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9) How do formative and summative

evaluation differ? Why is it important

to utilise both forms?



Gathered during formation or

development of the curriculum so that

Data is collected at the end of the

implementation of the curriculum

The aim is so that revisions can be


The aim is to see the effectiveness of a


Formative evaluation may include

determining who needs the
programme (e.g. students), how great
is the need (e.g. students need to be
taught ICT skills to keep pace with
expansion of technology) and how to
meet the need (e.g. introduce a
subject on ICT compulsory for all

This type of evaluation assesses

whether or not the project or
programme can perform as the
designers intended. It considers cost
effectiveness in terms of money, time
and personnel. It also assesses the
training that teachers might need in
order to implement a programme

The feedback provided by the students

could be used to revise and improve
instruction as well as make decisions
on whether to adopt or adapt a

These evaluation outcomes can be

determined through formal
assessment tasks such as marks
obtained in tests and examinations.

Why is it important to utilise

Small errors such as spelling errors,
confusing sequence of content,
inappropriate examples or
illustrations can be eliminated as the
programme going on through
formative evaluation. This will help
curriculum designer to focus only on
the effectiveness of the programme.
Thus each evaluations has its own

10) Data-driven decision making (DDDM) is

influenced by two conditions. What are those two
conditions, and how do they influence the
processing of evaluative data?

The two conditions are the type of data

gathered and the approach or approaches to
data analysis and decision making.
There are two types of data gathered. First is
simple. Simple data are less complicated and
inclusive, usually focusing on only one specific
aspect of a particular subject. The other one is
complex. Complex data need both quantitative
and qualitative data to evaluate as the
evaluation situation is multidimensional.

11) How do an accountability culture and an

organisation learning culture differ? How do they
influence evaluation?
Organisation learning culture

Accountability culture

Educators who adhere this culture

view test results not as an
endpoint, but a way point, to
indicate that the curriculum is
contributing to the students
educational advancement.

Educators who adhere this culture

value a polishing of student
understanding, efficiency of
instruction and learning, and an
immediate identification of

Educators tend towards

humanistic approaches to
evaluation. Students and
teachers are not test-taking or
test-giving machines. Analyse
qualitative data, they describe
actual incidents, gain data by
interviews and discussions with
participants, students and

Teacher employ data to

determine how well they are
teaching and how well the
students are learning. Test scores
as the ultimate indicator of
student learning.

12) What are the major differences between

scientific and humanistic models of evaluation?
Which do you prefer? Explain.


Educators using this approach

tend to concentrate their efforts
on the learners. Data, frequently
in the form of test scores, are
employed to compare students
achievement in different

Data collected in a way that

differ significantly from that
found in a scientific evaluation.
The data gathered in a
naturalistic investigation are
more qualitative than
quantitative in nature.

Information collected is
quantitative, so it can be
analysed statistically.

The evaluator engages in what

are called thick descriptions of
actual incidents that were
observed during the evaluation
efforts. Data gained from
interviews and discussions with
participants are included in the
evaluation. Patterns observed
from the many observations
form much of the data for

Most scientific approaches to

evaluation draw on methods
that have been used by physical

Which do you prefer?

I prefer scientific approach because
the data collected can be easily
analysed and evaluated. Humanistic
approach waste too much time
analysing qualitative data which can
be interpreted in many ways. Thus,
the qualitative data which has been
analysed might not be accurate and
vary from person to person.

13) What are the pluses and minuses of highstakes testing?



High-stakes test results can be used to help

teachers create a learning plan based on your
kid's needshelping her in the long run. Look
at your child's test results as a tool for
progress, not as a judgment on ability or

High-stakes tests cause any subject that isn't

math or language arts to be pushed out of the
classroom. Subjects like science, social studies
and the arts are sacrificed to make time for
more test prep. Lynne Munson, president and
executive director of Common Core, says that
subjects outside of math and language arts
are actually part of the federally mandated
core curriculum for public schools. When other
subjects are abandoned, Munson says, "We
are denying our students the complete
education they deserve and the law

Data from state wide testing is almost always

publicly available. As a parent, you can look at
these results to see how well, or poorly, your
child's school is performing. Access to this
information will help you make more informed
decisions about where and how your child will
get the best education.

Pressure on teachers can clamp down on

creativity and innovation. Thanks to pressure
from the government, teachers often feel
compelled to "teach to the test," resulting in
less flexibility to tailor lesson plans to
individual students or class groups. Less
freedom and innovation can also mean
unhappier teachers and higher classroom

High stakes exams can cause anxiety, but

yearly testing and frequent practice tests can
help kids improve their test-taking abilities
over time. Your child can benefit by learning

Increased pressure on parents and students is

counter-productive. Munson makes a
distinction between constructive pressure
the kind that motivates students to do better

14) What are the differences between norm-referenced tests and criterionrelated tests?
Norm-referenced test

Criterion-related tests

Norm-referenced tests (NRTs) are made to

compare test takers to each other. On an NRT
driving test, test-takers would be compared as
to who knew most or least about driving rules
or who drove better or worse. Scores would be
reported as a percentage rank with half
scoring above and half below the mid-point.

Criterion-referenced tests (CRTs) are intended

to measure how well a person has learned a
specific body of knowledge and skills.
Multiple-choice tests most people take to get
a driver's license and on-the-road driving tests
are both examples of criterion-referenced
tests. As on most other CRTs, it is possible for
everyone to earn a passing score if they know
about driving rules and if they drive
reasonably well.

Educators often disagree about the quality of

a given set of standards. Standards are
supposed to cover the important knowledge
and skills students should learn -- they define
the "big picture." State standards should be
well-written and reasonable. Some state
standards have been criticized for including
too much, for being too vague, for being
ridiculously difficult, for undermining higher
quality local curriculum and instruction, and
for taking sides in educational and political
controversies. If the standards are flawed or
limited, tests based on them also will be. In
any event, standards enforced by state tests
will have -- and are meant to have -- a strong

CRTs usually are made to determine whether a

student has learned the material taught in a
specific grade or course. An algebra CRT
would include questions based on what was
supposed to be taught in algebra classes. It
would not include geometry questions or
more advanced algebra than was in the
curriculum. Most all students who took
algebra could pass this test if they were
taught well and they studied enough and the
test was well-made.

15) Why is it essential for educators to

utilise alternative assessment in judging
student learning and curriculum
Alternative assessment is able to
show the educators that the pupils
are able to give meaning to the
knowledge they have gained through
learning and curriculum. They are
able to do so through students own
works such as portfolios and so on.

16) What human issues must be considered

when dealing with curricular/educational

Emotional stabilities
Intellectual capacities.