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Selection of Tyres for BAJA Vehicle

by

Rajesh Mankar
Manager Product Development
J K TYRE AND INDUSTRIES LTD

Sunday, 10th August 2008

Agenda:
History, Tyre Definition & Classification
Function of Tyre
Defining Basic Dimensions
Tyre Construction
Tyre selection criteria based on Vehicle info and performance
New Development Approach

History Of Tyre:
1844

Charles Goodyear invented vulcanized rubber that was later used for tires.

1888

John Dunlop invented the air-filled or pneumatic tires for bicycles.

1895

Andr Michelin was the first person to use pneumatic tires on an automobile,
however, not successfully.

1901

Philip Strauss invented the first successful tire, which was a combination tire and
air filled inner tube.

1903

P.W. Litchfield of the Goodyear Tire Company patented the first tubeless tire,

1904

Mountable rims were introduced that allowed drivers to fix their own flats.

1908

Frank Seiberling invented grooved tires with improved road traction.

1910

B.F. Goodrich Company invented longer life tires by adding carbon to the
rubber.

What Is Tyre:
Geometrically tyre is a torus reinforced with textile cord ply / fabric or steel
carcass enclosing bead ring.
Mechanically it is a flexible membrane pressure container
Structurally it is a high performance composite
Chemically a material composed of long chain of macromolecules

TYRE SIZE DESIGNATION:


A Tyre is generally designated by its nominal cross section code followed by the nominal
rim diameter code.
For radial tyres,

145/80R13
Section width (mm)

Aspect Ratio

Nominal Rim Dia (inch)

Tyre Size Designation:


Enveloped Dimension:
145/80R13

Aspect Ratio

Section Height
Section Width

Section Width 145 mm


Aspect Ratio 80
Rim Diameter 13
Outer Diameter = (2 x Section Height in mm)
+ Rim Diameter in mm

Section Height = 145*0.8 = 116 mm


Outer Diameter = (2*116) + (13*25.4) =562.2 mm

Basic Tyre Dimensions:


Tyre Section

Function Of Tyre:
Provide Load Carrying Capacity
Provide Cushioning and dampening
Transmit driving and braking torque
Provide Cornering force
Provide floatation and dimensional stability
Resist abrasion
Generate steering response
Have low Rolling Resistance
Provide minimum noise and minimum vibration
Be durable throughout and expected life spam

Tyre Construction:

BIAS

TUBE TYPE

RADIAL

TUBELESS

Contd

Tyre Construction:
BIAS

Cord strips are arranged diagonally to the


centerline of the tire.

Plies are laid at 90 degree angles to


centerline of tire

Positive Qualities - strengthens the sidewall


and stabilizes the tread area for contact patch.

RADIAL

More sidewall movement and a


smoother ride

Last longer than bias ply tires

Negative Qualities Builds up excessive heat;


very stiff and hard riding; get flat spots after
sitting in one spot and cooling down.

Tyre Construction:
RADIAL

Tyre Construction:
BIAS

Tyre Construction:
ADVANTAGE OF RADIAL TYRES
50 - 100% LONGER LIFE - REDUCED COST PER KILOMETER
5 - 10% FUEL SAVING
PUNCTURE RESISTANT - LESS DOWN TIME
RIDING COMFORT AND REDUCED CARGO DAMAGE
EXCELLENT HIGH SPEED CAPABILITY
EXCELLENT DAMPENING OF VIBRATIONS
EXCELLENT TRACTION & BRAKING ON BOTH DRY AND WET ROAD

Tyre Construction:
Tubeless Technology

Tube Type

A tube Type tyre running at reduced

The Bead contour of tubeless tyres are designed


to provide a self sealing mechanism between the

A tube type tyre is often easier to repair in


the bush than a tubeless one, because they
are easier to remove from the rim and are
much easier to re- inflate

tubeless tyre is designed with a Halobutyl


liner on the inner side which is applied from bead
to bead.

tyre and rim.

