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STONE MASTIC

ASPHALT
(SMA)

INTRODUCTION
Stone Matrix Asphalt (SMA) is a hot paving mixture that was

developed in Germany in
the late sixties
SMA - gap graded mix with

high amount of coarse


aggregates firmly bonded
together by a strong asphalt
mastic
Employed in many countries as an overlay or surface course

to resist load induced

INTRODUCTION

contd.

High resistance to permanent deformation due to high coarse

aggregate content
Enhanced durability as a result of higher bitumen content, and

lower air voids content


Main disadvantages of SMA mixtures are related to its binder

drainage
Fibers or polymers added to prevent draindown of the mix,

increase the stability and durability of the mix


3

INTRODUCTION
SMA - Deformation resistant, durable surfacing material

suitable for heavy traffic loads


Stone skeleton - resist permanent deformation by

transmitting heavy load through stone-stone contact


Bitumen mastic - Improved binder durability & flexibility by

holding aggregate without segregation


Fibre network - prevents drainage of bitumen by stabilizing

it during transport and placement

HISTORY
Started by Strabag ,Germany and later spread across
Asphalt paving mix against rutting by studded tyres
Durable pavements to combat wear & tear even by slow

moving heavy traffic


National standards for SMA in many nations, in India

(IRC:SP:79:2008)
Increasing popularity among authorities & industries

Countries using SMA as high stable asphalt


concept

COMPOSITION
Typical SMA composition consists of:
7080% coarse aggregate
812% filler
67% binder
0.3% fibre

High stone content is used to form an interlocked gap graded

skeleton structure to transmit heavy loads


High viscosity bituminous mastic fills the voids & the mix is

stabilized during the entire process


Addition of fibre enhances physical properties & doesnt cause any

chemical change

COMPOSITION

Composition of Stone Mastic Asphalt


(SMA)

MATERIALS USED
Coarse and Fine aggregate - qualities of aggregates is

checked by different tests (16mm-75 micron)


Bitumen - Different grade of bitumen are used which acts

as binder (60/70 bitumen)


Fibre natural or artificial is used to increase the strength

& stability and decrease the drain


Filler it includes dust, slag, flyash, lime, cement etc. or

fine aggregates below 75 micron for better binding

European specifications SMA 13108-5

German specification SMA-TL Asphalt StB 07

IS Sieve (mm)

Cumulative percent by weight of total aggregate


passing
Lower limit

Mid value

Upper limit

19

100

100

12.5

90

95

100

9.5

50

65

80

4.75

20

27.5

35

2.36

16

20

24

1.18

0.600

0.300

0.075

9.5

11

Gradation of SMA as per AASHTO

IS Sieve (mm)

Cumulative percent by weight of total aggregate


passing
Lower limit

Mid value

Upper limit

19

100

100

13.2

90

95

100

9.5

50

62.5

75

4.75

20

24

28

2.36

16

20

24

1.18

13

17.5

21

0.600

12

15

18

0.300

10

15

20

0.075

10

12

Gradation of SMA as per IRC

PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS
Good stability at high temperatures
High wearing resistance
High adhesive capacity between the stone granules and the bitumen
A mix with no tendency to separate
Good skid resistance
Reduced water spray
Lower traffic noise

PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS

Stability in SMA mix

MANUFACTURE & PLACEMENT


Batch mixing plant or Continuous mixing plant may be

used after an extended mix design test for SMA


Mixing time is increased to ensure homogenous

distribution of fibre throughout the mix


Mixing temperature is controlled to avoid overheating &

damage of fibres

MANUFACTURE & PLACEMENT


Method of compaction is to use heavy, non-vibrating,

steel-wheeled rollers
Minimum layer thickness placed is 2.5-3 times the

nominal maximum aggregate particle size


Production temperature 150-1650
C

PAVING & COMPACTION


Paving & compaction is similar to standard asphalt
Trucks must be covered until the SMA is discharged into

the material hopper at front of the road paver


Asphalt content of SMA is very high, a tack coat is given

to ensure and improve the bond between the layers


The temperature of the SMA in the road paver should be

at least 150C.

PAVING & COMPACTION


Compaction should be started as soon as possible and

the roller should move as close to the paver as possible


Should not be opened to traffic until surface temperature

falls below 40

Paving and Rolling of SMA

LAYING

Unloading SMA into the paver


machine

Laying 14mm SMA using paver


machine

ROLLING

Clouds of steam due to water


used in rolling

Edge of the newly laid mat before


rolling

COMPACTING

Compacting with a vibratory


smooth wheeled roller

Finished and compacted 14mm


SMA surface

ADVANTAGES
20-30% increase in pavement life
Good aggregate interlock for strength & stiffness
Deformation resistance for heavy traffic
Low permeability, high durability
Textured and rut resistant wearing course
Surface texture reduce noise & glare on roads
Reduce reflective cracking due to flexible mastic
100% recyclable after service life

DISADVANTAGES
Major construction problems are drainage & bleeding,

where temperature cannot be lowered


Increased material cost
Increased mixing temperature & mixing time
Carefully monitor the composition at mixing plant
White fines on the surface of the pavements
stripping of asphalt layer & potholing may take place

APPLICATIONS
Stone Mastic Asphalt has proved superior on heavily

trafficked roads and industrial applications:


high vehicle frequency & intense wheel tracking
at traffic signals & intersections
on highways, gradients, bridges & service lanes
in car parks, bus-stops & toll plazas
in harbours & airport runways
on loading & unloading areas