn seal material. A line filter is used
to collect water and solid impurities. A Lubricator is used to vaporize
oil into the air stream to lubricate moving parts in the system such as
air tools
A regulator is used to adjust the
line pressure to a lower usable
pressure needed for some tool
applications.