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NOVOSTI V POOBIRALNIH

TEHNOLOGIJAH SADJA

Janez Hribar, Rajko Vidrih, Toma Porl, Emil Zlati


DOMALE
junij 2012

% of total fruit
production

Developing
countries

50
25

Postharvest losses

Developed
countries

Avoidable losses:
Fruit diseases and
disorders caused by
inappropriate
storage conditions

Unavoidable losses:
Fruit respiration
and transpiration

0
Challenge for
postharvest
technology

Improvement of pre- and postharvest management of fruit ripening


and senescence

Cool
+
Storage

MCP

Temperature
Humidity

CA+
Storage

MCP

+
MCP

Development
+ of Storage
Systems

Oxygen (~3%)
CO2 (~3-5%)

ULO- Oxygen (~1%)


Storage CO (~1-3%)
2

Oxygen (down to 0,4%)


DCA+
CO (~2-0.5%)
Storage
MCP
2

Edible maturity storage potential


compromise
minimum storage
disease

the shortest
storage
potential

Edible maturity

the longest
storage
potential

First picking
date

Harvest window

Storage potential at harvest and fruit


quality after storage
The quality of the fruit on the tree

Last picking
date

Optimal harvest date for storage:


Determines the stage of fruit development suitable for long-term storage
and high ex-store fruit quality. Fruit must be sufficiently biochemically
developed (=mature) and physiological ripening process has just started.
high
Eating quality

Storability

harvest date

Intended use:

Industry

normal

Direct market

early

CA + 1-MCP

low

CA-storage

middle

late

Gene-expression diagnostics
new tools for monitoring ripening
of apple and pears (after: van Wordragen, 2007)
Perceived signal (int/ext)
Effect on gene expression

Point of genetic
measurement

Altered mRNA composition


Altered protein composition
Altered chemical composition
Effect on quality
(firmness, sugar, color, starch)

Point of
standard
measurement

New metods of quality determination


Determination of total volatile compounds
(principle - photoionization)
advantage = speed, sensitivity, non invasive metod, good
correlation with fruit aroma
disadvantage = non-specificity (not measured aroma
profile)

New metods of quality determination


Determination of fruit storability
(GC/PDD)
maximum exploitation of the fruit storage
potential
Anaerobic metabolites concentration
O2 critical concentration

New metods of quality determination


Acoustic sensor for measuring the firmness of
the fruit flesh
advantage = easy, quick and noninvasive
measurement
disadvantage = poor correlation with invasive
(penetrometer) firmness measurements
computer

Piezo electric sensor

A/D converter

signal amplifier

knocker

EEA Mas
Badia

HARVEST DATA 2008

DCA STORAGE
Storage parameters:
(0,2 0,5 % O2 and 0 - 0,8 % CO2)
Adjustment is based on the fruit anaerobic
metabolism.
Storage at very low O2 concentrations and maintainance of
dynamic atmosphere requires:
- perfect gas tightness,
- indirect cooling (temperature diference of 2 C) and the
surface of the evaporator above 17 m2 per 10 tons of
fruit,
- high capacity CO2 scrabers,
- laboratory for anaerobic metabolites monitoring (GC)

DYNAMIC ATMOSPHERE REGULATION

Regulation of the anaerobic metabolites concentration is carried out indirectly based on 6 fruits
chlorophyll fluorescence measurements!
There is a question of a representative sample, because the storage room of approximately 200 tons. has
2 million of fruits, and we are monitoring 4-6 fruits
Information obtained by this sensor indicates only the stress change s without knowing the cause.

O2 CONCENTRATION AND FLUORESCENCE


MEASUREMENT IN FRUIT

(Prange et al., 2002)

DYNAMIC ATMOSPHERE REGULATION


Direct analysis of the anaerobic metabolites contents

the storage atmosphere shows the real condition of the


fruit in the chamber.

(Schouten et al., 1998)

DCA STORAGE
DCA has the potential to better preserve aroma as
compared to 1-MCP.
1-MCP + ULO is more effective in delaying
degradation of organic acids (Zanella et al., 2005).
DCA fluorescence parameters are sensitive to lowO2 stress and correlates to fruit respiration.
Factors like culivar, sun or shade exposed side of
fruit, presence of xanthophyll, anthocyanyns affect
fluorescence.
Low intensity light (longer scan interval) may beter
pinpoint low oxygene limit (Wright et al., 2011,
2012).