ADVANTAGE OF TUBELESS TYRES:


Lower Rolling resistance
Better handling Characteristics at high speeds
It is also reported, that air leakage after puncture
is slower in tubeless tyres than tubetype tyres thus
making tubeless tyres safer.

pressures generates more heat and is more


prone to damage.

Tubes do not strengthen the tyre or help


prevent punctures.

Tyre selection criteria based on Vehicle Application and performance

Based on Vehicle Application:


Passenger Car
SUV
MUV
Light commercial Vehicle
Heavy commercial Vehicle

Based on Vehicle Dimensions / Load / Speed:


Wheel Base

FAW / RAW
Kerb Weight
Gross Vehicle Weight
Empty Vehicle Weight
Pay Load
Load Distribution

Tread

Ground Clearance

Tyre Selection Criteria Based on Performance:

Economics
- Mileage
- Rolling Resistance

Handling
-Tire Characteristics
- Cornering

Comfort
- Mechanical Comfort
(flat spot)
- Acoustic Comfort

Safety
- Max. driving safety under various
conditions (dry, wet, winter, etc.)

Effect of component on Tyre Performance:


Internal Factor

External Factor

HYSTERESIS LOSS Rubber

ROAD TEXTURE AND ROUGHNESS

ASPECT RATIO

AERODYNAMIC DRAG

RIM WIDTH

NOISE

TYRE SIZE

AIR CAVITY PUMPING

TYRE TYPE

INFLATION PRESSURE

TREAD PATTERN

EFFECT OF SPEED

TREAD RADIUS

EFFECT OF LOAD

TREAD THICKNESS

EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE

TREAD DEPTH

EFFECT OF INNER TUBE

CORD ANGLE
NUMBER OF BODY PLIES
CONSTRUCTION

Predictive Methods to Optimize Tyre Design:


Feel
Feel the
the power
power of
of FEA
FEA Simulation
Simulation

An FEA simulation revealing Inter carcass


pressure acting Inside the tyre

A Simulation showing strain energy


Distribution under loading

Predictive Methods to Optimize Tyre Design:


Tyres determine to a great extent the dynamic behavior of road vehicles.
Our attempt is to assist in bringing optimized synergy between the mechanical
characteristics of tyre in contact with the road & the mechanics of the vehicle so that tyrevehicle system operates safely under any circumstances & in a way that is satisfactory to
the driver.

Other Methods to Optimize Tyre Design:


Force & Moment Test Machine

Tyre Selection Criteria Based on Performance:


Rolling Resistance
Mechanical Energy converted into
Heat by a tire moving for a unit
distance on the roadway as a result
of the rotation and the deformation of
the tire
Energy Consumed per unit distance
of travel as a tire rolls under load

The RR of a tire is responsible for


14.4% of the total vehicle energy loss.
For passenger and light truck,
Improvement in rolling resistance of
10% - Fuel efficiency increased by 0.5 ~
1.5% and for heavy truck fuel efficiency
increased by 1.5 ~ 3.0%

Resistance to Motion
The amount of energy required
overcoming the friction between the
tyre and road surface.

Contd

Tyre Selection Criteria Based on Performance:


Rolling Resistance

% Contribution to RR

Tread

7%

48%

2%
2%
<2%

8%

7%

Belt
Inner Liner
Sidewall
Ply

26%

Filler
Rim Strip
Bead &
Chafer

Rolling Resistance Testing Machine

Tyre Selection Criteria Based on Performance:


Tyre Traction
Traction performance can be characterized in many ways,
including braking, acceleration, cornering, controllability,
and grade climbing. Though all factors are important, the
single best indicator of tire performance is braking distance

Direction
of
travel

Load

Traction

and deceleration.
PARAMETER

TRACTION (WET & DRY)

TARGET

IMPROVED TRACTION WITHOUT


SACRIFICING TREAD LIFE

PRIORITY

INTERMEDIATE

PRIMARY APPROACH

TREAD COMPOUND OPTIMIZATION

SECONDARY APPROACH

CASING DESIGN OPTIMIZATION

IMPORTANT

TO CONTROL TENDENCY OF WANDERING & STEERING PULL


WHILE BRAKING OEMs ARE EMPHASIZING THE NEED TO
ACHIEVE A STABLE CONTACT PATCH WHICH DOES NOT
CHANGE ITS CENTRE DURING BRAKING

Tyre Traction Subjective & Objective Evaluation

Tyre Selection Criteria Based on Performance:


Tyre Wear
Factors affecting Tyre Wear
Improper Vehicle toe, camber,
caster, drive axle parallelism and
perpendicularity are important factors
tire wear patterns.

PARAMETER

TREAD MILEAGE (WEAR)

TARGET

FURTHER IMPROVEMENT REQUIRED

PRIORITY

INTERMEDIATE

PRIMARY APPROACH

TREAD DESIGN / DEPTH OPTIMIZATION

SECONDARY APPROACH

TREAD FORMULATION OPTIMIZATION


INCREASED USE OF POLYBUTADIENE AND
OPTIMIZED SOLUTION SBR

Tyre Wear Predictive Methods:


Fujifilm Footprint pressure distribution study

Structure

Pressure
Application

Pressure
Mapping

Pressure
Imaging and
Analysis

Foot Print Pressure


Distribution study revealed
higher pressure at Shoulder
blocks than at center.

Tyre Wear Predictive Methods:

Thermography
Celsius
500.00 72.47

Line 1
Length
11

70.00
68.00

Celsius
500.00 70.00

Line 1
Length
11

65.00

66.00
60.00

62.00
60.00

55.00

58.00
56.00
54.00

Area 1
Max. Avg. Min.
72.56 67.81 62.69

52.00
50.00

50.00

Area 1
Max. Avg. Min.
67.58 62.97 58.19

-20.03 48.74

-20.03 45.00

Thermoteknix VisIR 15:00:51 03/05/2004 e : 1.00 Bg : 20.0C

Thermoteknix VisIR 15:04:21 03/05/2004 e : 1.00 Bg : 20.0C

Img480: Line 1
72.5
70.1
67.7
65.4
63.0
60.6
58.2
55.8
53.5
51.1
48.7

10

Distance / Meters

Min Temperature 62.69


Max Temperature 72.56

T e m p e ra tu re
/ C

Tem p e ra tu re
/ C

Measurement of surface
temperature in the tyre
using a thermo graphic
camera and fine tuning
the related parameters
during the development
process

64.00

15

Img488: Line 1
67.7
65.4
63.2
60.9
58.6
56.4
54.1
51.8
49.5
47.3
45.0

10

Distance / Meters

Min Temperature 58.19


Max Temperature 67.58

15

Cornering Stiffness Testing

Tyre Selection Criteria Based on Performance:


Tyre Ride & Handling Performance
PARAMETER

RIDE & HANDLING PERFORMANCE

TARGET

FURTHER IMPROVEMENT REQUIRED

PRIORITY

INTERMEDIATE

PRIMARY APPROACH

PATTERN DESIGN ENGINEERING (NOISE)


CASING DESIGN ENGINEERING (CONSTRUCTION,
MATERIALS & CONTOUR IN ORDER OF PRIORITY)

SECONDARY APPROACH

TREAD COMPOUND OPTIMIZATION


(INITIATION OF VERTICAL ENGINEERING IMPLEMENTATION
(VEHICLE & TYRE DESIGNERS WORKING CLOSELY FROM
THE INCEPTION STAGE))

Tyre Ride, Comfort & Handling Performance

Tyre Ride, Comfort & Handling Performance

Breaking Strength

Stiffness Test Station

Rapid Prototyping

2D - Pattern

3D - Model

Marking

Tyre
testing
fitted on
vehicle
Hand Carving

Functional Parameters:
Rubber Compound and Chemicals:
a) Natural Rubber
b) Synthetic Rubber
c) Carbon Black
d) Silica
e) Fabric
f) Steel Cords

Functional Parameters:
Tread Pattern:
RIB PATTERN : The pattern along the circumference of the tyre
Good points : Lower rolling resistance. Good directional stability and
steering control thanks to lateral resistance. Suitable for sustained high
speeds thanks to low heat generation.
Bad points : Poor braking & acceleration grip on wet roads. Stress caused
by flex means tread is more susceptible to cracking.
Use : For paved road surfaces and the steering wheels of trucks or buses

LUG PATTERN : The groove pattern perpendicular to the circumference of the tyre
Good points : Excellent braking & driving power. Superior traction.
Bad points : Noisy at high speed. It's not suitable for high speed driving
because of high rolling resistance.
Uses : For dirt roads, rear wheels of buses, industrial vehicles and dump
trucks .

Functional Parameters:
Tread Pattern:
SEMI-LUG PATTERN : The combination of Rib-shape & Lug-shape
Features : The rib in the centre provides directional control whilst the shoulder
lug gives good braking & driving power.
Uses : Good for both paved and dirt roads. Usually used in both front & rear
wheels of trucks and buses.

BLOCK PATTERN : The pattern of independent block which the groove is connected with
each other
Good points : Good steering control and stability on snow covered and wet
roads. Good water dispersal properties on wet roads.
Bad points : Tyre wear is heavy as tread blocks are finer.
Uses : Suitable for winter or all-season passenger car tyres. Suitable for backwheel of Radial tyre of ordinary car .

Functional Parameters:
Tread Pattern:
ASYMMETRIC PATTERN : Tread pattern differs on either side
Good points : Good for high speed cornering thanks to greater contact area.
Reduces tread-wear on outside of tyre.
Bad points : You must position them the right way around.
Uses : High performance and motorsport tyres.

DIRECTIONAL PATTERN : Lateral grooves on both sides point the same direction.
Good points : Good driving force and braking performance. Good water dispersal
means good stability on wet roads. Correct choice for fast driving styles.
Features : mounted in direction of tread pattern.
Uses : the passenger car tyre for high speed usage.

Functional Parameters:
Tyre Components:
Tread
Belt and Breakers
Cap Ply/ Prot Ply
Carcass
Side Wall
Bead
Chafer
Filler

Functional Parameters:
Tread
Tread is the wear resistance component of the tyre, when it is
contacting with the road. It must also provide traction, wet skid and
good cornering characteristics with minimum noise generation and low
heat buildup. It is the part through which braking, driving and
cornering forces are transmitted.

Belts
These are short plies of rubber coated steel cut at an angle and are
positioned centrally between the tyre casing and tread to strengthen
carcass against impacts.

Cap Ply
It is placed in the crown area just below the tread rubber. It provides
cut resistance protection to the underlying belts and carcass plies.
Enhances high-speed suitability.

Functional Parameters:
Carcass
Rubber bonded cord structure of a tyre integral with the bead, which
provides the required strength to carry load.

Sidewall
Part of the tyre between bead and tread which flexes in service.
Protects the casing from side scuffing, control vehicle and ride
characteristics and assist in tread support

Bead Core
A bead should hold the tyre against the rim and should avoid the
movement of the tyre relative to rim. The shape and contour of the
bead conforms to the flange of the rim, thus preventing from rocking
or slipping on to the rim.

Functional Parameters:
Filler
Gives steering precision
Improves comfort

Chafer
To prevent chafing action between bead and rim. Their purpose is
to protect the carcass plies from damage when mounting or
dismounting and to reduce the effects of wear and chafing
between the wheel and the
tire bead

Thank You
rajeshmankar@jkmail.com
09971492958