Anda di halaman 1dari 32

Progressing Cavity

Pumping Systems

Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved

Introduction to PC Pumps.
Progressing cavity pump basics.
Elastomers.
Pump testing and failure identification.
Equipment overview: Top-drive.
Application Basics.

Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved

Introduction to PC Pumps

Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved

Introduction to PC Pumps
System Overview - Topdrive
Down-hole pump components:
Rotor.
Stator.

Sucker rod string.


Surface drive head.
Accessories:
Torque anchor.
Rod protectors / centralizers.
Etc.

Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved

Introduction to PC Pumps
System Overview Bottomdrive
Down-hole
pump
components:
Rotor.
Stator.

Intake.
Gearbox.
Protector.
Motor.
Cable.

Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved

Tubing

FCE
Casing
VSD
Progressing
Cabl
Rotor
eCavity Pump
Stator
Junction Box
Intake

Transformer Gear Box &


Flex Drive
Rotor Adapter
Protector
Stator
FCE
Adapter
Motor

Perforations

Intake
Gearbox

Protecto
r

Motor

Introduction to PC Pumps
Capabilities
Production Rates from 3 BFPD to 5000+
BFPD.
Effective production depths to 6500 feet.
Oil gravities from 5 to 42 API.
Temperatures up to 250 F.
Does not create emulsions.
Does not gas lock.
Low profile surface components.

Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved

Introduction to PC Pumps
Capabilities Cont.
Able to produce:
High concentrations of sand.
High viscosity fluid.
High percentages of free gas.

Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved

Introduction to PC Pumps
Application Range
5000
4500
4000
3500

M3PD

BFPD

3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
2200

3000

4000

5000

5400

6000

DEPTH IN FEET OF H2O

Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved

8000

10000

Introduction to PC Pumps
Comparison of Lift Methods
Typical Artificial Lift Application Range
Ft./Lift
12,000
11,000
10,000
9,000
8,000
7,000
6,000
5,000
4,000
3,000
2,000
1,000
1,000

2,000

Rod
Pumps

Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved

3,000

4,000

PC Pumps

5,000

6,000

7,000

Hydraulic Lift

8,000

9,000

10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 BPD

Submersible Pump

Gas Lift

Introduction to PC Pumps
Applications
Heavy oil and bitumen.
Production of solidsladen fluids.
Medium to sweet
crude.
Coal bed methane /
gas well de-watering.
Agricultural areas.
Urban areas.
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved

Introduction to PC Pumps
Advantages
Simple two piece
design.
Capable of handling
solids & high viscosity
fluids.
Will not emulsify fluid.
High volumetric
efficiencies.

Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved

Introduction to PC Pumps
Characteristics
Interference fit between the rotor and
stator creates a series of isolated
cavities .
Rotation of the rotor causes the cavities
to move or progress from one end of
the pump to the other.

Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved

Introduction to PC Pumps
Flow Characteristics
Non Pulsating.
Pump Generates Pressure Required To
Move Constant Volume.
Flow is a function of RPM.

Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved

Progressing Cavity Pump Basics


Limitations
Production rates 3500 bbls/day
Lift capacity 6550 ft.
Elastomer incompatible with certain
fluids/gases
Aromatics (12%)
H2S (max. 6%), CO2(max. 30%)
Other chemical additives
Max. Temperature up to 250 F. (210 F
using conventional elastomers)
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved

Progressing Cavity Pump Basics

Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved

Progressing Cavity Pump Basics


Pump Classifications
Axial Flow
Centrifugal

Mixed Flow
Peripheral

Dynamic

Jet
Special

Gas Lift
Hydraulic Ram
Electromagnetic

Pumps
Piston Plunger
Reciprocating
Diaphragm
Displacement

Vane
Piston
Rotary

Peristaltic
Gear
Lobe
Screw

Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved

Progressing
Cavity

Progressing Cavity Pump Basics


Rotation
The Rotor turns
eccentrically within the
Stator.
Movement is actually a
combination of two
movements:
Rotation about its own
axis
Rotation in the opposite
direction of its own axis
about the axis of the
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved

Progressing Cavity Pump Basics


Displacement

Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved

Progressing Cavity Pump Basics


PCP Description

Stator Pitch

Eccentricity

Stator

Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved

Rotor

Progressing Cavity Pump Basics


PCP Description
D = Minor Diameter of Stator
Major Diameter of Stator

D
P

P = Stator Pitch length

Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved

4E

Progressing Cavity Pump Basics


Pulsationless Flow

Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved

FLOW RATE

=A

CAVITY AREA

FLUID CAVITY VELOCITY

Progressing Cavity Pump Basics


PC Pump Types

CONVENTIONAL 1:2

Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved

MULTILOBE 2:3

Progressing Cavity Pump Basics


Design Parameters
Flow rate is a function of rotor diameter,
eccentricity, pump pitch length and RPM.
Pressure capability is determined by the
number of stator pitches.

Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved

Progressing Cavity Pump Basics


Stages and Head
Manufacturers rate the pressure capability of a
pump as a function of the number of pump
stages or seal lines. Pressure capability is
determined by the number of stator pitches
One stage is defined as the pump length required
to offset 100 psi of differential pressure.
1 Stage = 1.5 Stator Pitches
Rotor Pitch
(or 3 Rotor Pitches)

Stator Pitch
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved

Progressing Cavity Pump Basics


Head Rating Variables
Factors which affect the head
rating:
Number of stages.
Elastomer hardness.
Pitch length of the rotor.
(increased seal line contact
area)
Minor diameter of rotor
(compression fit)
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved

Progressing Cavity Pump Basics


Stage Ratings
Lifting capacity is typically
referred to in feet of water,
rather than stages.
1 stage =
1 stage =
1 stage =
of lift
1 stage =

approx. 100 psi


approx. 231 ft of lift
approx. 70 meters
approx. 690 Kpa

An 18 stage pump (1800 psi) is


commonly referred to as a
4000 ft (1200 meter) pump.

Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved

Progressing Cavity Pump Basics


Stages vs Depth
60
50

STAGES

40
30
20

FEET OF LIFT H2O


Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved

13 602 00 0m 0

8 00 0m 0
2 40

168 000 0m0

5000

1500 m

4000

1 20 0 m

3000

900 m

600 m

2000

10

Slip can be defined as: A


reduction in flow rate caused by a
differential pressure greater than
atmospheric.
As cavity pressure increases
beyond seal limits, seal lines will
deform, and fluid will slip from
one cavity to the next at very
high velocities.

Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved

FLUID SLIP

Progressing Cavity Pump Basics


Efficiency, Pressure and Slip

Progressing Cavity Pump Basics


Efficiency, Pressure and Slip
Volumetric Efficiency is the most common
method used to measure pump performance.
Volumetric Efficiency can be defined as:
the Benchmark Flowrate @ 0 head minus the Slip
@ rated head.

Slip is represented as a %

Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved

Progressing Cavity Pump Basics


Efficiency, Pressure and Slip
S40G65
70

20% Slip @ rated


Pressure

60

(BFPD)

50

40

30

20

10

0
0

1000

2000

3000

4000

Feet of Lift

Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved

5000

6000

7000

Progressing Cavity Pump Basics


Efficiency, Pressure and Slip
S40G65
140

10% Slip @ rated


Pressure

120

100

(BFPD)

80

20% Slip @ rated


Pressure

60

40

20

0
0

1000

2000

3000

4000
Feet of Lift

Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved

5000

6000

7000

Progressing Cavity Pump Basics


Efficiency, Pressure and Slip
Slip is dependant upon:
The number of stages, or seal lines.
The viscosity of the fluid.
The interference fit of the rotor in the stator.

In most cases*, slip is independent of speed.

* Differential pressure effects.

Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved