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KONFLIK

Prof. Dr. Budi Anna Keliat

Konflik
Suatu

proses yang dimulai bila satu pihak


merasakan bahwa suatupihak lain telah
mempengaruhi secara negatif atau akan
segera mempengaruhi secara negatif,
sesuatu yang diperhatikan pihak pertama.
Perbedaan pendapat, ide, keinginan,
kebutuhan antara dua orang atau lebih
(Robbins)

THE DEFINITION OF
CONFLICT

Conflict is behavior by a person or group that is


purposely designed to inhibit the attainment of goals
by another person or group.

Active
Passive

Most of us think of conflict as a negative experience.


Conflict has the potential to produce positive
outcome.

A device for directing effort.

Pandangan Tentang Konflik


Semua

konflik merugikan dan harus


dihindari.
Konflik merupakan hasil wajar dan tidak
terelakkan dalam setiap kelompok.
Konflik tidak hanya suatu kekuatan positif
dalam suatu kelompok melainkan mutlak
perlu untuk suatu kelompok agar dapat
berkinerja efektif.

LEVEL OF CONFLICT
(Vecchio&Gray&Starke)
1.

INTRAPERSONAL CONFLICT
Approach Approach Conflict
Avoidance Avoidance Conflict
Approach Avoidance Conflict

2.

INTERPERSONAL CONFLIC

3.

INTERGROUP CONFLICT

Jenis Konflik
Fungsional

Konflik yang mendukung tujuan kelompok dan


memperbaiki kinerja kelompok.

Disfungsional

Konflik yang merintangi kinerja kelompok.

Proses Konflik
Tahap I
Tahap II
Tahap III
Oposisi atau Kognisi dan Maksud
ketidakcocokan
personalisasi
potensial

Tahap IV
Perilaku

Tahap V
Hasil

Kinerja
Konflik yang Maksud
kelompok
dipersepsikanpenanganan
Kondisi
Konflik terbuka:meningkat
konflik:
Anteseden:
Perilaku pihak
Bersaing
Komunikasi
Reaksi orang
Kerjasama
Sruktur
Kinerja
lain
Berkompromi
Variabel
kelompok
pribadi Konflik yang Menghindar
menurun
Mengakomodasi
dirasakan

Tahap I: Oposisi atau


Ketidakcocokan Potensial
Kondisi yang menciptakan timbulnya konflik:
Komunikasi
Struktur

Makin besar kelompok


Makin muda
Makin berbeda tujuan
Gaya tertutup dan ketat

Variabel Pribadi

Otoriter dan dogmatik


Beda sistem nilai

SOURCES OF CONFLICT
1.

VECCHIO

Comminication factors

Structural factors

Personal behaviour factors

2.

GRAY & STARKE

Limited resources

Interdependent work activities

Differentiation of activities

Communication problems

Differences in perseptions

The environment of the organization

Other sources of conflict

Source of Conflict
Tensions

between groups
Increased workload
Multiple role demands
Threats to safety and security
Sconce resources
Cultural differences
Invasion of personal space
(Mc. Elhaney)

Tahap II: Kognisi dan


Personalisasi
Persepsi

terhadap konflik

Kesadaran oleh satu pihak atau lebih akan


eksistensi kondisi-kondisi yang menciptakan
kesempatan untuk timbulnya konflik.

Perasaan

terhadap konflik

Pelibatan emosional dalam suatu konflik yang


menciptakan kecemasan, ketegangan, frustasi,
dan permusuhan.

Tahap III: Maksud

Maksud (Intensi)
Keputusan untuk bertindak dalam suatu cara tertentu.
Bersaing
Suatu hasrat untuk memuaskan kepentingan seseorang, tidak
peduli dampaknya pada pihak lain.
Berkolaborasi
Keinginan untuk memuaskan kepentingan semua pihak.
Menghindar
Menarik diri dari kondisi konflik.
Mengakomodasi
Kesediaan menaruh kepentingan lawan di atas kepentingan
sendiri.
Berkompromi
Tiap pihak bersedia melepas sesuatu.

Tahap IV: Perilaku


Perilaku mencakup:
Pernyataan
Tindakan
Reaksi

Kontinum Intensitas Konflik


Konflik
Pemusnah

Tiada
Konflik

Upaya terang-terangan untuk


menghancurkan pihak lain
Serangan fisik yang agresif
Ancaman dan ultimatum
Serangan verbal yang tegas
Pertanyaan atau tantangan terangterangan terhadap pihak lain
Ketidaksepakatan atau salah paham
kecil

Manajemen Konflik

Pemecahan konflik

Pemuaian sumber daya


Penghindaran
Perataan
Kompromi
Otoritatif
Mengubah variabel
manusia
Mengubah variabel
struktur

Disfungsional

Oposisi tak terkendali


Menghentikan fungsi
kelompok
Menghambat komunikasi
Mengurangi keterpaduan
Mengalahkan tujuan

CONFLICT MANAGEMENT
A.

GRAY & STARKE


1.
Conflict Stimulation
a.
b.
c.

Appointing managers who are open to change


Encouraging competition
Restructuring the work unit

Conflict Resolution

2.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.

Forcing
Smoothing
Ajority Rule
Compromise
Consensus
Confrontation
Integration

VECCHIO

B.
1.

2.
3.
4.

Conflict management (five styles)


a.
Forcing/Competing
b.
Collaborating
c.
Compromising
d.
Avoiding
e.
Accommodating
Structural Approach
Stimulating Conflict (sama dengan Gray & Starke)
Intergroup Conflict
a.
Rules and Procedures
b.
Appeal to Higher Authority
c.
Boundary-Spanning Positions
d.
Negotiation
e.
Team
f.
Integrating Department

Konflik dan Kinerja Unit


Tinggi

Kinerja
A
Unit

(Rendah)

Situasi Tingkat
Konflik

Tingkat Konflik

Tipe Konflik

(Tinggi)

Karakteristik
Internal Unit

Hasil Kinerja
Unit

Rendah Disfungsional
atau
Tiada

Apatis
Rendah
Macet
1.
Tidak tanggap thd perubahan
2.
Kekurangan ide baru

Optimal Fungsional

Hidup, kritis diri, inovatif

Tinggi

Tinggi

Mengganggu, kacau balau


Tidak kooperatif

Rendah

Disfungsional

STRATEGI PENYELESAIAN
KONFLIK
Asertif

Pra Konflik

Konflik

Pencegahan

Penyelesaian

Pasca Konflik

Pemulihan

SESI ASERTIF TRAINING


(Willis, Deislay, Aini, 2011)
Sesi

1 : Memahami komunikasi asertif, pasif,


agresif
Sesi 2 : Pendengar yg baik terhadap keluhan
lawan bicara
Sesi 3 : Menyampaikan perbedaan pendapat
Sesi 4 : Menyampaikan harapan dalam
merubah perilaku tidak asertif
Sesi 5 : Mengatakan tidak terhadap
permintaan yang tidak rasional
Sesi 6 : Mempertahankan komunikasi asertif

Mempertahankan
komunikasi asertif

Perilaku asertif

Pendengar yang baik

Menyampaikan perbedaan pendapat

Menyampaikan harapan

Mengatakan tidak pada permintaan yg tidak rasional

FIVE CONFLICT-HANDLING STYLES


Conflict-handling styles

Related Term

Proverb

Forcing

Competing
Conflictful
Moving against the other

Put your foot down where you


mean to stand

Collaborating

Problem solving
Integrating
Confronting

Come let us reason together

Compromising

Splitting the difference


Sharing
Horse-trading

You have to give some to get


some (take and give)

Avoiding

Moving away from the other


Withdrawing
Losing-leaving

Let sleeping dogs lie

Accommodating

Yielding-losing
Friendly-helping
Moving toward the other

It is better to give than to


receive

Source: K. W. Thomas, Organizational Conflict, in Organizational Behaviour, ed. S. Kerr


(Columbus)

5 WAYS
MANAGEMENT CONFLIC
A

A. Avoiding
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

When an issue is trivial, or more important issues


are pressing.
When you perceive no chance of satisfying your
concern.
When potential disruption outweighs the benefits
of resolution.
To let people cool down and regain perspective.
When gathering information supersedes
immediate decision.
When others can resolve the conflict more
effectively.
When issues seem tangential or symptomatic of
other issues.

B. COMPETING
1.

2.

3.

4.

When quick, decisive action is vital, e.g.,


emergencies.
On important issues where unpopular actions need
implementing, e.g., cost-cutting, enforcing
unpopular rules, discipline.
On issues vital to company welfare when you
know youre right.
Against people who take advantage of
noncompetitive behavior.

COMPETITION
PLUS
The

winner is clear
Winner usually experience gains
MINUS
Establishes

the batter ground for the


next conflict
May cause worthy competitions to
withdraw or leave the organization

C. Accommodating
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

When you find you are wrong to allow a better


position to be heard, to learn, and to show your
reasonableness.
When issues are more important to others than to
you to satisfy others and maintain cooperation.
To build social credits for later issues.
To minimize loss when you are outmatched and
losing.
When harmony and stability are especially
important.
To allow subordinates to develop by learning from
mistakes.

Source: K. W. Thomas, Toward Multi Dimensional Values in


Teaching: The Example of Conflict Behaviours, Academy of
Management Review 2.

ACCOMMODATION
PLUS
Curtails

conflict situations
Enhances ego of the other
MINUS
Sometimea

establishes a precedence
Does not fully engage participants

D. Compromising
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

When goals are important but not worth the effort


of potential disruption of more assertive modes.
When opponents with equal power are committed
to mutually exclusive goals.
To achieve temporary settlements to complex
issues.
To arrive at expedient solutions under time
pressure.
As a backup when collaboration or competition is
unsuccessful.

COMPROMISE
PLUS
Show

good will
Establishe friendship
MINUS
No

one gets what they wants


May feel like a dead end

E. Collaborating
1.

2.
3.

4.

5.

To fid an integrative solution when bath sets of


concerns are too important to be compromised.
When your objective is to learn.
To merge insights from people with different
perspectives.
To gain commitment by incorporating concerns
into a consensus.
To work through feelings that have interfered with
a relationship.

COLLABORATION
PLUS
Every

one wins
Create good feelings
MINUS
Hard

to achieve since no one knows how


Often confusing since players can win
something they didnt know they wanted

WHAT THIS MEANS


MANAGING CONFLICT MEANS YOE
NEED TO DEVELOP SEVERAL
STYLES AND DECIDE WHICH IS
VALUABLE AT ANY GIVEN POINT
OF CONFLICT

TIPS FOR MANAGING


WORKPLACE CONFLICT
Bina

hubungan baik sebelum konflik terjadi


Jangan biarkan masalah kecil menjadi besar, selesaikan
segera
Hargai perbedaan
Dengarkan pendapat orang lain pada situasi konflik
Hargai perasaan sebelum fokus pada fakta
Fokus pada penyelesaian masalah bukan mengubah
orang lain
Jika tidak dapat diselesaikan, cari orang ketiga yg dapat
membantu
Ingat adaptasi style sdr pada situasi dan orang yg terlibat

Terima kasih
Selamat
Mencoba