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SEMINAR ON

SURGE CURRENT PROTECTION


USING
SUPERCONDUCTOR

SUBMITTED TO:
RAJNISH MITTER
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR
ENGINEERING ELECTRICAL DEPARTMENT
10ELDEE726

SUBMITTED BY:
MAHESH MEENA
ELECTRICAL

CONTENT

INTRODUCTION
WHAT IS SURGE CURRENT
WHAT IS SUPERCONDUCTOR
TYPES OF SUPERCONDUCTOR
FAULT CURRENT LIMITER
PROTECTION SCHEME
APPLICATION
FUTURE PLANS
CONCLUSION
REFERENCE

INTRODUCTION
Modern power system are growing fast with
more generators, transformers and large
network in the system. whenever a fault occurs
there is a need for the protection of these
system. Here we discussed the use of
superconductor as protective device for surge
current protection. Superconductors conduct
electricity, offering zero resistance below
certain temperature. We study different types
of superconductor as fault current limiter and
their working.

WHAT IS SURGE CURRENT


The maximum instantaneous input current
drawn by an electrical device when first it
is turn ON , is defined as surge current it is
also known as inrush current or input
surge current or switch on surge. Inrush
current can be as high as 100 times the
normal steady state current and lasts for
less than half a normal 60Hz cycle.

Surge current
waveform

WHAT IS SUPERCONDUCTOR
An element, inter-metallic alloy or compound
that will conduct electricity without
resistance below a certain temperature. The
dutch physicist HEIKE KAMERLINGH ONNES
of leiden university was the first person to
observe superconductivity in mercury.
Superconductivity is a phenomenon of
exactly zero electrical resistance certain
materials when cooled below a
characteristics critical temperature.

MEISSNER EFFECT

n you place a superconductor in a magnetic field, the field is expelled be


B

T >Tc

T < Tc

Magnet

Superconductor

Currents i appear, to cancel


B.
i x B on the superconductor
produces repulsion.

A superconductor displaying the MEISSNER EFFECT

Superconductors have electronic and magnetic


properties. That is, they have a negative
susceptibility, and acquire a polarization OPPOSITE
to an applied magnetic field. This is the reason that
superconducting materials and magnets repel one
If the temperature increases the sample will lose
another.
its superconductivity and the magnet cannot float
on the superconductor.

TYPES OF
SUPERCONDUCTOR
Low temperature superconductor
example :- lead and mercurycommon LTS
other LTS are Ti, V, Zr,
Nb etc.
High temperature superconductor
exmaple :- YBCO, BSCCO, LSCO etc.

STRUCTURE OF
SUPERCONDUCTOR

YBCO

LSCO

BSCCO

FAULT CURRENT LIMITER


A fault current limiter is a device which
limit prospective fault current when a fault
occur. Generally FCL are superconductor
FCL.
Two major categories of FCL
(1) resistive
(2) inductive

SUPERCONDUCTIVE FCL

Fault control with a FCL

APPLICATION OF FCL
FCLs can be applied in a number of
distribution or transmission areas.

FCL in the main position

FCL protect the entire bus

FCL in the bus-tie position

ADVANTAGES
A
larger transformer can be used to meet
increased demand on a bus without breaker
upgrades.
A larger, low impedance transformer can be used
to maintain voltage regulation at the new power
level.
damage to the transformer is limited.
Reduced fault current flow in the high voltage
circuit that feeds the transformer, which minimize
the voltage dip on the up stream high voltage bus
during a fault on the medium voltage bus.

ADVANTAGE continued
Safety, reliability, and power quality.
Cost for C.B. and fuses can be
reduced.
Life of transformers extended.
Reduced or eliminate wide area,
blackouts.
Provide protection to T&D
equipments.

SUPERCONDUCTIVE FAULT CURRENT


LIMITER CONCEPT
(1) series resistive limiter

FCL with HTS trigger coil

(2) Inductive limiter

FUTURE PLAN
TEPCO will develop a three-phase limiter
over the next three to four years and
test it in the grid within this century. The
current plan is to introduce solid state
breakers for distribution before installing
superconductive
FCL.
The
true
application for the superconducting FCL
is at transmission voltages of 500 kV.

REFERENCES
IEEE transaction on applied superconductivity
http://www.scribd.com/doc/115890153/surgecurrent-protection-using-superconductors
http://jntuhome.com/surge-current-protectionusing-superconductors-seminardownload-fullpaper-eee-seminar-topics/
http://kguru.info/t-surge-current-protectionusing-superconductors-ppt--55999
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surge_protector
http://www.edaboard.com/thread126937.html

CONCLUSION
The purpose of this paper was the study of
surge
current
protection
using
superconductors.
The
Superconductor
Fault Current Limiters offers efficient
advantages to power systems and opens
up a major application for superconducting
materials.

ANY QUERIES??