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BLOCK DIAGRAM

REDUCTION TECHNIQUES

Block diagram
Transfer Function
Consists of Blocks
Can be reduced
G4
R (s )

G1

G2

G3

H2
H1

R(s )

Y (s )

Y (s )

Reduction techniques
1. Combining blocks in cascade or in parallel

G1

G2
G1

G1G2
G1 G2

G2
2. Moving a summing point behind a block

G
G

3. Moving a summing point ahead of a block

G
1
G

4. Moving a Takeoff point behind a block

1
G

5. Moving a takeoff point ahead of a block

G
G

6. Eliminating a feedback loop


G
1 GH

G
H

G
1 G

G
H 1

7. Swap with two neighboring summing points


A

Example 1
Find the transfer function of the following
block diagrams
(a)

G4
R(s)

G1

G2

G3
H2

H1

Y (s )

I
G4

R (s)

G1

G2

G3
H2

H1

G2

Solution:
1. Moving takeoff point A ahead of block G2
2. Eliminate loop I & simplify
B

G4 G2G3

Y (s )

R (s)

G1

G4

A G2 G3
GG4
G

Y (s )

H2

H1G2

3. Moving takeoff point B behind block G4 G2G3

II
R (s )

G1

G4 G2G3
H2

H1G2

1 /(G4 G2G3 )

Y (s )

4. Eliminate loop III

R (s )

G1

GG4 4GG2G2G
3 3
1 H 2 (GH4 2 G2G3 )

Y (s )

G2 H1
G4 G2G3
Using rule 6

R (s )

G1 (G4 G2G3 )
1 G1G 2 H1 H 2 (G4 G2G3 )

Y (s )

Y (s)
G1 (G4 G2G3 )
T (s)

R ( s ) 1 G1G 2 H1 H 2 (G4 G2G3 ) G1 (G4 G2G3 )

(b)

R (s )

G1

G2

H1

H2
H3

Y (s )

Solution:
1. Eliminate loop I

R (s )

G1

H1

G2
G2
1 GH2 H
2
2

Y (s )

Y (s )

H3
2. Moving takeoff point A behind block

R (s )

G1
H1

G2
1 G2 H 2

G2
1 G2 H 2

1 G2 H 2
G2

H3

II
1 G2 H 2
H 3 H1 (
)
G2

Not a feedback loop

3. Eliminate loop II

R (s )

G1G2
1 G2 H 2
H3

Y (s )

H 1 (1 G2 H 2 )
G2

Using rule 6

Y (s)
G1G2
T ( s)

R( s) 1 G2 H 2 G1G2 H 3 G1 H1 G1G2 H1 H 2

(c)

H4

R (s )
G1

G2

G3
H3
H2
H1

G4

Y (s )

Solution:
1. Moving takeoff point A behind block G4

I
H4

R (s)
G1

G2

G3
H3
H2

H3
G4
H2
G4

H1

1
G4
1
G4

G4

Y (s )

2. Eliminate loop I and Simplify

R (s )

G2G3G4
1 G3G4 H 4

G1

II
B

H3
G4
H2
G4

Y (s )

III

H1
II

feedback
G2G3G4
1 G3G4 H 4 G2G3 H 3

III

Not feedback
H 2 G4 H1
G4

3. Eliminate loop II & IIII

R (s )

G1G2G3G4
1 G3G4 H 4 G2G3 H 3

Y (s )

H 2 G4 H 1
G4

Using rule 6

G1G2G3G4
Y (s)
T ( s)

R( s) 1 G2G3 H 3 G3G4 H 4 G1G2G3 H 2 G1G2G3G4 H1

(d)

H2
R (s )

G2

G1

H1
G4

G3

Y (s)
B

Solution:
1. Moving takeoff point A behind block G3

H2
R (s)

G2

G1

1
G3

H1
H1
G4

G3

1
G3

Y (s )

2. Eliminate loop I & Simplify

H2
G3

G2
H1
R (s)

G2G3

1
G3

G1

II
G2G3
1 G2 H1 G2G3 H 2
H1
G3

G4

H1
H2
G3

Y (s )

3. Eliminate loop II

R (s )

G1G2G3
1 G2 H 1 G2G3 H 2 G1G2 H1

Y (s )

G4

G1G2G3
Y (s)
T ( s)
G4
R( s)
1 G2 H1 G2G3 H 2 G1G2 H1

Example 2
Determine the effect of R and N on Y in the
following diagram

N
G4
R

G1

G2
H1
G3

In this linear system, the output Y contains two parts,


one part is related to R and the other is caused by N:

Y Y1 Y2 T1 R T2 N
If we set N=0, then we can get Y1:

Y1 YN 0 T1 R
The same, we set R=0 and Y2 is also obtained:

Y2 YR 0 T2 N
Thus, the output Y is given as follows:

Y Y1 Y2 YN 0 YR 0

Solution:
1. Swap the summing points A and B

G4
R

II

G2
1 G2 H1

G1

Y
B

G3
2. Eliminate loop II & simplify

G4
R

G1G2
G1G3
1 G2 H1

N
Y

Rewrite the diagram:

G4
G1G2
G1G3
1 G2 H1

3. Let N=0

G1G2
G1G3
1 G2 H1

We can easily get Y1

G1G2 G1G3 G1G2G3 H1


Y1
R
1 G2 H1 G1G2 G1G3 G1G2G3 H1

4. Let R=0, we can get:

Y
G1G2
G1G3
1 G2 H1

G4

5. Break down the summing point M:

Y
G1G3G4

G1G2G4
1 G2 H1

G1G3

G1G2
1 G2 H1

6. Eliminate above loops:


G1G2G4
1 G1G3G4
1 G2 H 1

1
G1G2
1 G1G3
1 G2 H1

1 G2 H1 G1G2G4 G1G3G4 G1G2G3G4 H1


Y2
N
1 G2 H1 G1G2 G1G3 G1G2G3 H1
7. According to the principle of superposition, Y1 and Y2
can be combined together, So:

Y Y1 Y2
1

[(G1G2 G1G3 G1G2G3 H1 ) R


1 G2 H1 G1G2 G1G3 G1G2G3 H1
(1 G2 H1 G1G2G4 G1G3G4 G1G2G3G4 H1 ) N ]

End