Dynamic atmosphere storage DCA

pyruvate

acetaldehyde

ethanol

ethyl acetate

Ethanol concentration (ppbv)

The oxygen concentration (0.2 - 0.5%) is


dynamically adapted to fruit anaerobic
metabolism.
Storage at the critical concentration of oxygen.
Anaerobic
metabolites concentration
Konc. anaerobnih
metabolitov

O2 critical concentration

Postharvest treatment
Receptor inhibitors and ethylene production inhibitors
2,5-NBD (2,5 bicyclohepta-2,5-diene)
trans-cyclooctene
1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene)
AVG(Aminoethoxyvinyglycine HCl )

Reversible
inhibition,
unpleasant odor
Irreversible
inhibition,
without odor

Ethylene biosynthesis, ripening regulation by ethylene and


its inhibition by storage conditions in apple fruit
Ethylene
1-MCP

Inhibition
by
storage
conditions
low temp.,
low O2,
high CO2

ACC Oxidase

Receptors Signal
(ETRs) transmission

ACC
ACC Synthase

SAM
SAM Synthase

Gene expression

(+AVG)

Methionine
Ripening enzymes e.g. Pectinases

Fruit ripening

Ethylene

1-MCP

receptor
receptor

membrane
membrane

No
Nosignal
signal
transduction
transduction

SIGNAL
SIGNAL
TRANSDUCTION
TRANSDUCTION

ripening

No
Nosignal
signal
transduction
transduction

HarvistaTM -

for optimizing harvest management


by controlling ethylene production in the orchard

Reduces fruit drop


Maintains fruit firmness on the tree
Allows time for additional fruit growth
and colour development
Eases scheduling of harvest labour

HarvistaTM - Effect on fruit drop of Bartlett pears


reduces fruit drop, extends harvest period and fruit quality

Control

Harvista
(1-MCP)

17 days after application - harvest delay 10 days

J. DeEll,
OMAFRA - 2006

1-MCP
Application requires:
more severe fruit quality
criteria (only first class!!),
changes in optimal harvest
date criteria,
producer dependence due to
integrity of application
(medium with treatment)

Commercial SmartFresh
nanotechnology
application
1-MCP incapsulated in
cyclodextrine

Advantages of 1-MCP treatment


Properly cooled and treated apples can
be stored for 5 months without the use
of modified atmosphere.
Low investment costs.
Fruits firmness is very well maintained;
fruits are also less sensitive to high
temperature storage (distribution chain).

Disadvantages of 1-MCP treatment


Fruits develop much less aromatic
compounds.
Fruit are more sensitive to elevated CO2
concentration.
Agent is patented and is not free on the
market.
Treatment is possible only with the
larger fruit producers.
The technology is not suitable for
organic farming.

Disadvantages of 1-MCP treatment


CO2 concentration less than 1 %
O2 1% - 1,3%

Consideration of this terms does not guarantee successful storage.

INFLUENCE OF 1-MCP TO CO2


SUSCEPTIBILITY
1-MCP increases the susceptibility of fruits
to external CO2 injury 5,0 % CO2
(Fawbush et al., 2008).
That injury occurs within the first several
weeks of CA storage.
Diphenyl amine treatment completely
inhibited CO2 injury.

DELAYING THE INTRODUCTION OF CA

Delaying the introduction of CA for at least 5


days has been shown to reduce external CO 2
injury (Watkins et al., 1997) and internal
injury (Argenta et al., 2000).
Possible reason is reduction of respiration
rates and production of antioxidants after the
stress of harvest

INFLUENCE OF MINERALS
De Castro et al., (2000) found high Mg 2+,
Ca2+ and B and low K to relate to low flash
browning.
High Ca2+ concentration reduces apples
susceptibility to CO2 induced flash
browning.

INFLUENCE OF YIELD
(CROPPING)
Elgar et al., 1999 found braeburn apples
from light cropping to be more susceptible
to flash browning.
Among apple cultivars, Lau (1998) found
the highest fruit density in Braeburn which
may explain higher flash browning due to
lower gas diffusion rates.

INFLUENCE OF YIELD
Pink lady apples from low cropping were less
susceptible to flash browning and vice versa (de Castro
et al., 2007); the same authors noticed beneficial effect.
Posssible reason is the content of ascorbic acid which
tends to be lower in high crop-load years (de Castro et
al., 2007).
Light crop loads have been associated with higher
density of fruits and possible disorders (Bussakorn et
al., 2001).

DILEMMA?
AROMA VS. TEXTURE

Comparison of relative concentrations of volatile


compounds produced by control and 1-MCP-treated apples
Idared

Jonagold

Golden Delicious

Parameter (mg L?1)

Control

1-MCP

Control

1-MCP

Control

1-MCP

Butyl acetate

112.25a

29.32b

65.50a

1.26b

42.79a

28.36a

Butyl butanoate

2.89a

0.52b

60.08a

0.29b

92.76a

5.98b

3-Methybutyl butanoate

0.00a

5.15a

0.00a

0.00a

4.75a

3.27a

117.54a

35.86b

87.32a

9.22b

58.97a

32.04a

Hexyl propanoate

9.28a

2.91b

126.52a

0.98b

110.55a

3.30a

6-Methyl-5hepten-2-one

0.75a

0.58a

1.50a

1.32a

1.93a

0.71b

1-Hexanol

13.23a

7.28a

37.95a

1.49b

12.29a

2.94a

Butyl hexanoate

2.19a

0.39b

34.51a

0.56b

71.94a

6.93b

Hexyl butanoate

1.48a

0.39b

25.69a

0.56b

36.92a

3.09a

Hexyl 2-methylbutanoate

28.99a

5.82b

74.64a

2.94b

31.90a

10.30a

Sum of aroma volatiles

288.6a

88.22b

513.71a

18.62b

464.8a

96.92b

Hexyl acetate

1-MCP
1-MCP produced differential effects on straight-chain
and branched-chain esters (Raffo et al., 2009).
Straight-chain are reduced more strongly by 1-MCP.
High CO2 more strongly reduces the synthesis of
branches-chain esters (Raffo et al., 2009; Lara et al.,
2007).
Alcohol production is ussually analogous to those of
corresponding esters.
ULO, DCA and 1-MCP show an increase of aldehyde
production during shelf life resulting in a greener
aroma (Raffo et al., 2009).

relative
40

Fruit
firmness
Background
colour
Titratable
acid

Cool store

CA

ULO

ULO + 1-MCP

Cool store

CA

ULO

ULO + 1-MCP

Cool store

CA

Start of storage 8.4 mval

ULO + 1-MCP

Start of storage CIE a+b=2.4

Cool store (regular air)

CA (3%CO2+3%O2)

ULO 3%CO2+1%O2

ULO + 1-MCP

20
ULO

60

Start of storage 7.9 kg/cm2

Fruit quality of Golden Delicious apples


after 9 months storage plus 10 d shelf-life

100

80

Aroma
volatiles

ALTERNATIVE TO POSTHARVEST
TREATMENT
ILOS (Initial low oxygen stress)
single initial reduction of oxygen below 0.5% (14 days) ,
adequate for short term storage of fruits (up to 5 months) .
ILOS PLUS
multiple reduction of oxygen below 0,5 %
O2 content, duration and number of intervals is determined on the basis of
anaerobic metabolites measurements in fruits.
Positive attributes of ILOS system are primarily lower operating costs compared
with the DCA system.

ETHANOL CONTENT

HOW TO CHOOSE THE RIGHT


TECHNOLOGY?
1-MCP

DCA
FLUORESC.

DCA
METABOLITES

ILOS
PLUS

INVESTMENT COSTS

LOW

HIGH

MEDIUM

MEDIUM

OPERATING COSTS

LOW

VERY HIGH

HIGH

MEDIUM

TREATMENT COSTS

VERY HIGH

DEFECT RISK

****

***

FRUIT QUALITY

ACCEPTABLE

GOOD

VERY GOOD

GOOD

ORGANIC
PRODUCTION

INAPPROPRIATE

APPROPRIATE

APPROPRIATE

APPROPRIATE

RECOMMENDATION

APPROPRIATE FOR
A PARTICULAR
CULTIVARS

APPROPRIATE
WITH A
STRONG
CONTROL

VERY
APPROPRIATE

APPROPRIATE
WITH A
STRONG
CONTROL

NEW
CULTIVARS??